EFAs are areas in agricultural land covered by field margins, hedges, trees, fallow land, landscape features, biotopes, buffer strips, and afforested area. Such areas contribute to several ecosystem services, but in particular to pollination, biological control, soil erosion prevention, water quantity and water quality regulation; all of which are important to support sustainable agriculture Bommarco et al.
Besides land conversion and habitat destruction, the loss of connectivity between habitats and ecosystems is a major cause of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation. Reconnecting fragmented landscapes and nature reserves through GI elements such as green corridors, ecoducts, or ecological buffer zones around natural reserves will be essential to meet the biodiversity targets and to provide a network along which species, some of which deliver key ecosystem services, can move and adapt under a changing climate.
Thirdly, some observers advocate that the rewilding of abandoned landscapes in remote areas in Europe as another, as an additional way to enhance the aggregate delivery of ecosystem services at EU scale Navarro and Pereira Navarro and Pereira examine the benefits and challenges of rewilding and report in particular enhanced cultural services such as wild-life based tourism and increased regulating ecosystem services related to the carbon and water cycles.
Where desirable, rewilding represents thus another option to, at least partially, find space for the implementation of GI in Europe, provided that possible conflicts which arise from overlap between human activity and wildlife are carefully considered. A fourth and increasingly important area for consideration of GI development is the city and its surrounding landscape. In cities GI is linked to human health through the ecosystem services that are provided by urban parks, peri-urban green belts, or forests and semi-natural areas which surrounds cities.
Health benefits derived from urban and peri-urban GI include increased air quality, regulation of the micro-climate through the cooling effects of vegetation, recreation, psychological health and mental well-being. Besides the availability of land, also the cost associated with the creation and maintenance of large surface areas of GI to enhance ecosystem services is a critical factor.
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Implementing GI across the EU requires considerable investments. Financing projects of this scale requires investments of large funding bodies. At EU scale, funding of this size is only available through the cohesion policy or the European Investment Bank. Using such funds for large scale restoration projects and deployment of GI requires demonstrating that investments do not only contribute to environmental policy targets but also deliver jobs and create economic growth through innovation.
Clearly, GI delivers value through the ecosystem services they provide and scientific research continues to provide more robust estimates of such values de Groot et al. A convincing case for urban GI is presented by Vandermeulen et al. Costs considered by this approach include land purchasing costs, design and construction costs and maintenance costs of the infrastructure, whilst benefits include production and regulating ecosystem services such as air quality improvement and climate change mitigation, as well as improved health from cycling, reduced accident risks, as well as recreational benefits.
At the regional scale, the project was expected to deliver additional benefits that were more than twice as high as the costs.
Going to the global scale, a review of over studies by De Groot et al. Importantly, and not considered by De Groot et al. In addition, expected job creation is a powerful argument to convince budget holders for investment in GI projects. Edwards et al. The increasing concentration of people in cities presents both opportunities and challenges. Cities are poles of growth and innovation Bettencourt et al.
We concluded that in Europe urbanisation should be accompanied with additional growth of GI which provides services that are as important as other urban infrastructure. To offset land losses due to urbanisation and to account for additional demands of increasing population for resources, we concluded that substantial investments in the development of GI are needed. This requires smarter use of available land and demonstrating that investments in GI may lead to additional benefits for the society as a whole.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Landscape Ecology. Landsc Ecol. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Mar 10; Accepted Aug 8. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Green infrastructure GI , a network of nature, semi-natural areas and green space, delivers essential ecosystem services which underpin human well-being and quality of life. Introduction Ecosystems are essential to human well-being MA Materials and methods Land use modelling platform LUISA is a dynamic, spatial modelling platform which simulates future land use changes based on biophysical and socio-economic drivers.
Open in a separate window. Flow chart of the coupled land use—ecosystem services model.
Assessment of ecosystem services The projected land use land cover maps as simulated by LUISA for , and were subsequently used to assess any changes in ecosystem services. Assessment of green infrastructure Generally, two main GI components are identified: cores and links Lafortezza et al. Data analysis We assessed the relationship between multi-functionality defined as the number of ecosystem services delivered per region and the total supply of ecosystem services, measured by TESI8.
Regression coefficients Coefficient SD t p a intercept 2. Relationship between the total ecosystem services index TESI8 and artificial land.
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Discussion General findings Two important observations can be obtained from this study. Conclusion The increasing concentration of people in cities presents both opportunities and challenges. Assessment with the Land Use Modelling Platform. EUR Mapping of background air pollution at a fine spatial scale across the European Union. Sci Total Environ.
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Green infrastructure: smart conservation for the 21st century. Renew Resour J. Vegetation composition and succession of abandoned farmland: effects of ecological. Hist Spat Factors Landsc Ecol. Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities. Ecological intensification: harnessing ecosystem services for food security. Trends Ecol Evol. Projection of the future EU forest CO 2 sink as affected by recent bioenergy policies using two advanced forest management models. GCB Bioenergy. Biodiversity improves water quality through niche partitioning.
Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration. Conserv Biol. Cross-scale analysis of ecosystem services identified and assessed at local and European level. Ecol Ind. Investing in nature: restoring coastal habitat blue infrastructure and green job creation. Mar Policy.
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Solutions 2 6 —86 European Commission. EU energy trends to Luxembourg: Publications office of the European Union; COM Brussels European Commission a Our life insurance, our natural capital: an EU biodiversity strategy to SEC Brussels European Commission c Energy Roadmap Underlying assumptions and projection methodologies.
Natural capital and ecosystem services
Trends to Reference Scenario Off J Eur Union. The role of multi-functionality in social preferences toward semi-arid rural landscapes: an ecosystem service approach. Environ Sci Policy. Classifying and valuing ecosystem services for urban planning. Ecol Econ. Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality. Applied to Modeled Land Use Change — Land use scanner: an integrated GIS based model for long term projections of land use in urban and rural areas.
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J Geogr Syst. Introducing land use scanner. Land-use modelling in planning practice. The GeoJournal Library. New York: Springer; Green infrastructure as a tool to support spatial planning in European urban regions. It is anticipated that Member States may ask the OTT content providers located in their countries to contribute financially to the production of European works. In terms of advertising, a new regulatory approach will be adopted with regard to traditional television broadcasting companies.
Television companies and OTT providers will also enjoy greater flexibility to use advertising tools such as product placement and sponsorship, in order to keep viewers informed. In short, in this fully digital environment, comparable digital services are expected to adhere to the same or similar standards. Moreover, online platforms and OTT service providers are expected to act responsibly by combining selective instruments such as audiovisual or copyright standards or increasing the voluntary efforts of the industry.
Former advisor to the Telecommunications Market Commission of Spai n. Primary Menu. CEEweb for Biodiversity is a network of non-governmental organizations in the Central and Eastern European region working for 20 years in 20 countries. Our mission is the conservation of biodiversity through the promotion of sustainable development. Ecosystem services are the benefits that nature provides for people. Usually not monetized and taken for granted, they maintain living conditions on Earth and improve human quality of life.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment classified ecosystem services into the following categories:. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment concluded that 15 out of the 24 measured ecosystem services are in serious decline, only 4 are improving and 5 are stable but threatened in some parts of the globe. Loss of ecosystem services has powerful impacts on our economy and society!