Austria, however, like most participants, was facing a severe financial crisis and had to decrease the size of its army, which greatly affected its offensive power. In a peace settlement was reached at the Treaty of Hubertusburg , in which Glatz was returned to Prussia in exchange for the Prussian evacuation of Saxony.
This ended the war in central Europe.
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The stalemate had really been reached by —, and Prussia and Austria were nearly out of money. The materials of both sides had been largely consumed. Frederick was no longer receiving subsidies from Britain; the Golden Cavalry of St. George had produced nearly 13 million dollars equivalent. He had melted and coined most of the church silver, had ransacked the palaces of his kingdom and coined that silver, and reduced his purchasing power by mixing it with copper.
His banks' capital was exhausted, and he had pawned nearly everything of value from his own estate. While Frederick still had a significant amount of money left from the prior British subsidies, he hoped to use it to restore his kingdom's prosperity in peacetime; in any case, Prussia's population was so depleted that he could not sustain another long campaign. She had pawned her jewels in ; in , she approved a public subscription for support and urged her public to bring their silver to the mint.
French subsidies were no longer provided. Great Britain planned a "descent" an amphibious demonstration or raid on Rochefort , a joint operation to overrun the town and burn shipping in the Charente. On 23 September the Isle d'Aix was taken, but military staff dithered and lost so much time that Rochefort became unassailable.
Despite the debatable strategic success and the operational failure of the descent on Rochefort, William Pitt—who saw purpose in this type of asymmetric enterprise—prepared to continue such operations. The naval squadron and transports for the expedition were commanded by Richard Howe. The army landed on 5 June at Cancalle Bay , proceeded to St. Malo , and, finding that it would take prolonged siege to capture it, instead attacked the nearby port of St. It burned shipping in the harbor, roughly 80 French privateers and merchantmen, as well as four warships which were under construction.
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An attack on Havre de Grace was called off, and the fleet sailed on to Cherbourg ; the weather being bad and provisions low, that too was abandoned, and the expedition returned having damaged French privateering and provided further strategic demonstration against the French coast. Pitt now prepared to send troops into Germany; and both Marlborough and Sackville, disgusted by what they perceived as the futility of the "descents", obtained commissions in that army.
The elderly General Bligh was appointed to command a new "descent", escorted by Howe. The campaign began propitiously with the Raid on Cherbourg. Covered by naval bombardment, the army drove off the French force detailed to oppose their landing, captured Cherbourg, and destroyed its fortifications, docks, and shipping. The troops were reembarked and moved to the Bay of St. Lunaire in Brittany where, on 3 September, they were landed to operate against St. Malo; however, this action proved impractical. Worsening weather forced the two armies to separate: the ships sailed for the safer anchorage of St.
Cast , while the army proceeded overland. The tardiness of Bligh in moving his forces allowed a French force of 10, from Brest to catch up with him and open fire on the reembarkation troops. At the battle of Saint Cast a rear-guard of 1, under Dury held off the French while the rest of the army embarked. They could not be saved; , including Dury, were killed and the rest captured. Over the course of the war, Great Britain gained enormous areas of land and influence at the expense of the French.
Great Britain lost Menorca in the Mediterranean to the French in but captured the French colonies in Senegal in The British Royal Navy took the French sugar colonies of Guadeloupe in and Martinique in as well as the Spanish cities of Havana in Cuba , and Manila in the Philippines, both prominent Spanish colonial cities. However, expansion into the hinterlands of both cities met with stiff resistance.
In the Philippines, the British were confined to Manila until their agreed upon withdrawal at the war's end. Native Americans of the Laurentian valley—the Algonquin , the Abenaki , the Huron , and others, were allied with the French. Although the Algonquin tribes living north of the Great Lakes and along the St.
The Iroquois had encroached on Algonquin territory and pushed the Algonquins west beyond Lake Michigan and to the shore of the St. The Iroquois , dominant in what is now Upstate New York. British Prime Minister William Pitt's focus on the colonies for the campaign paid off with the taking of Louisbourg after French reinforcements were blocked by British naval victory in the Battle of Cartagena and in the successful capture of Fort Duquesne  and Fort Frontenac.
John River valley , and the Petitcodiac River valley. The celebration of these successes was dampened by their embarrassing defeat in the Battle of Carillon Ticonderoga , in which 4, French troops repulsed 16, British. When the British led by generals James Abercrombie and George Howe attacked, they believed that the French led by general Marquis de Montcalm were defended only by a small abatis which could be taken easily given the British force's significant numerical advantage. The British offensive which was supposed to advance in tight columns and overwhelm the French defenders fell into confusion and scattered, leaving large spaces in their ranks.
When the French Chevalier de Levis sent 1, soldiers to reinforce Montcalm's struggling troops, the British were pinned down in the brush by intense French musket fire and they were forced to retreat. All of Britain's campaigns against New France succeeded in , part of what became known as an Annus Mirabilis.
Fort Niagara  and Fort Carillon  on 8 July fell to sizable British forces, cutting off French frontier forts further west. Lawrence River from Quebec, enabling them to commence the 3-month siege that ensued. The French under the Marquis de Montcalm anticipated a British assault to the east of Quebec so he ordered his soldiers to fortify the region of Beauport. On July 31 the British attacked with 4, soldiers but the French positioned high up on the cliffs overlooking the Montmorency Falls forced the British forces to withdraw to the Ile D'Orleans.
While Wolfe and Murray planned a second offensive, British rangers raided French settlements along the St. Lawrence, destroying food supplies, ammunition and other goods in an attempt to vanquish the French through starvation. He had positioned his army between Montcalm's forces an hour's march to the east and Bougainville 's regiments to the west, which could be mobilised within 3 hours.
Instead of waiting for a coordinated attack with Bougainville, Montcalm attacked immediately. When his 3, troops advanced, their lines became scattered in a disorderly formation. Many French soldiers fired before they were within range of striking the British. Wolfe organised his troops in two lines stretching 1 mile across the Plains of Abraham.
They were ordered to load their Brown Bess muskets with two bullets to obtain maximum power and hold their fire until the French soldiers came within 40 paces of the British ranks. When Montcalm's army was within range of the British, their volley was powerful and nearly all bullets hit their targets, devastating the French ranks. The French fled the Plains of Abraham in a state of utter confusion while they were pursued by members of the Scottish Fraser regiment and other British forces.
Despite being cut down by musket fire from the Canadiens and their indigenous allies, the British vastly outnumbered these opponents and won the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. The Marquis de Montcalm was also severely wounded later in the battle and died the following day.
The French Canadians led by the Chevalier de Levis staged a counteroffensive on the Plains of Abraham in the spring of , with initial success at the Battle of Sainte-Foy ,  but they were unable to retake Quebec, due to British naval superiority following the Battle of Neuville. The French forces retreated to Montreal , where on 8 September they surrendered to overwhelming British numerical superiority. Among its conditions was their unrestricted travel between Canada and New York, as the nations had extensive trade between Montreal and Albany as well as populations living throughout the area.
In , towards the end of the war, French forces attacked St. John's, Newfoundland. If successful, the expedition would have strengthened France's hand at the negotiating table. Although they took St. John's and raided nearby settlements, the French forces were eventually defeated by British troops at the Battle of Signal Hill. The victorious British now controlled all of eastern North America.
The history of the Seven Years' War in North America, particularly the expulsion of the Acadians, the siege of Quebec, the death of Wolfe, and the Battle of Fort William Henry generated a vast number of ballads, broadsides, images, and novels see Longfellow 's Evangeline , Benjamin West 's The Death of General Wolfe , James Fenimore Cooper 's The Last of the Mohicans , maps and other printed materials, which testify to how this event held the imagination of the British and North American public long after Wolfe's death in Under the Treaty of Paris , Spain had to return to Portugal the colony of Sacramento, while the vast and rich territory of the so-called "Continent of S.
Peter" the present day Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul would be retaken from the Spanish army during the undeclared Hispano-Portuguese war of — As consequence of the war the Valdivian Fort System , a Spanish defensive complex in southern Chile , was updated and reinforced from onwards. In India, the outbreak of the Seven Years' War in Europe renewed the long running conflict between the French and the British trading companies for influence on the subcontinent. The French allied themselves with the Mughal Empire to resist British expansion.
In the same year, the British also captured Chandernagar , the French settlement in Bengal. In the south, although the French captured Cuddalore , their siege of Madras failed, while the British commander Sir Eyre Coote decisively defeated the Comte de Lally at the Battle of Wandiwash in and overran the French territory of the Northern Circars.
In , at the urging of an American merchant, Thomas Cumming , Pitt dispatched an expedition to take the French settlement at Saint Louis. The British captured Senegal with ease in May and brought home large amounts of captured goods. The loss of these valuable colonies further weakened the French economy.
The Anglo-French hostilities were ended in by the Treaty of Paris , which involved a complex series of land exchanges, the most important being France's cession to Spain of Louisiana , and to Great Britain the rest of New France except for the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon. Faced with the choice of regaining either New France or its Caribbean island colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique , France chose the latter to retain these lucrative sources of sugar,  writing off New France as an unproductive, costly territory.
The exchanges suited the British as well, as their own Caribbean islands already supplied ample sugar, and, with the acquisition of New France and Florida, they now controlled all of North America east of the Mississippi. The treaty, however, required that the fortifications of these settlements be destroyed and never rebuilt, while only minimal garrisons could be maintained there, thus rendering them worthless as military bases.
Combined with the loss of France's ally in Bengal and the defection of Hyderabad to the British as a result of the war, this effectively brought French power in India to an end, making way for British hegemony and eventual control of the subcontinent. Only after an ambitious rebuilding program in combination with Spain was France again able to challenge Britain's command of the sea.
Bute's settlement with France was mild compared with what Pitt's would have been. He had hoped for a lasting peace with France, and he was afraid that if he took too much, the whole of Europe would unite in envious hostility against Great Britain. Choiseul, however, had no intention of making a permanent peace, and, when France went to war with Great Britain during the American Revolution, the British found no support among the European powers. Negotiations had started there on 31 December Frederick, who had considered ceding East Prussia to Russia if Peter III helped him secure Saxony, finally insisted on excluding Russia in fact, no longer a belligerent from the negotiations.
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At the same time, he refused to evacuate Saxony until its elector had renounced any claim to reparation. The Austrians wanted at least to retain Glatz, which they had in fact reconquered, but Frederick would not allow it. The treaty simply restored the status quo of , with Silesia and Glatz reverting to Frederick and Saxony to its own elector. The only concession that Prussia made to Austria was to consent to the election of Archduke Joseph as Holy Roman emperor. Saxony emerged from the war weakened and bankrupt; despite losing no territory, Saxony had essentially been a battleground between Prussia and Austria throughout the conflict, with many of its' towns and cities including the capital of Dresden damaged by bombardment and looting.
Austria was not able to retake Silesia or make any significant territorial gain. However, it did prevent Prussia from invading parts of Saxony. More significantly, its military performance proved far better than during the War of the Austrian Succession and seemed to vindicate Maria Theresa's administrative and military reforms. Hence, Austria's prestige was restored in great part and the empire secured its position as a major player in the European system. The survival of Prussia as a first-rate power and the enhanced prestige of its king and its army, however, was potentially damaging in the long run to Austria's influence in Germany.
Not only that, Austria now found herself estranged with the new developments within the empire itself. Bavaria's growing power and independence was also apparent as it asserted more control on the deployment of its army, and managed to disengage from the war at its own will. Most importantly, with the now belligerent Hanover united personally under George III of Great Britain , It amassed a considerable power, and even brought Britain in on future conflicts.
This power dynamic was important to the future and the latter conflicts of the Reich. The war also proved that Maria Theresa's reforms were still insufficient to compete with Prussia: unlike its enemy, the Austrians were almost bankrupt at the end of war. Hence, she dedicated the next two decades to the consolidation of her administration. Prussia emerged from the war as a great power whose importance could no longer be challenged. Frederick the Great's personal reputation was enormously enhanced, as his debt to fortune Russia's volte-face after Elizabeth's death and to British financial support were soon forgotten, while the memory of his energy and his military genius was strenuously kept alive.
Unfortunately for Prussia, its army had taken heavy losses particularly the officer corps , and in the war's aftermath, Frederick could not afford to rebuild the Prussian Army to what it was before the war. Russia, on the other hand, made one great invisible gain from the war: the elimination of French influence in Poland. The First Partition of Poland was to be a Russo-Prussian transaction, with Austria only reluctantly involved and with France simply ignored. The British government was close to bankruptcy, and Britain now faced the delicate task of pacifying its new French-Canadian subjects as well as the many American Indian tribes who had supported France.
In , Pontiac's War broke out as a group of Indian tribes in the Great Lakes region and the Northwest the modern American Midwest said to have been led by the Ottawa chief Pontiac whose role as the leader of the confederation seems to have been exaggerated by the British , unhappy with the eclipse of French power, rebelled against British rule.
The Indians had long established congenial and friendly relations with the French fur traders, and the Anglo-American fur traders who had replaced the French had engaged in business practices that enraged the Indians, who complained about being cheated when they sold their furs. The Quebec Act of , similarly intended to win over the loyalty of French Canadians, also spurred resentment among American colonists.
The war also brought to an end the "Old System" of alliances in Europe ,  In the years after the war, under the direction of Lord Sandwich , the British attempted to re-establish this system. But after her surprising grand success against a coalition of great powers, European states such as Austria, The Dutch Republic, Sweden, Denmark-Norway, Ottoman Empire, and Russia now saw Britain as a greater threat than France and did not join them, while the Prussians were angered by what they considered a British betrayal in Consequently, when the American War of Independence turned into a global war between —83, Britain found itself opposed by a strong coalition of European powers, and lacking any substantial ally.
It would require a greater philosopher and historian than I am to explain the causes of the famous Seven Years' War in which Europe was engaged; and, indeed, its origin has always appeared to me to be so complicated, and the books written about it so amazingly hard to understand, that I have seldom been much wiser at the end of a chapter than at the beginning, and so shall not trouble my reader with any personal disquisitions concerning the matter.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Global conflict between and This article is about the European midth-century war. For other wars of the same name, see Seven Years' War disambiguation. French losses. Austrian losses. Theatres of the Seven Years' War. Anglo-French wars. Further information: Diplomatic Revolution. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Great Britain, Prussia, Portugal, with allies. France, Spain, Austria, Russia, Sweden with allies. Main article: French and Indian War. Seven Years' War : European theatre. Seven Years' War : Invasion Campaign Seven Years' War : Fantastic War. Anglo-Spanish War — Admiral John Byng's account of the Battle of Minorca See also: Pomeranian War.
See also: Spanish invasion of Portugal Further information: Treaty of Hubertusburg and Treaty of Paris Further information: Raid on Rochefort. Lawrence and Mohawk theater. Lawrence Cape Sable St.
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John River Restigouche St. See also: Fantastic War and First Cevallos expedition. Third Carnatic War. Further information: Financial costs of the Seven Years' War. Treaty of Paris Retrieved 21 July In , Americans joyously celebrated the British victory in the Seven Years' War, revelling in their identity as Britons and jealously guarding their much-celebrated rights which they believed they possessed by virtue of membership in what they saw as the world's greatest empire.
War and British Society — London: William Heinemann, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. New York: HarperCollins. Aspects of European History, — London: Routledge. Abingdon: Routledge. Britain As A Military Power, — London: UCL Press. London: Penguin Books. Naval Strategy and Operations in Narrow Seas. London: Frank Cass. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. Nester Baskett and the Assigns of R. University of Nebraska Press, p. Guilmoto, p.
Also according to the historian Fernando Dores Costa, 30 Franco-Spaniards were lost mostly from hunger and desertion. Retrieved 31 January Venezuela-Colombia-Brazil, July , Vol. I, , p. History Modern India Third ed. Delhi, India : New Age International.
The Canadian Encyclopedia , retrieved 17 June Peter Anderson, Fred.
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Competition for Empire, — focus on diplomacy free to borrow Duffy, Christopher. University of Nebraska Press, Dull, Jonathan R. DOI: Keay, John. Harper Collins, Marston, Daniel. The Seven Years' War. Essential Histories. Osprey, McLynn, Frank. Jonathan Cape, Middleton, Richard. Mitford, Nancy Frederick the Great. Nester, William R. Redman, Herbert J. Frederick the Great and the Seven Years' War, — Robson, Martin. Rodger, N. Penguin Books, Schumann, Matt, and Karl W. Routledge, Smith, Digby George. Speelman, P. Danley, M. Syrett, David. The Seven Years' War in Europe — Ein Weltkrieg im Jahrhundert in German.
ISSN Marc de Villiers du Terrage Fiction [ edit ] Thackeray, William M. The Luck of Barry Lyndon. About this Product. This fascinating book is the first to truly review the grand strategies of the combatants and examine the differing styles of warfare used in the many campaigns. These ranged from the large-scale battles and sieges of the European front to the ambush and skirmish tactics used in the forests of North America. Daniel Marston's engaging narrative is supported by official war papers, personal diaries and memoirs, and official reports. Biographical Note. Daniel Marston was born and raised in Boston, Massachusetts.
He is currently living in England, where he is working towards completion of a D. You may also be interested in the following product s. More info. Military History. Subscribe to our newsletter.