Other traditions record him as serving as a missionary in Ethiopia , Mesopotamia , Parthia , and Lycaonia. Two ancient testimonies exist about the mission of Saint Bartholomew in India. These are of Eusebius of Caesarea early 4th century and of Saint Jerome late 4th century. Both of these refer to this tradition while speaking of the reported visit of Pantaenus to India in the 2nd century. Perumalil SJ and Moraes hold that the Bombay region on the Konkan coast, a region which may have been known as the ancient city Kalyan , was the field of Saint Bartholomew's missionary activities.
Along with his fellow apostle Jude "Thaddeus" , Bartholomew is reputed to have brought Christianity to Armenia in the 1st century. Thus, both saints are considered the patron saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church. One tradition has it that Apostle Bartholomew was executed in Albanopolis in Armenia. According to popular hagiography, the apostle was flayed alive and beheaded. According to other accounts he was crucified upside down head downward like St.
Matthew the Apostle
He is said to have been martyred for having converted Polymius, the king of Armenia, to Christianity. Enraged by the monarch's conversion, and fearing a Roman backlash, king Polymius's brother, prince Astyages, ordered Bartholomew's torture and execution, which Bartholomew courageously endured. However, there are no records of any Armenian King of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia with the name Polymius. Current scholarship indicates that Bartholomew more likely died in Kalyan in India, where there was an official named Polymius. The 13th-century Saint Bartholomew Monastery was a prominent Armenian monastery constructed at the site of the martyrdom of Apostle Bartholomew in Vaspurakan , Greater Armenia now in southeastern Turkey.
The 6th-century writer in Constantinople, Theodorus Lector , averred that in about , the Byzantine emperor Anastasius I Dicorus gave the body of Bartholomew to the city of Daras , in Mesopotamia, which he had recently refounded. This association with medicine in course of time caused Bartholomew's name to become associated with medicine and hospitals. Of the many miracles claimed to have been performed by Bartholomew before and after his death, two very popular ones are known by the townsfolk of the small Italian island of Lipari.
The people of Lipari celebrated his feast day annually. The tradition of the people was to take the solid silver and gold statue from inside the Cathedral of St Bartholomew and carry it through the town. On one occasion, when taking the statue down the hill towards the town, it suddenly became very heavy and had to be set down. When the men carrying the statue regained their strength, they lifted it a second time. After another few seconds, it got even heavier. They set it down and attempted once more to pick it up. They managed to lift it but had to put it down one last time. Within seconds, walls further downhill collapsed.
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If the statue had been able to be lifted, all the townspeople would have been killed. The order was given to take the silver statue of Saint Bartholomew and melt it down. The statue was weighed, and it was found to be only a few grams.
It was returned to its place in the Cathedral of Lipari. In reality, the statue is made from many kilograms of silver and it is considered a miracle that it was not melted down. The appearance of the saint is described in detail in the Golden Legend : "His hair is black and crisped, his skin fair, his eyes wide, his nose even and straight, his beard thick and with few grey hairs; he is of medium stature St Bartholomew is the most prominent flayed Christian martyr.
St Bartholomew is often depicted in lavish medieval manuscripts. On the right, the saint wears his own flesh tied around his neck while he kneels in prayer before a rock, his severed head fallen to the ground. Another example includes the Flaying of St. Bartholomew in the Luttrell Psalter c. Bartholomew is depicted on a surgical table, surrounded by tormentors while he is flayed with golden knives.
Due to the nature of his martyrdom, Bartholomew is the patron saint of tanners , plasterers , tailors , leatherworkers , bookbinders , farmers , housepainters , butchers , and glove makers. Francis, St. Claire, St. Bartholomew, and St. Catherine of Alexandria. Although Bartholomew's death is commonly depicted in artworks of a religious nature, his story has also been used to represent anatomical depictions of the human body devoid of flesh.
An example of this can be seen in Marco d'Agrate 's St Bartholomew Flayed where Bartholomew is depicted wrapped in his own skin with every muscle, vein and tendon clearly visible, acting as a clear description of the muscles and structure of the human body. He has also noted chronological difficulties whereby Luke "has Gamaliel refer to Theudas and Judas in the wrong order, and Theudas actually rebelled about a decade after Gamaliel spoke —7 ". Christian tradition, starting from the 8th century, states that he was the first icon painter.
He is said to have painted pictures of the Virgin Mary and Child, in particular the Hodegetria image in Constantinople now lost. He was also said to have painted Saints Peter and Paul, and to have illustrated a gospel book with a full cycle of miniatures. The tradition that Luke painted icons of Mary and Jesus has been common, particularly in Eastern Orthodoxy.
The tradition also has support from the Saint Thomas Christians of India who claim to still have one of the Theotokos icons that Saint Luke painted and which St. Thomas brought to India. In traditional depictions, such as paintings, evangelist portraits , and church mosaics , Saint Luke is often accompanied by an ox or bull , usually having wings. Sometimes only the symbol is shown, especially when in a combination of those of all Four Evangelists.
After the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia , the kingdom's last queen, George's granddaughter Mary , who had brought the relics with her from Serbia as her dowry, sold them to the Venetian Republic. Luke to be placed on the site where the holy tomb of the Evangelist is located and venerated today". This prompted a scientific investigation of the relics in Padua , and by numerous lines of empirical evidence archeological analyses of the Tomb in Thebes and the Reliquary of Padua , anatomical analyses of the remains, carbon dating , comparison with the purported skull of the Evangelist located in Prague confirmed that these were the remains of an individual of Syrian descent who died between BC and AD From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
One of the four traditionally ascribed authors of the canonical Gospels. For other uses, see Saint Luke disambiguation. See also: Authorship of Luke—Acts. Catholic Encyclopedia. New Advent. Retrieved 14 January Luke The Evangelist". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 16 October Understanding the Bible: A Reader's Introduction 2nd ed. Palo Alto: Mayfield. Ashgate Publishing. Leuven University Press, New York: Robert Appleton Company, Putnam's Sons , p.
Revelation Study Guide
Was Luke a Gentile? Retrieved 10 January Butler's Lives of the Saints.
New York: HarperColllins Publishers. II, Cap. Migne ed. In Greek and Latin parallel. Ehrman The New Testament: a historical introduction to early Christian writings. Oxford University Press. Achtemeier, Robert J. Karris Invitation to the Gospels Paulist Press. Ehrman The lost Gospel of Judas Iscariot: a new look at betrayer and betrayed. Who wrote the Gospels? Altadena, CA: Millenium Press.
An Introduction to the New Testament , p. Anchor Bible ; 1st edition 13 October A Historical Introduction to the New Testament. The Protevangelium was exceptionally popular—hundreds of manuscripts of the text exist today in a variety of languages, and it has profoundly influenced Christian liturgy and teachings about Mary. In the East, the Protevangelium was translated into Syriac and expanded with a different set of stories set in Egypt to form the Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary , which was later translated into Arabic as the Arabic Infancy Gospel.
It contains elements of the birth of Jesus from Christian Apocrypha, including the cave, the ox, the ass and the midwife. In the Western texts, the family then moves from the cave to a stable and places the baby in a manger. Though an apocryphal embellishment, the animals became a common ingredient in subsequent depictions of the nativity and may be observable in nativity scenes today.
The Christmas nativity scene is the outcome of efforts by creative and pious writers to fill in blanks left by Matthew and Luke and to combine multiple traditions, Biblical and non-Biblical, into one enduring image. The nativity scene is a timeless representation of when God became man; it is also a testament to human imagination and the art of storytelling. This Bible History Daily article was originally published on December 10, Did Jesus Exist? Witnessing the Divine: The magi in art and literature: Robin M. Where Was Jesus Born? Of course quoting from the Apocrypha does not mean a thing…….
I sure you know more about the birth of Christian anti-semitism than I do personally I think more of the generally quite anti-Semitic tone of the gospel of John. It might be instructive for many of us to know what more exactly you are referencing in the Nativity accounts, to know what details you want to put into question.
The New Testament canon
Do you think that a pregnant woman about to give birth would travel by donkey all the way from Nazareth through the Jordan valley ascending the Judean mountains from Jerico to reach Bethlehem of Judea via Jerusalem? True that Bethlehem of Galilee is only 10 km from Jerusalem but even though it was in existence during the middle ages, it was not founded until as a moshav. Perhaps since it took awhile to get there, they started early. As to traveling by donkey, probably better than walking that distance.
John the Apostle - Wikipedia
It might be good to note these fictional stories were the foundation for 2, years of anti-semitism and killing of Jews,and are not just innocent ,creative lies. It is thought that the son of Adam, Seth, represented a divine mortal prior to the belief in the resurrected Jesus. They also inhabited the same country without dissensions, and in a happy condition, without any misfortunes falling upon them til they died.
They were also the inventors of that peculiar sort of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies, and their order. To the west of Abu Simbel is an ancient lake bed at Nabta Playa where in prehistoric times ca. This was a thriving culture that prior to B. Scenes depicting herds of cattle are contemporaneous with the culture at Nabta Playa and it is thought that the cow-goddess Hathor originates with these semi-nomads prior to the development of the Nilotic cultures. It is also debated where the Pharaoh tradition originated since we have evidence from a royal pre-dynastic cemetery at Qustul found on the carvings of an incense burner that people known as the A-Group possessed the same symbols white crown of Osiris, Horus-falcon-god, stylized palace facade as the later early dynastic Pharaohs.
The five descendants of Cush in Genesis could represent the five-fold title of the Pharaoah, and the fifth son, Sabteca, was the brother and successor of the Nubian King Shabaka, who reportedly discovered an ancient inscription and copied it. Known as the Shabaka Stone, this mythology of the Memphite god Ptah is a description of the ancient division of Egypt into spheres of influence between the gods Seth and Horus.
Ever since then, northern Egypt was represented as a papyrus plant and southern Egypt was represented by the water lily, or the Blue Lotus. If they had, then surely the history of northern Africa might be quite different.
If the pen is mightier than the sword, it is also far mightier than silence. This is not unlike the division of the camps of the twelve tribes in Numbers 2 aligned with the four cardinal points. How Are the Apocryphal Writings Different?