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The Gospels of Matthew and Luke offer two accounts of the genealogy of Jesus. Matthew traces Jesus' ancestry to Abraham through David — Matthew has twenty-seven generations from David to Joseph, whereas Luke has forty-two, with almost no overlap between the names on the two lists. Matthew and Luke each describe Jesus' birth, especially that Jesus was born by a virgin named Mary in Bethlehem in fulfillment of prophecy. Luke's account emphasizes events before the birth of Jesus and centers on Mary, while Matthew's mostly covers those after the birth and centers on Joseph.

In Matthew, Joseph is troubled because Mary, his betrothed, is pregnant Matthew —20 , but in the first of Joseph's three dreams an angel assures him not to be afraid to take Mary as his wife, because her child was conceived by the Holy Spirit. They find Jesus in a house in Bethlehem and not a barn and Jesus is now a child and not an infant. Matthew focuses on an event after the Luke Nativity where Jesus was an infant. In Matthew Herod the Great hears of Jesus' birth and, wanting him killed, orders the murders of male infants in Bethlehem under age of 2.

But an angel warns Joseph in his second dream, and the family flees to Egypt —later to return and settle in Nazareth. In Luke —38 , Mary learns from the angel Gabriel that she will conceive and bear a child called Jesus through the action of the Holy Spirit. While there Mary gives birth to Jesus, and as they have found no room in the inn, she places the newborn in a manger Luke —7. An angel announces the birth to some shepherds , who go to Bethlehem to see Jesus, and subsequently spread the news abroad Luke — Jesus' childhood home is identified in the gospels of Luke and Matthew as the town of Nazareth in Galilee , where he lived with his family.

Although Joseph appears in descriptions of Jesus' childhood, no mention is made of him thereafter. The Gospel of Mark reports that Jesus comes into conflict with his neighbors and family. Jesus responds that his followers are his true family. In John, Mary follows Jesus to his crucifixion, and he expresses concern over her well-being John — When Jesus is presented as a baby in the temple per Jewish Law, a man named Simeon says to Mary and Joseph that Jesus "shall stand as a sign of contradiction, while a sword will pierce your own soul.

Then the secret thoughts of many will come to light" Luke — Several years later, when Jesus goes missing on a visit to Jerusalem , his parents find him in the temple sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking questions, and the people are amazed at his understanding and answers; Mary scolds Jesus for going missing, to which Jesus replies that he must "be in his father's house" Luke — The Synoptic accounts of Jesus' baptism are all preceded by information about John the Baptist.

Likewise, Luke says that John had the spirit and power of Elijah Luke In Mark, John baptizes Jesus, and as he comes out of the water he sees the Holy Spirit descending to him like a dove and he hears a voice from heaven declaring him to be God's Son Mark — This is one of two events described in the gospels where a voice from Heaven calls Jesus "Son", the other being the Transfiguration. Jesus then begins his ministry after John's arrest Mark Jesus' baptism in Matthew is similar.

Here, before Jesus' baptism, John protests, saying, "I need to be baptized by you" Matthew Jesus instructs him to carry on with the baptism "to fulfill all righteousness" Matthew Matthew also details the three temptations that Satan offers Jesus in the wilderness Matthew — In Luke, the Holy Spirit descends as a dove after everyone has been baptized and Jesus is praying Luke — John implicitly recognizes Jesus from prison after sending his followers to ask about him Luke — Jesus' baptism and temptation serve as preparation for his public ministry.

The Gospel of John leaves out Jesus' baptism and temptation. Before John is imprisoned, Jesus leads his followers to baptize disciples as well John —24 , and they baptize more people than John John The Synoptics depict two distinct geographical settings in Jesus' ministry. The first takes place north of Judea , in Galilee , where Jesus conducts a successful ministry; and the second shows Jesus rejected and killed when he travels to Jerusalem. John depicts Jesus' ministry as largely taking place in and around Jerusalem, rather than in Galilee; and Jesus' divine identity is openly proclaimed and immediately recognized.

Scholars divide the ministry of Jesus into several stages. The Galilean ministry begins when Jesus returns to Galilee from the Judaean Desert after rebuffing the temptation of Satan. Jesus preaches around Galilee, and in Matthew —20 , his first disciples , who will eventually form the core of the early Church, encounter him and begin to travel with him. As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Perean ministry, he returns to the area where he was baptized, about a third of the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the Jordan River John — This period culminates in the Last Supper and the Farewell Discourse.

Near the beginning of his ministry, Jesus appoints twelve apostles. In Matthew and Mark, despite Jesus only briefly requesting that they join him, Jesus' first four apostles, who were fishermen, are described as immediately consenting, and abandoning their nets and boats to do so Matthew —22 , Mark — In John, Jesus' first two apostles were disciples of John the Baptist. Also, in Luke —16 Jesus sends seventy or seventy-two of his followers in pairs to prepare towns for his prospective visit. They are instructed to accept hospitality, heal the sick and spread the word that the Kingdom of God is coming.

In Mark, the disciples are notably obtuse. They fail to understand Jesus' miracles Mark —41 , Mark , his parables Mark , or what "rising from the dead" would mean Mark — When Jesus is later arrested, they desert him. The Kingdom is described as both imminent Mark and already present in the ministry of Jesus Luke Jesus promises inclusion in the Kingdom for those who accept his message Mark — Jesus talks of the " Son of Man ," an apocalyptic figure who would come to gather the chosen.

Jesus calls people to repent their sins and to devote themselves completely to God. And a second is like it: 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself" Matthew — Other ethical teachings of Jesus include loving your enemies , refraining from hatred and lust, turning the other cheek , and forgiving people who have sinned against you Matthew 5—7. John's Gospel presents the teachings of Jesus not merely as his own preaching, but as divine revelation. John the Baptist, for example, states in John : "He whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure.

The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own; but the Father who dwells in me does his works. Approximately thirty parables form about one third of Jesus' recorded teachings. But the one who does not have will be deprived even more. In the gospel accounts, Jesus devotes a large portion of his ministry performing miracles , especially healings. Jesus states that his miracles are from a divine source. When Jesus' opponents suddenly accuse him of performing exorcisms by the power of Beelzebul , the prince of demons, Jesus counters that he performs them by the "Spirit of God" Matthew or "finger of God", arguing that all logic suggests that Satan would not let his demons assist the Children of God because it would divide Satan's house and bring his kingdom to desolation; furthermore, he asks his opponents that if he exorcises by Beel'zebub , "by whom do your sons cast them out?

In John, Jesus' miracles are described as "signs", performed to prove his mission and divinity. Also, in the Synoptic Gospels, the crowds regularly respond to Jesus' miracles with awe and press on him to heal their sick. In John's Gospel, Jesus is presented as unpressured by the crowds, who often respond to his miracles with trust and faith. In the cleansing of ten lepers and the raising of Jairus' daughter , for instance, the beneficiaries are told that their healing was due to their faith.

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At about the middle of each of the three Synoptic Gospels are two significant events: the Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration of Jesus. In the Transfiguration Matthew —9 , Mark —8 , and Luke —36 , [] [] [] Jesus takes Peter and two other apostles up an unnamed mountain, where "he was transfigured before them, and his face shone like the sun, and his clothes became dazzling white. The description of the last week of the life of Jesus often called Passion Week occupies about one third of the narrative in the canonical gospels, [] starting with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem and ending with his Crucifixion.

In the Synoptics, the last week in Jerusalem is the conclusion of the journey through Perea and Judea that Jesus began in Galilee. Jesus next expels the money changers from the Second Temple , accusing them of turning it into a den of thieves through their commercial activities. Jesus then prophesies about the coming destruction, including false prophets, wars, earthquakes, celestial disorders, persecution of the faithful, the appearance of an "abomination of desolation," and unendurable tribulations Mark — The mysterious "Son of Man," he says, will dispatch angels to gather the faithful from all parts of the earth Mark — Jesus warns that these wonders will occur in the lifetimes of the hearers Mark — Jesus comes into conflict with the Jewish elders, such as when they question his authority and when he criticizes them and calls them hypocrites.

This potent sign [] increases the tension with authorities, [] who conspire to kill him John John next recounts Jesus' Last Supper with his disciples. The Last Supper is the final meal that Jesus shares with his 12 apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is mentioned in all four canonical gospels; Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians —26 also refers to it. Matthew —25 and John —27 specifically identify Judas as the traitor. In the Synoptics, Jesus takes bread, breaks it, and gives it to the disciples, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you".

He then has them all drink from a cup, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood" Luke — In all four gospels, Jesus predicts that Peter will deny knowledge of him three times before the rooster crows the next morning. In Matthew and Mark, the prediction is made after the Supper; Jesus also predicts that all his disciples will desert him Matthew —34 , Mark — Chapters 14—17 of the Gospel of John are known as the Farewell Discourse and are a significant source of Christological content.

In the Synoptics, Jesus and his disciples go to the garden Gethsemane , where Jesus prays to be spared his coming ordeal. Then Judas comes with an armed mob, sent by the chief priests, scribes and elders. He kisses Jesus to identify him to the crowd, which then arrests Jesus. In an attempt to stop them, an unnamed disciple of Jesus uses a sword to cut off the ear of a man in the crowd. After Jesus' arrest, his disciples go into hiding, and Peter, when questioned, thrice denies knowing Jesus.

After the third denial, Peter hears the rooster crow and recalls Jesus' prediction about his denial. Peter then weeps bitterly. In John —11 , Jesus does not pray to be spared his crucifixion, as the gospel portrays him as scarcely touched by such human weakness. The gospel identifies Peter as the disciple who used the sword, and Jesus rebukes him for it.

After his arrest, Jesus is taken to the Sanhedrin , a Jewish judicial body. Early the next morning, the chief priests and scribes lead Jesus away into their council. During the trials Jesus speaks very little, mounts no defense, and gives very infrequent and indirect answers to the priests' questions, prompting an officer to slap him. In Matthew Jesus' unresponsiveness leads Caiaphas to ask him, "Have you no answer? In Matthew and Luke, Jesus' answer is more ambiguous: [43] [] in Matthew he responds, "You have said so", and in Luke he says, "You say that I am".

The Jewish elders take Jesus to Pilate's Court and ask the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate , to judge and condemn Jesus for various allegations, accusing him of blasphemy , perverting the nation, forbidding the payment of tribute, inciting sedition against Rome , sorcery , claiming to be the King of the Jews, the Son of God, and a savior to the world.

In John Jesus states, "My kingdom is not from this world", but he does not unequivocally deny being the King of the Jews. Herod and his soldiers mock Jesus, put an expensive robe on him to make him look like a king, and return him to Pilate, [] who then calls together the Jewish elders and announces that he has "not found this man guilty". Observing a Passover custom of the time, Pilate allows one prisoner chosen by the crowd to be released.

They beat and taunt him before taking him to Calvary , [] also called Golgotha, for crucifixion. Jesus' crucifixion is described in all four canonical gospels. After the trials, Jesus is led to Calvary carrying his cross ; the route traditionally thought to have been taken is known as the Via Dolorosa. The three Synoptic Gospels indicate that Simon of Cyrene assists him, having been compelled by the Romans to do so.

According to Matthew and Mark, he refuses it. The soldiers then crucify Jesus and cast lots for his clothes. Two convicted thieves are crucified along with Jesus. In Matthew and Mark, both thieves mock Jesus. In Luke, one of them rebukes Jesus, while the other defends him. In John, Mary, the mother of Jesus, and the beloved disciple were at the crucifixion.

Jesus tells the beloved disciple to take care of his mother John — The Roman soldiers break the two thieves' legs a procedure designed to hasten death in a crucifixion , but they do not break those of Jesus, as he is already dead John In John , one soldier pierces Jesus' side with a lance , and blood and water flow out. In Matthew —54 , an earthquake breaks open tombs.

On the same day, Joseph of Arimathea , with Pilate's permission and with Nicodemus ' help, removes Jesus' body from the cross , wraps him in a clean cloth, and buries him in his new rock-hewn tomb. Mary Magdalene alone in the Gospel of John, but accompanied by other women in the Synoptics goes to Jesus' tomb on Sunday morning and is surprised to find it empty. Despite Jesus' teaching, the disciples had not understood that Jesus would rise again.

Jesus' ascension into Heaven is described in Luke —53 , Acts —11 and mentioned in 1 Timothy In the Acts of the Apostles , forty days after the Resurrection, as the disciples look on, "he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight". The Acts of the Apostles describes several appearances of Jesus after his Ascension. In Acts , Stephen gazes into heaven and sees "Jesus standing at the right hand of God" just before his death. After Jesus' life, his followers, as described in the first chapters of the Acts of the Apostles , were all Jews either by birth or conversion , for which the biblical term " proselyte " is used, [] and referred to by historians as Jewish Christians.

The early Gospel message was spread orally , probably in Aramaic , [] but almost immediately also in Greek. After the conversion of Paul the Apostle , he claimed the title of "Apostle to the Gentiles". Paul's influence on Christian thinking is said to be more significant than that of any other New Testament author. Numerous quotations in the New Testament and other Christian writings of the first centuries, indicate that early Christians generally used and revered the Hebrew Bible the Tanakh as religious text , mostly in the Greek Septuagint or Aramaic Targum translations.

Early Christians wrote many religious works, including the ones included in the canon of the New Testament. The canonical texts, which have become the main sources used by historians to try to understand the historical Jesus and sacred texts within Christianity, were probably written between 50 and AD. Prior to the Enlightenment , the gospels were usually regarded as accurate historical accounts, but since then scholars have emerged who question the reliability of the gospels and draw a distinction between the Jesus described in the gospels and the Jesus of history.

Approaches to the historical reconstruction of the life of Jesus have varied from the "maximalist" approaches of the 19th century, in which the gospel accounts were accepted as reliable evidence wherever it is possible, to the "minimalist" approaches of the early 20th century, where hardly anything about Jesus was accepted as historical.

A Roman prefect , rather than a client king, ruled the land. As an exception, the prefect came to Jerusalem during religious festivals, when religious and patriotic enthusiasm sometimes inspired unrest or uprisings. Gentile lands surrounded the Jewish territories of Judea and Galilee , but Roman law and practice allowed Jews to remain separate legally and culturally. Galilee was evidently prosperous, and poverty was limited enough that it did not threaten the social order. This was the era of Hellenistic Judaism , which combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Hellenistic Greek culture.

Hellenistic Judaism also existed in Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period , where there was conflict between Hellenizers and traditionalists sometimes called Judaizers. Jews based their faith and religious practice on the Torah , five books said to have been given by God to Moses. The three prominent religious parties were the Pharisees , the Essenes , and the Sadducees. Together these parties represented only a small fraction of the population. Most Jews looked forward to a time that God would deliver them from their pagan rulers, possibly through war against the Romans.

New Testament scholars face a formidable challenge when they analyze the canonical Gospels. Mark, which is most likely the earliest written gospel, has been considered for many decades the most historically accurate. The non-canonical Gospel of Thomas might be an independent witness to many of Jesus' parables and aphorisms.

For example, Thomas confirms that Jesus blessed the poor and that this saying circulated independently before being combined with similar sayings in the Q source. Early non-Christian sources that attest to the historical existence of Jesus include the works of the historians Josephus and Tacitus. Scholars generally consider Tacitus' reference to the execution of Jesus to be both authentic and of historical value as an independent Roman source. Non-Christian sources are valuable in two ways. First, they show that even neutral or hostile parties never evince any doubt that Jesus actually existed.

Second, they present a rough picture of Jesus that is compatible with that found in the Christian sources: that Jesus was a teacher, had a reputation as a miracle worker, had a brother James, and died a violent death. Archeology helps scholars better understand Jesus' social world. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, [12] born around the beginning of the 1st century, who died in 30 or 33 AD in Judea. The gospels offer several clues concerning the year of Jesus' birth. Matthew associates the birth of Jesus with the reign of Herod the Great , who died around 4 BC, and Luke mentions that Herod was on the throne shortly before the birth of Jesus, [] [] although this gospel also associates the birth with the Census of Quirinius which took place ten years later.


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The years of Jesus' ministry have been estimated using several different approaches. A number of approaches have been used to estimate the year of the crucifixion of Jesus. Most scholars agree that he died in 30 or 33 AD. The dates for Paul's conversion and ministry can be determined by analyzing the Pauline epistles and the Acts of the Apostles. Scholars have reached a limited consensus on the basics of Jesus' life. Many scholars agree that Joseph, Jesus' father, died by the time Jesus began his ministry.

Joseph is not mentioned at all in the gospels during Jesus' ministry. Joseph's death would explain why in Mark , Jesus' neighbors refer to Jesus as the "son of Mary" sons were usually identified by their fathers. According to Theissen and Merz, it is common for extraordinary charismatic leaders , such as Jesus, to come into conflict with their ordinary families.

According to E. Sanders, the birth narratives in Matthew and Luke are the clearest case of invention in the Gospel narratives of Jesus' life. Both accounts have Jesus born in Bethlehem , in accordance with Jewish salvation history, and both have him growing up in Nazareth. But Sanders points that the two Gospels report completely different and irreconcilable explanations for how that happened. Luke's account of a census in which everyone returned to their ancestral cities is not plausible. Matthew's account is more plausible, but the story reads as though it was invented to identify Jesus as like a new Moses , and the historian Josephus reports Herod the Great's brutality without ever mentioning that he massacred little boys.

Sanders says that the genealogies of Jesus are based not on historical information but on the authors' desire to show that Jesus was the universal Jewish savior. Most modern scholars consider Jesus' baptism to be a definite historical fact, along with his crucifixion.

Dunn states that they "command almost universal assent" and "rank so high on the 'almost impossible to doubt or deny' scale of historical facts" that they are often the starting points for the study of the historical Jesus. Most scholars hold that Jesus lived in Galilee and Judea and did not preach or study elsewhere.

According to Ehrman, Jesus taught that a coming kingdom was everyone's proper focus, not anything in this life. According to Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz, these teaching sessions include authentic teachings of Jesus, but the scenes were invented by the respective evangelists to frame these teachings, which had originally been recorded without context. First, he attributed them to the faith of those healed. Second, he connected them to end times prophecy. Jesus chose twelve disciples [] the "Twelve" , evidently as an apocalyptic message.


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In Ehrman's view, no Christians would have invented a line from Jesus, promising rulership to the disciple who betrayed him. While others sometimes respond to Jesus with complete faith, his disciples are puzzled and doubtful. Sanders says that Jesus' mission was not about repentance , although he acknowledges that this opinion is unpopular. He argues that repentance appears as a strong theme only in Luke, that repentance was John the Baptist 's message, and that Jesus' ministry would not have been scandalous if the sinners he ate with had been repentant.

Jesus taught that an apocalyptic figure, the " Son of Man ", would soon come on clouds of glory to gather the elect, or chosen ones Mark —27, Matthew —31, Luke — He referred to himself as a " son of man " in the colloquial sense of "a person", but scholars do not know whether he also meant himself when he referred to the heavenly "Son of Man".

The title Christ , or Messiah , indicates that Jesus' followers believed him to be the anointed heir of King David , whom some Jews expected to save Israel. The Gospels refer to him not only as a Messiah but in the absolute form as "the Messiah" or, equivalently, "the Christ". In early Judaism, this absolute form of the title is not found, but only phrases such as "his Messiah".

The tradition is ambiguous enough to leave room for debate as to whether Jesus defined his eschatological role as that of the Messiah. Sanders associates it with Jesus' prophecy that the Temple would be totally demolished. The differences in the accounts cannot be completely reconciled, and it is impossible to know what Jesus intended, but in general the meal seems to point forward to the coming Kingdom.

Jesus probably expected to be killed, and he may have hoped that God would intervene. The Gospels say that Jesus was betrayed to the authorities by a disciple, and many scholars consider this report to be highly reliable. After Jesus' death, his followers said he rose from the dead, although exact details of their experiences are unclear. According to Sanders, the Gospel reports contradict each other, which, according to him, suggests competition among those claiming to have seen him first rather than deliberate fraud.

Michael White suggests that inconsistencies in the Gospels reflect differences in the agendas of their unknown authors. Modern research on the historical Jesus has not led to a unified picture of the historical figure, partly because of the variety of academic traditions represented by the scholars. Jesus is seen as the founder of, in the words of Sanders, a '"renewal movement within Judaism. A disagreement in contemporary research is whether Jesus was apocalyptic.

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Most scholars conclude that he was an apocalyptic preacher, like John the Baptist and Paul the Apostle. In contrast, certain prominent North American scholars, such as Burton Mack and John Dominic Crossan, advocate for a non-eschatological Jesus, one who is more of a Cynic sage than an apocalyptic preacher.

Since the 18th century, scholars have occasionally put forth that Jesus was a political national messiah, but the evidence for this portrait is negligible. Likewise, the proposal that Jesus was a Zealot does not fit with the earliest strata of the Synoptic tradition. Jesus grew up in Galilee and much of his ministry took place there.

Modern scholars agree that Jesus was a Jew of 1st-century Palestine. The New Testament gives no description of the physical appearance of Jesus before his death—it is generally indifferent to racial appearances and does not refer to the features of the people it mentions. The Christ myth theory is the hypothesis that Jesus of Nazareth never existed; or if he did, that he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity and the accounts in the gospels. Apart from his own disciples and followers, the Jews of Jesus' day generally rejected him as the Messiah, as do the great majority of Jews today.

Christian theologians, ecumenical councils , reformers and others have written extensively about Jesus over the centuries. Christian sects and schisms have often been defined or characterized by their descriptions of Jesus. Meanwhile, Manichaeans , Gnostics , Muslims, Baha'is, and others have found prominent places for Jesus in their religions.

Jesus is the central figure of Christianity. These documents outline the key beliefs held by Christians about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life, and that he is the Christ and the Son of God. The New Testament states that the resurrection of Jesus is the foundation of the Christian faith 1 Corinthians — Most Christians believe that Jesus was both human and the Son of God. However, the doctrine of the Trinity is not universally accepted among Christians. Christians revere not only Jesus himself, but also his name.

Devotions to the Holy Name of Jesus go back to the earliest days of Christianity. Judaism rejects the idea of Jesus being God, [42] or a mediator to God, or part of a Trinity. Judaic criticism of Jesus is long-standing. The Talmud, written and compiled from the 3rd to the 5th century AD, [] includes stories that since medieval times have been considered to be defamatory accounts of Jesus.

Medieval Hebrew literature contains the anecdotal "Episode of Jesus" known also as Toledot Yeshu , in which Jesus is described as being the son of Joseph, the son of Pandera see: Episode of Jesus. The account portrays Jesus as an impostor. Islamic texts emphasize a strict notion of monotheism tawhid and forbid the association of partners with God, which would be idolatry. The Quran describes the annunciation to Mary Maryam by an angel that she is to give birth to Jesus while remaining a virgin.

It calls the virgin birth a miracle that occurred by the will of God. To aid in his ministry to the Jewish people, Jesus was given the ability to perform miracles , by permission of God rather than by his own power. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has several distinct teachings about Jesus. Ahmadis believe that he was a mortal man who survived his crucifixion and died a natural death at the age of in Kashmir , India and is buried at Roza Bal.

In Christian Gnosticism now a largely extinct religious movement , [] Jesus was sent from the divine realm and provided the secret knowledge gnosis necessary for salvation. Most Gnostics believed that Jesus was a human who became possessed by the spirit of "the Christ" at his baptism. This spirit left Jesus' body during the crucifixion, but was rejoined to him when he was raised from the dead.

Some Gnostics, however, were docetics , believed that Jesus did not have a physical body, but only appeared to possess one. Some Hindus consider Jesus to be an avatar or a sadhu. For example, Richard Dawkins has called him "a great moral teacher". Some of the earliest depictions of Jesus at the Dura-Europos church are firmly dated to before The depiction of Christ in pictorial form was highly controversial in the early church. Although large images are generally avoided, few Protestants now object to book illustrations depicting Jesus.

The Transfiguration was a major theme in Eastern Christian art, and every Eastern Orthodox monk who had trained in icon painting had to prove his craft by painting an icon depicting it. Before the Protestant Reformation, the crucifix was common in Western Christianity. It is a model of the cross with Jesus crucified on it.

The crucifix became the central ornament of the altar in the 13th century, a use that has been nearly universal in Roman Catholic churches since then. Jesus appears as an infant in a manger feed trough in Christmas creches, which depict the Nativity scene. The total destruction that ensued with the siege of Jerusalem by the Romans in AD 70 made the survival of items from 1st-century Judea very rare and almost no direct records survive about the history of Judaism from the last part of the 1st century through the 2nd century.

However, throughout the history of Christianity a number of relics attributed to Jesus have been claimed, although doubt has been cast on them. The 16th-century Catholic theologian Erasmus wrote sarcastically about the proliferation of relics and the number of buildings that could have been constructed from the wood claimed to be from the cross used in the Crucifixion.

Some relics, such as purported remnants of the Crown of Thorns , receive only a modest number of pilgrims, while the Shroud of Turin which is associated with an approved Catholic devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus , has received millions, [] including popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth.

For other uses, see Jesus disambiguation. For other uses, see Christ disambiguation. For other uses, see Jesus of Nazareth disambiguation. Central figure of Christianity. Judea , Roman Empire [5]. Jerusalem , Judea , Roman Empire. Mary Joseph [d]. Jesus in Christianity. Jesus in Islam. Jesus in history. Perspectives on Jesus. Jesus in culture. Life in art Depiction Jesuism. Early life. In rest of the NT. Road to Damascus John's vision.

Main article: Life of Jesus in the New Testament. Main articles: Genealogy of Jesus and Nativity of Jesus. Main article: Christ Child. Main articles: Baptism of Jesus and Temptation of Christ. Main article: Ministry of Jesus. Main articles: Confession of Peter and Transfiguration of Jesus. Main article: Last Supper. Main articles: Crucifixion of Jesus and Burial of Jesus. See also: Sayings of Jesus on the cross and Crucifixion eclipse. See also: Overview of resurrection appearances in the Gospels and Paul table. Main article: Early Christianity. See also: Biblical criticism. Main article: Sources for the historicity of Jesus.

See also: Josephus on Jesus and Tacitus on Christ. A edition of the works of Josephus, a 1st-century Roman-Jewish historian who referred to Jesus []. Main article: Chronology of Jesus. See also: Anno Domini. Main article: Historicity of Jesus. See also: Brothers of Jesus. Main article: Historical Jesus. Further information: Language of Jesus and Race and appearance of Jesus. Main article: Christ myth theory. Main article: Religious perspectives on Jesus.

Main articles: Jesus in Christianity , Christ title , and Christology. Main article: Judaism's view of Jesus. See also: Jesus in the Talmud. Main article: Jesus in Islam. See also: Criticism of Jesus. Main article: Depiction of Jesus. Main article: Relics associated with Jesus. Watts state that the crucifixion of Jesus is as certain as any historical fact can be. Eddy and Gregory A. Boyd say that non-Christian confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus is now "firmly established".

Muslims believe that she conceived her son miraculously by the command of God. Joseph was from these perspectives the acting adoptive father. Burridge states: "There are those who argue that Jesus is a figment of the Church's imagination, that there never was a Jesus at all.

I have to say that I do not know any respectable critical scholar who says that any more". Price does not believe that Jesus existed, but agrees that this perspective runs against the views of the majority of scholars. Dunn calls the theories of Jesus' non-existence "a thoroughly dead thesis". Van Voorst states that biblical scholars and classical historians regard theories of non-existence of Jesus as effectively refuted. These units were later moved and arranged by authors and editors. Some material has been revised and some created by early Christians.

His followers came to believe he was the promised Messiah and later split away from Judaism to found Christianity. Acts , but for the most part he displays little interest in the details of Jesus' earthly life and ministry.

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The fact that Jesus existed, that he was crucified under Pontius Pilate for whatever reason and that he had a band of followers who continued to support his cause, seems to be part of the bedrock of historical tradition. If nothing else, the non-Christian evidence can provide us with certainty on that score. Meier states that Jesus' birth year is c. Or if he did, he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity. Age of Reason, , pp. Christology was a major focus of these debates, and was addressed at every one of the first seven ecumenical councils.

Some early beliefs viewed Jesus as ontologically subordinate to the Father Subordinationism , and others considered him an aspect of the Father rather than a separate person Sabellianism , both were condemned as heresies by the Catholic Church. Footnote on Contr. Not least, the nature of the image and how it was fixed on the cloth remain deeply puzzling". A Marginal Jew: The roots of the problem and the person. Yale University Press. Handbook of Biblical Chronology, rev. Hendrickson Publishers. The birth of the Messiah: a commentary on the infancy narratives in Matthew and Luke.

Tyndale Bulletin. Philadelphia: First Fortress. Jesus Now and Then. Eerdmans Publishing. In Beilby, James K. The Historical Jesus: Five Views. Sacrifice and Redemption. Cambridge University Press. Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels. Ehrman, MDiv, PhD. Historical Jesus. The Oral Gospel Tradition. Eerdmans Publishing Co. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. The Bible and the Future. Wipf and Stock Publishers.

Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved November 3, British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved April 20, Archived from the original on May 1, Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. Christians, Muslims, and Jesus. Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 10, In Herbermann, Charles ed. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved March 31, Did Jesus Exist?

Retrieved August 4, Westminster John Knox Press. Topical Josephus. Theology of the New Testament. Baylor University Press. Society of Biblical Lit. Conflict: Christianity's Love Vs. Islam's Submission. The Encyclopedia of Christianity. The Book of the Acts. Introducing the New Testament. Baker Academic. Exploring the Origins of the Bible. The Historical Jesus of the Gospels. The Five Gospels.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. What is a Gospel? The Genre of the Canonical Gospels. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. London: Routledge. What are the Gospels? A Comparison with Graeco-Roman Biography. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans. Vines, M. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. Stanton July 8, Jesus and Gospel. Rogerson; Judith M. Lieu March 16, The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Can We Trust the Gospels?

Life of Christ III

New Testament Theology. Graham A Guide to the Gospels. Kregel Publications. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. September Subscription or UK public library membership required. The Gospel of John. Liturgical Press. A Theology of the New Testament. InterVarsity Press. The Thompson Chain-Reference Bible. OUP Oxford. Jesus and the Gospels. Clark International. A Dictionary of biblical tradition in English literature. Who's Who in the New Testament. The Gospel of Matthew. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. Random House. Clarendon Press.

In Bockmuehl, Markus N. Cambridge companion to Jesus. Eerdmans commentary on the Bible. Jesus of history, Christ of faith. Saint Mary's Press. The Content and the Setting of the Gospel Tradition. Life of Christ. The Sermon on the mount: a theological investigation. In Jackson, Samuel M. November 23, The Cambridge Companion to the Gospels. In Durken, Daniel ed. Yet that will be ordained a shame and a threat upon these sin-working peoples who knew not how to thank God for his torments, when he was hanged on the Holy Tree for the wicked crimes of mankind.

There he purchased dearly our lives, the Prince of Mankind, on that day and by that price—he whose body-house was never stained by blameworthy crimes, and through this he ransomed us. Afterwards he will earnestly admonish all of us for repayment, when that ruddy cross blazes in the sky over all, rather than the golden sun.

Upon that signal those seduced by sins, the darkened wicked-workers, shall look upon sorrowfully and with great fear— they will see for themselves to their suffering what has come forth to their best end, were they willing to perceive it to their good. And also the ancient scars and the open wound they shall witness, dreary-souled, in their Lord, just as malice-minded men had impaled those white hands and holy feet with nails, and also caused blood to flow from his side, where blood and water together both emerged before the sight of their eyes, running out in front of the warriors, when he was on the Rood.

All this they will be able to see for themselves then, open and plain to perceive, that for the love of humankind, of crime-workers, he suffered many things. The sons of men will be able to understand clearly how destitute they denied him in their thoughts, taunting him with harmful words and also spat their spittle into his face. They spoke their scorn against him and also struck, the hell-hurrying men, his blessed countenance with their hands, with fingers outstretched and fist as well— and about his head bent a harsh and thorny ring, blind in their thinking, foolish and led astray.

They observed mute creation, the ever-greening earth and the high-heavens, feel the sufferings of the Lord fearfully, and mournfully pronounce, though they lived not, when the harmers seized the Shaper with sinful hands. The sun was washed out, smothered with sorrows— when the folk in Jerusalem were looking up the best of good weaving that once must be looked upon as decoration in that holy house—it burst apart from above and lay upon the earth in two patches. The sails of that temple, wrought in wondrous hue to beautify that house, rent itself in two, as if the sharp blade of a dagger had passed through it.

The glistening walls and many stones burst apart across the earth and upon the ground as well, wasted in terror, trembling at the sound of the voice, and the broad sea revealed the power of its skill and broke its bonds, angry, rising up from the embrace of the earth, and in their shining orbit, the stars let go of their proper beauty. In that same moment, the clear heavens understood him who had loftily established the brightness in the gems of heaven—therefore he had sent his herald, when the shining king born first of all creation. Listen as well!

Guilty men have seen as a true token, upon the same day that he suffered, a great miracle, that the earth gave up those who lay within her. Hell also understood, the wreaker of sin, that the Shaper had come, the Wielding God, when the earth had given up that throng, its spoils, from its fiery bosom. The hearts of many were blessed, and sorrows slid away from their souls. The sea revealed who established it on its broad basin, the glory-mighty king— therefore it made itself firm to walk upon, when God wished to go across its waves.

And the trees as well announced who had shaped them with their fruits—many of them, not just a few—when Mighty God mounted upon one of them, where he suffered miseries for the sake of the nation-dwelling, a loathsome death as a help to humankind. Then many trees became bedewed with bloody tears beneath their bark, red and thick, their sap turned to gore.

This fact no earth-dweller can speak through wise understanding, how many things, which cannot perceive, became aware of the suffering of the Lord, these inanimate creations. Although from their innate virtues they knew nothing of spiritual understanding, even so they knew by a miracle when their Sovereign journeyed from his body-house. The people did not know how to perceive, their Measurer, these mind-blinded men, harder than flints, that the Master had saved them from a hell-death by his holy powers, the All-Wielding God.

What are they thinking who will not remember in their wits the mild teachings of the Measurer, and all the miseries that he endured for the benefit of mankind, because he wished that we might be allowed to possess a glorious home for all eternity? So it will be forlorn for them on that forbidding day of mighty doom, for them who must, undone by their deadly crimes, be shown the scars of the Lord, the wounds and the torments.

Thanks for this homeland they knew not to give unto the torments of their Sovereign. Unto every one of his peoples the shining Shaper shall inscribe each of them by their deeds, according to justice, the Ruler of the Skies. Then shall be gathered on the right hand of Christ himself the pure folk, chosen for their excellence, those who had earlier followed his teachings eagerly and with delight in their life-days, and there the stain-scathers into the worse half before the Shaper shall be ordained, ordering them to depart onto his left hand, the True-King of Victories and the multitude of the sinful.

Judged truly there, they shall weep and quiver before the fear of the Lord, as foul as goats, a filthy folk—they should not expect any mercy. The first one manifest there is that they will glisten with light before their people, splendid and shining over the houses in the city. Their earlier deeds will sparkle in every one of them more brightly than the sun. Then the third will be: how, in the bale of darkness, the blessed multitude shall see the corrupted suffer pain, as torment for their sins, the welling flame and the attacks of worms with bitter jaws, the shoal of the burning.

Then they will thank God all the more eagerly for both the fruits and blisses that they will see, that he saved them from the malice-killing and gave to them eternal pleasures. Then his will shall be recognized as different for those others. They shall be able see too many woes for themselves— sins enough, the terrible hardships once committed. There, sorrowing pain will attach itself to them, a grievous agony on three sides.

One of them is that they will see for themselves too many miseries and the grim fire of hell present and ready as torment, from which they must eternally suffer damnation, struggling in exile. The second curse upon them is when in their disgrace for the guilty, that ruined people shall endure the greatest shame. In them the Lord sees not at all a few, but their every crime-bales and hateful deeds, as well as seeing the all-bright host of heavenly angels and the children of men, every earth-dweller— and the terrifying devil shall be able to suss out in their souls with his dark and powerful skill, right through their body-homes, their every wicked blemish and their disgraceful faults.

Their sinning flesh shall be transfixed shamefully just like the shining glass, so that one can scanned entirely with ease. Then that third sorrow for the needful, the crying care, will be that they may observe in the pure how they exult gladly on account of their good deeds, which they, miserable, once disdained to perform as their days lasted, and weeping sorely for their deeds, that they had freely committed unrighteous acts before. Then they will see the better ones richly glow— their miseries will not only be a torment to them, but the bliss of others will be to their sorrow, because they abandoned such fair joys in the days of old and such singular ones, through the frivolous delights of the body, and the empty lusts of their vile flesh-homes.

Ashamed there and shamefully afflicted, they will stagger about drunkenly, bearing their sinful burden, their criminal works where the people will see it. The shriver may not see through the flesh into their soul, whether someone is speaking the truth or a lie upon himself, when he abases his sins then—even though someone may be healed of every fault, every unclean evil if he tells it to one person—but no one can conceal it on that stern day, the stain unabated, where the host will see it.

There can we now see these wrathful crimes in our souls, the wounds of sin, and in the eyes of our body-houses, the diseased ponderings, these unclean thoughts! No one can speak to another how with great vigor anyone would strive after life and spirit by every art fearfully, to endure longer, to cleanse the smut of sin and castigate himself, and heal the wound of that prior fault, within that brief space that there is in life here, so that he can, before the eyes of earth-dwellers, unashamed, brook his abode among mortal men, free from corruption, so long as body and soul are allowed to dwell together, two as one.

Now must we eagerly and wisely penetrate with our heart-sight the faults within our breast-coffers. We cannot with those other eyes, the head-gems, peer into the soul of our inner thoughts by any means, whether evil or good abodes therein, so that it may please God in that grim hour, when he over his every host shines in splendor from his high-throne with the purest flame. You have earned them when you graciously took in wretched men, those destitute in the world, with a mild soul. You did all these things unto me when you sought them with peace, and strengthened their spirits with comfort.

Because of this you shall enjoy fairly your rewards long and fairly with my dear ones. Then he begins to speak unto the evil, unlike in words, who will be there upon his left hand, through a terrible threat, the All-Wielding God. They need not expect the mercy of the Measurer at that time, neither life nor leniency, but there will come their recompense to humankind according to the results of their words and deeds, the speech-bearing—they must suffer alone his righteous doom in the fullness of his terror. There the mighty mercy of the Almighty shall be separated from the nation-dwellers on that day, when he charges that fretted folk with their crimes with hateful words, ordering them to reveal right now the rectitude of their life that he granted to them before, the sinning for their happiness.

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I first wrought you with my own hands and gave you understanding. From clay I set down your limbs, and gave you a living spirit, honoring you above all creation, giving you a face and figure like to myself. I gave you as well plenty of might, weal over all the wide lands, though you knew no part of the woe or the shadow that you must suffer— and you understand no gratitude for these things. You heeded further that criminal fiend, that scathing scather, than to your Shaper. When I had granted you so many good things and it seemed in your heart too few blessings in all these things, if you were not allowed to have plenty of power, even as much as God— then you were thrown out far away from that joy, to the delight of devils, now an alien.

Then I came down myself, a son into its mother, though her maidenhead stayed entirely whole. I alone was born as a comfort to the people. I was wound by human hands, covered up with poor clothing, and laid down in darkness, wound in dun swaddling. I seemed insignificant to the sons of men, lying on the hard stones, child-young in my crib. By this I meant to distance you from death, the bale of hot hell, so that you would be allowed to shine holy and blessed in this eternal life, because I suffered this hardship.

And for the love of humankind my head suffered harmful blows, my cheek and face often endured the spit spat from the mouths of pitiless wicked-doers. Likewise they blended together for me a bitter drink, unsweet, of vinegar and gall. Then before the people I received the malice of my foes, they persecuted me with sins, they recked not of their feud, and they beat me with scourges. All that pain I suffered for you with a humble mind, the scorn and the sharp words.

Then they ringed my head about with a hard, sharp wreath, cruelly they crammed it on—it was wrought of thorns. Then I was hanged upon a lofty tree, fixed upon the rood. Next they poured out blood from my side with a sharpened spear, gore upon the ground, so that you may be delivered from the constraining power of the devil. Then I, without sin, suffered torment and evil affliction, until alone I gave up my living soul from my body-home. How there was an uneven account made between us there! I took on your agony so that you would be allowed to enjoy my native realm, blessed and prosperous.

And in my death I dearly purchased you enduring life so that you would be allowed to abide afterwards, free from blemish, and beautiful in that light. My flesh-home lay, engraved into the earth, hidden down below in burial, that which never harmed a soul, so that you would be able to exist upwards, brightly in the heavens, mighty among the angels. Why did you become so bereft of sense that you knew no thankfulness to the Wielder for your redemption? I shall ask nothing for my bitter death which I suffered for you, but repay me your life, because I once gave you mine in ransom through brutal torment.

I remand your life which you have criminally killed off with wicked deeds, much to your own shame. Why did you sully with shame by sin-working the body-home which I released for myself from the embrace of enemies, and forbad it crime? For what reason do you hang me more heavily with your hands upon the cross than you once hanged me? This seems more severe to me! I was miserable in your homeland so that you would be blessed in mine.

For these things you knew not any thanks in your heart to your Savior. You have followed that feebly, forbidding the needy from being allowed to come inside under your roof, and you drew away every bit through the hardness of your heart, of garment from the naked, or food from the meatless. Although in my name they begged for water, for themselves, weary and poor in health, tormented for a drink, without means, eaten up with thirst, you boldly withdrew it from them.

You did not seek out the suffering, or one sweet word did you speak to them in comfort, so that they might take up a state of mind more free. All those things you did to me, as an injury to the Heaven-King. For that you must suffer severely torment forever, enduring an exile among devils. In that terrible place you must tumble! They will not be able to ignore the command of the Heaven-King then, deprived of their powers. They must fall quickly into the grim ground, those who struggled before against God.

The guard of the realm will be savage then and mighty, wrathful and terrifying. Nor can any enemy abide, present on these earthly ways. He shall swing the victory-blade with his right hand so that into the deep dale the devils shall fall into the darksome flame, a host of the sinful under the lap of the earth, the fated ghasts into that stead of the wrathful, a shoal of the stained, the ruin of the accursed in that house of suffering, the death-hall of demons.