The problem of whiteness and discrimination as an upwardly mobile aspect of white life in this country is to be under- force, persuasion, or a combination or Baldwin places extreme importance stood through this particular anecdote. His conversations with rationale upon escaping the fear are two American society can be seen as a plural Margaret Mead in A Rap On Race, sug- spheres of thought that function at the society made up of a dominant white gest that Baldwin understood the lack same level of rotation.
Baldwin stresses Timothy Stansbury Jr. This denial is a direct con- unequivocally rationalized it. Baldwin Works cited: nection to the element of fear, the notes that Black people attempting to Baldwin, James and Margaret Mead. A understanding that an entire people integrate such as the Black Arrow collar Rap on Race. London: Lippicott, Mead approaches this information fitted, really what they were taken to with a counterargument, particularly be or were hoping or pretending to be.
Black people, continues. Baldwin develops the understanding These questions that Baldwin and Mead of fear in one group as a result of fear rose some 44 years ago are still pressing within another. He explains that the us to attend to them today. Given the fear amongst the Black community that social climate in which racial tensions are yields the disownment of white ances- more than ever shaping the everyday of tors is a direct result of discrimination.
Elle pose aussi triste. La passage de certains oiseaux, comme le comme le jour et la nuit. Il devient le garant de la sans une fine pluie. Certains destructrice de la chair. La danse accompa- laakam-. En assourdissants. Courtesy Maelle Galerie. Most it and I still do. It he was hiding it, his work was not directly the relation between modern art and had always seemed to me that this was inspired by Mauss or Anthropology in Afro-Brazilian culture and art. In particu- a rather narrow approach. Art practi- general, perhaps only indirectly, through lar, in relation to religion, to Candomble.
In the last decade there I have to say that in the end I got more more than methods as techniques, they have been many, many criticisms of interested in Candomble as a form of art also have common conceptual concerns. Bourriaud, many of which are probably than in modern art, properly speaking.
The gift has always been a central book was clearly based on the gift.
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Art practice can very conventional, mainstream works of subjects and objects. At a personal level, be formulated explicitly as an exercise of contemporary art. Meeting you and but also of the esthetic experience, that What I discuss in the book is that a good other anthropologists in Bahia was like a is by definition, free and given.
But in a much more can ethnographic field work: a big part of is by understanding it precisely in the fun way! University of California, USA , une gift. Could you say personal, and spontaneous. Of course artworks are commodi- it has no particular technique or method uel. In this sense, I think that and playful. La relation aux objets comme des dispositifs discursifs. Et dans ces B. Par contre, il est vrai De fait pour la question du regard turale par exemple.
Ce qui est fondamental, chose artistique. Ils se veu- groupe auquel on appartient. Photo 5. Dans sa double deux termes. Certaines produc- souligne : comme la culture actuelle. Eyrolles, Paris. And yet, and the spring of African independ- the dialogue between the two areas is ences. While it seems ond-class citizen status in America at the nearly impossible a challenge or not?
In his recent series nial. By executing research in the ing differences, which could help us Other such accounts would later be collections of ethnographic museums understand the mechanisms behind the written during the Song, Zhao, Yuan, such as the Quai Branly in Paris, he raises mutual exhibition, reception and appre- Ming and Qing dynasties, the latter the question of the status attributed to ciation of works of art? Youyang South Africa. Beyond the references to thing that no longer functions, has gone and fairy tales. It becomes wabi sabi. There is a Japa- the expression of frailty and of resilience, which depict details of decrepit architec- nese technique that interestingly alludes tural buildings and to a similar approach to repair: Kintsugi.
The tsutsui-zutsu, life before the incident and life after. Notes 5. New York: Diasporic Africa Press, 1. Okihiko, Gary. Margins and Main- 6. Reinhardt, Thomas. Mirror, Art, and Culture. Berlin: Kunst-Werke, Caudill, William and De Vos, Georges. Bartlett, Christy. In their text, Caudill and Devos Lackkunst, Prusinsky, Lauren. Marra, Michele. A History of Modern tions, Peking University, Chinese Japanese Aesthetics.
Honolulu: University Retrieved See also Li Anshan. Cette M-O. Il de travail. Genious brain. Antje Van Wichelen Eggshell buccinum undatum and polyester. Picture after picture, as in the world at large. In the meantime, is an image of a group of people that somebody had been put in a frontal and Western powers were using excessive is constructed by a dominant group, a profile position, naked, often in front of violence in the colonies. Industrial and in the formation of which the people a white screen.
My first steps into this topic were about the portraying of men- public opinion of the desirability of this huge economic undertaking. The method was powerful groups in other regions discredited when scientists found of Belgium. On this last item, I Aboriginals and Africans with larger spent ten years leading an artis- brains.
The their actual stories. The unjust rise of photography was welcomed. Antje Van Wichelen. Researching at quai Branly on in Victorian times, mostly between pologiques : the exhibitions of humans in Europe, I and, a time during which Western stumbled upon the photographic series science was obsessed with classification that went with it, specifically the col- of nature, plants, organisms.
The images struck me as shameful, was to be seen in the 'family of man' — a embarrassing, and shocking from a con- scale of values from which women were temporary point of view, but even worse absent that put the white heterosexual 1 Bruxelles nous appartient — Brussels belongs to us: www. A stop-motion movie My first idea was that the images spoke so strongly for themselves that all I had to do would be to give them a mean- 90 ingful order and a good rhythm for So the first artist obtaining the images following one after the other, at a very will pay for all those that follow.
Or, turn- quick pace, and there would be a movie ing the thought around, this might open that would speak for itself. The horror of perspectives to imagine a collective it would, along with the fascination with fund, a shared artists' database. A second reason to question my first An artist's database? The photos are extremely unsettling. Not so, I was soon to discover. First of As they have hardly been shown and all, the images were not public property discussed, it was not easy for me to esti- as I thought they would or should be: mate how people from countries whose the archives possessing them are not people had been depicted in the images ready to let artists use them, at least not would react to them.
So I showed a for free. The images are in the public series of images I found to a few friends domain, as the photographers have of African descent. Their reactions were died more than 70 years ago. But the as if I had physically hurt them. Our archives ask fees between and 30 discussions reinforced my idea that an euros an image, or, in an exceptionally image can be very strong, and however benevolent case, 55 euros an hour, for well it is contextualized when shown, handling them: the work of carefully it has an ability to move us and to burn re-photographing the images for digitiz- itself into our memories as no words can.
Even if the cost has Apart from the fact that the images are been covered with public money, the hidden in archives behind financial barri- institutions see the fees as a chance to ers, might it be possible that they do not generate an income. These fees form a circulate for the reason that they are so strong barrier for an independent artist sensitive?
That there is, rightly or not, a like me, who needs to look for money collective reluctancy to show them? The financial speak, experiment and share about the barrier completely rules out artists who anthropological photo collections and have no access to financing structures; what to do with them. What about you? Any artist and art is absent.
One museum head of institution that feels concerned? Only collections expressed to me his fear those who have a history of involvement that, once he gave me the images, they with anti racist topics? Or only artists would be out there and his institution emerging from Southern countries and would never see a euro for them again. Glove Collection. Found gloves, tags, ruler I have written from my perspective, Example of the images discussed are photographique, Journal des anthro- which is white European, and female.
It to be found at e. URL : point. Quartet, , p. Een geschiedenis van shows. Her artistic media are Museum van Tervuren Acco, Leuven, , p. Routledge Inc, , p. The demands of the in that form, as its principal subjects Civil Rights movement were inching for- assumed new post-colonial identities. This essay its earlier focus on voting rights to a into account. Marcel Pinas, Afaka. Courtesy of the artist ART TALK At the same time, some of the about to undertake field work through- One consequence of this general intellectual energy that had been out the s Sturtevant One rather And while the emphasis in ethnographic ethnographic monograph and its claims complexly worked out technique for research had once been on abstracting to uncontestable truth.
As one Anthropologist, and constituted recom- tural creativity and selfaffirmation. City by rubbing noses. The early to mids were a artworks ever put on view. As a result of the from the city of New York can serve to on and on. Unpacking Culture, the fruit of a tentative, partial, ambivalent history as the pristine, apolitical study of of collaboration between art historian openness to the idea of including aesthetic forms. Ruth Phillips and anthropologist Christo- direct participation by members of the pher Steiner, elaborated on a point that cultures represented in exhibitions of In , in recognition of this trend, the I believe should have particularly impor- ethnographic art.
While mainstream Johns Hopkins University established an tant implications for museums, in that museums of the s had begun innovative Ph. Arguing that the idea of welcoming the discourses and anthropology and art history. As a construction, however, accepted as a legitimate field of art this binary pair has almost always been But by the s cracks began to appear historical interest, dialogue between unstable, for both classifications masked in the wall separating the representers what had, by the late eighteenth cen- and the represented.
The change was tury, become one of the most important first evident in temporary exhibitions: as features of objects: their operation as early as , for example, the American commodities circulating in the discursive Museum of Natural History took pains space of an emergent capitalist economy. But it has been moving States became a prominent part of what ing close behind.
Left-leaning activists, working their exhibition galleries and issues that such authors as Chaucer, Shakespeare, with little more than the strength of have impact on their overall function- Freud, and Beckett. On the political their convictions, fought back, putting ing see, for example, Arnoldi , front, conservative groups such as the together non-profit groups that pro- Krech Indeed, the Humanities. Picking up Concern about respecting the rights of increasing eagerness of many academ- on writing by Amitav Ghosh he evoked sovereign nations concerning cultural ics, critics, museum workers, and others the airport transit lounge or other property had been animating lively of a non-conservative bent to ques- spaces of transient cultural crossings debates about the very delicate issue tion, and then reject, elitist hierarchies, such as hotel lobbies, train stations, of repatriation for decades, resulting to reject the view of societies as static or hospitals as a replacement for the in several international agreements.
A Code of Ethics for next. Even standard vocabulary reflected ers and be upgraded to respectable Museums was adopted by the Interna- these trends, and the metaphor of travel, fields of study in both anthropology and tional Council of Museums ICOM in borderlands, and contact zones was art history.
And in 11 everywhere. I travel from city to city, and , explored every nook and In the United States, passage of the coast to coast, country to country, smug- cranny of the newly conceptualized field Native American Graves Protection and gling my work and the work and ideas as it concerned the museum world. What are at broadening radio programming to ists see Fox A tipping point our human and anthropological futures?
Some threats. Inevitably, and at for example university admissions, frequently for themselves. Individuals unforeseeable moments, these kinds of welfare programs, immigration laws, once anonymized into generic repre- leanings in national politics cast their and gay rights legislation to the three sentatives of their respective cultures shadow on the art world and museums, domains art, anthropology, museums are now being named. Global travel, thrusting a bundle of religious, legal, that have formed the focus of this essay. But cultural practices, their artistic traditions, debates concerning museum handling the developments in question have and more in their own way, without of cultural difference.
I conclude this roots quite separate from the halls of always passing through the intervention essay with very brief remarks on a few of academia in which these disciplines of Western interlocutors. In much of the the museums environments with which are molded and passed on to new U. Canada has been even more pro-active as spokespeople for distant cultures has None of which is to say that the glass than the United States in terms of been diluted. As a result, the museum is more than half full in terms of the giving voice to its native populations. Increasing numbers of exhibits are the position of women, health, cultural difference.
And it has ment support to a network of Pontos de rent repatriation debates. The catalogues for They also point to ongoing exchanges discrimination. She is the author Clifford, James. Times Literary Supplement, its permanent exhibitions, incorporating tions, about a French art forger Friday, May 03, pp. For details, see her traditional notions of authenticity, site: www. Routes: Travel and Harcourt. Krech, Shepard III. Museum Pieces: Towards 18 3 Phillips, Ruth B. Berkeley Future of the Ethnographic Museum.
We therefore ask you…to join our call for the immediate establishment of protected premises locked apartments or houses for women and children who are travelling alone…. In addition bedrooms, lounges, kitchens and sanitary facilities must be interconnected so that they form a self-contained unit — and thus can only be reached via lockable and monitored access to the house or the apartment. The problem of rapes and sexual assaults in German refugee shelters is a nationwide problem.
Although the facility has separate dorm rooms for women, the doors cannot be locked and men control access to the sanitary facilities. Police insist they have no proof that the rapes are taking place, although a police raid on the facility found that guards hired to provide security at the site were trafficking drugs and weapons and were turning a blind eye to the prostitution.
On August 26, a year-old asylum seeker attempted to rape a year-old woman in the laundry room of a refugee facility in Stralsund , a city near the Baltic Sea. On August 6, police revealed that a year-old Muslim girl was raped by another asylum seeker at a refugee facility in Detmold , a city in west-central Germany.
The girl and her mother reportedly fled their homeland to escape a culture of sexual violence; as it turns out, the man who raped the girl is from their country. Although the rape took place in June, police kept silent about it for nearly three months, until local media published a story about the crime. According to an editorial comment in the newspaper Westfalen-Blatt , police are refusing to go public about crimes involving refugees and migrants because they do not want to give legitimacy to critics of mass migration.
Police chief Bernd Flake countered that the silence was aimed at protecting the victim. Over the weekend of June , a year-old girl housed at a refugee shelter in Habenhausen , a district in the northern city of Bremen, was repeatedly raped by two other asylum seekers. A total of asylum seekers are staying at the shelter, which has a capacity for and a cafeteria with seating for Meanwhile, the raping of German women by asylum seekers is becoming commonplace.
Following are a few select cases just from The attack occurred while the girl was walking home from the train station. On August 13, police arrested two Iraqi asylum seekers, aged 23 and 19, for raping an year-old German woman behind a schoolyard in Hamm , a city in North Rhine-Westphalia. On July 26, a year-old boy was sexually assaulted inside the bathroom of a regional train in Heilbronn , a city in southwestern Germany. Police kept the crime secret until August 14, when a local paper went public with the story.
On June 9, two Somali asylum seekers, aged 20 and 18, were sentenced to seven-and-a-half years in prison for raping a year-old German woman in Bad Kreuznach , a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, on December 13, Ali had previously served a seven-year sentence for rape, and had been out of prison for only five months before he attacked again. On May 22, a year-old Moroccan man was sentenced to four years and nine months in prison for attempting to rape a year-old woman in Dresden.
On May 20, a year-old Senegalese asylum seeker was arrested after he attempted to rape a year-old German woman at the Stachus, a large square in central Munich. On April 16, a year-old asylum seeker from Iraq was sentenced to three years and ten months in prison for raping a year-old girl at festival in the Bavarian town of Straubing in August On April 7, a year-old asylum seeker was arrested for the attempted rape of a year-old girl in the town of Alzenau. On February 11, a year-old asylum seeker from Eritrea was sentenced to four years in prison for raping a year-old German woman in Stralsund , along the Baltic Sea, in October On February 1, a year-old asylum seeker from Somalia was arrested after attempting to rape women in the Bavarian town of Reisbach.
On January 16, a year-old Moroccan immigrant raped a year-old woman in Dresden. Following is a partial list just for August Police say a similar incident occurred in the same area on August Meanwhile, parents are being warned to look after their daughters. Police in the Bavarian town of Mering , where a year-old-girl was raped on September 11, have issued a warning to parents not to allow their children to go outside unaccompanied. They have also advised women not to walk to or from the train station alone because of its proximity to a refugee shelter.
The letter said:. The refugees have their own culture. Because our school is directly next to where they are staying, modest clothing should be worn in order to avoid disagreements. Revealing tops or blouses, short shorts or miniskirts could lead to misunderstandings. A local politician quoted by Die Welt newspaper said :. These boys, who come from a culture where for women it is frowned upon to show naked skin, will follow girls and bother them without their realizing it. Naturally, this generates fear. A record , asylum seekers arrived in Germany in August, bringing the cumulative total for the first eight months of to , Germany expects to receive a total of , refugees and migrants this year, a four-fold increase over The asylum seekers are also overwhelmingly male.
Information about the gender of those arriving by land remains unavailable. Of the asylum seekers arriving in Germany in , Data for is not yet available. Iran, le nouvel eldorado? Une erreur? Une relation qui, je le rappelle, est bien ancienne. These powers should think again because putting the U. Charter, and it is manifestly not in their interests. The U. The right to recognize statehood is a fundamental attribute of sovereignty and the United Nations is not a sovereign.
Resolution outlined a detailed and rigorous process whereby the British Mandate in Palestine was to end and two new states, one Jewish and one Arab, were to be established. It recommended that process to Great Britain as the mandate-holder and to other U. It did not create or recognize these states, nor were the proposed states granted automatic admission to the United Nations.
In the event, the Arab countries rejected partition and Israel declared and successfully defended its independence. The Palestinian Authority, by contrast, does not meet the basic characteristics of a state necessary for such recognition. These requirements have been refined through centuries of custom and practice, and were authoritatively articulated in the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States. As that treaty provides, to be a state an entity must have 1 a permanent population, 2 a defined territory, 3 a government, and 4 the capacity to enter into relations with other states.
As of today, the PA has neither a permanent population nor defined territory both being the subject of ongoing if currently desultory negotiations , nor does it have a government with the capacity to enter into relations with other states. The PA does not control any part of the West Bank to the exclusion of Israeli authority, and it exercises no control at all in the Gaza Strip.
The PA does not, therefore, qualify for recognition as a state and, concomitantly, it does not qualify for U. What is unfortunate is that the Obama administration has failed to present the case against a Palestinian statehood resolution in legal rather than tactical terms, even though these arguments are obvious and would greatly reinforce the U. The stakes in this battle are high. To the extent that state supporters of that measure may themselves have irredentist populations or active border disputes with their neighbors—as do Russia, China, Britain and Turkey—they will certainly store up future trouble for themselves.
Traditionally, states rarely recognize even if they may materially support independence movements in other states. This is because granting such recognition may have very serious consequences, up to and including war. Support for U. This is, in fact, a rare instance in which a measure is bad policy, bad law, and has the real potential to damage the interests of its opponents and its supporters. Rivkin and Casey are Washington, D. Bush administrations. Rivkin is also a senior adviser to the Foundation for Defense of Democracies. When is America going to get serious about the problem of white kids getting suspended from school for nothing?
Police put him in handcuffs and, even after the confusion passed, the boy was suspended from school. That earned Mohamed a planned trip to the White House, a message of support from Hillary Clinton, an offer to stop by Facebook to meet Mark Zuckerberg and an invitation to be an intern at Twitter. The police overreacted. Josh Welch, a white Maryland kid with ADHD who was 7 years old when he was kicked out of school for chewing a Pop-Tart into the shape of a pistol and pretending to shoot other students with it, must be puzzled.
They were repeatedly refused. Alex Stone, a year-old white kid from Summerville, SC, wrote a short story in which he imagined using a gun to kill a dinosaur. In Dyer County, Tenn. Turner is still waiting for her call from President Obama. Are white kids being punished en masse for dopey quasi-infractions because of their race? Of course not. It happens to white kids all.
Ahmed is too useful to their narrative to be a one-day story. This year the brother of a sitting president made derogatory comments about the leader of the free world and the reaction from the media was crickets. Malik Obama gets the courtesy of being ignored because he has also said some crazy things. Now imagine Bristol Palin making loony statements. Would the media decline to cover them? The left-led push to turn a man who was, as of , an obscure state senator with no particular accomplishments, into the president four years later, was centrally and crucially about race.
Everyone else was being subjected to a bait-and-switch. Or, comme en Islam, Mahomet est le dernier messager du Ciel, toutes les nations doivent embrasser son message. Mais ce ne sont que des ombres secondaires. On raillait mes analyses sur le dhimmi et sur le sionisme. Quels sont les effets psychologiques de la dhimmitude sur les juifs? Seule cette protection, mais non le droit, permettait leur existence. Perrin, ISBN : Verdier, Maariv Tel-Aviv, ISBN Juifs des pays arabes.
Edition Raphael, Plon, ISBN X. Jean-Cyrille Godefroy, Stones: the ideal weapon of terror Karni Eldad. He showed no hesitation in coming out of his car and shooting one of the terrorists dead. The IDF backed him up, as did many Knesset members and government ministers. Rocks kill. This was the case when the toddler Adele Biton was traveling with her mother and sisters near the city of Ariel in Samaria in March When a barrage of rocks hit the vehicle, it swerved and collided with a truck.
All three girls in the car were hurt in the collision but Adele sustained critical injuries and died two years later. This was also the case when Asher and Yonatan Palmer were murdered in September when a stone was hurled at their car from a passing vehicle. The military tribunal convicted Waal al-Araja, a member of the Palestinian security forces, of their murder.
Those who usually suffer, bodily or mentally, are the Judea and Samaria settlers making their way along the routes that are regularly terrorized by the Arab stone-throwers. Some of them carry guns, just like the Binyamin Brigadier. Why, then, do they not use it in the manner he did? When we, the citizens of Israel, are clobbered with stones, the army, police and the judicial system expect us to not respond. The message conveyed to us is that they prefer us to be right and dead. I have two options: shoot in the air or, should this prove ineffective, at the assailants; I could also pray and drive carefully trying not to run over any of them.
If I hit someone by car or bullet I go on trial and go to jail. My gun is taken away from me, as are my family, work and freedom. Cause I tried to defend my life from someone who wanted me dead. This injustice screams to high heaven. We are afraid to protect our lives. Or if the Arabs will put up a roadblock in order to lynch the Jews driving through. Every time I hear the rocks hit the car I lower my head and think, through tears of sheer terror, what is the course of action that would result in the least amount of suffering?
Justice Minister Ayelet Shaked submitted an amendment to the law against stone-throwers. The new bill states that to convict the Arabs there is no burden of proof that they intended to cause bodily harm. I want the prime minister and the defense minister to state loud and clear that if anyone throws rocks at me, I must respond. And they should back me up in court. Karni Eldad is a musician, married, and a mother of two, a resident of Tekoa West Bank. Mudar Zahran Gatestone institute. Spanish In a recent visit to Jerusalem, where I visited and prayed at Al-Aqsa, it occurred to me that perhaps we, the Arabs and Muslims, are the ones causing harm to Al-Aqsa, and not, as we claim, the Jews.
They [the officials] put them up to claim maintenance work is being done in order to beg donors for money. These scaffoldings have been here for years with nothing done…. The sheikh here just takes photos of them to show to donors. We have no idea where that money goes…The poor and the needy never see any of it. Instead, Israel transferred control of the mosque to the Jerusalem Islamic Waqf [trust], an independent religious body to oversee the Islamic holy sites there. In addition, the Israeli security forces conduct a strict policy of refusing to allow non-Muslims — including Israeli Jews — into Al-Aqsa except for tourism purposes and only at certain hours of the day.
Upon entering the silver-domed mosque, one can quickly notice how neglected the mosque is, and badly in need of maintenance, with dirty walls, dust-covered ceilings and worn-out chairs, including the one on which the Imam sits. Fire equipment, tossed randomly in a heap in a corner, looks as if it has not been touched in a long time. When they were asked about the shocking condition of the mosque, its staff members, although audio-recorded, spoke on the condition of anonymity:.
These scaffoldings have been there for years with nothing done… The sheikh here just takes photos of them to show to donors. He points to two large donations boxes at the center of the mosque. We have no clue where that money goes…The poor and the needy never get any of it. At the center of Al-Aqsa, two glass cupboards exhibit tear gas shells used by the Israeli police during riots of the first Palestinian Intifada, which began in The custodians of the washrooms did not allow photos taken of the graffiti.
We are the ones who have destroyed Al-Aqsa… I have worked with the Jordanians, with the Jews, and the Palestinians, I have seen them all, and I know what is really happening. The money comes from Jordan not to the poor people, but just to be handed to those running it. They are all thieves. Al-Aqsa is like a plate of food that all dogs are attacking for a bite…. All of those inside the Waqf are thieves…. They all blame each other while actually they are working together. You should see the trash that mounts up here during Ramadan [when people come to visit]; the officials are not committed to their responsibility at all.
All the donations and aid money paid for Al-Aqsa by Arab states do not filter here; we do not see any of it here. Jordan provides the money for salaries here, but it provides zero accountability for the staff handling the money. Would those Jews do that to us if Al-Aqsa were under their management?
When asked how the Jews were responsible for the dirty walls, the worn out furniture, and the neglected facilities, he did not answer. I was told no one was there. As a practicing Muslim, I was sad to hear that those managing Al-Aqsa were more concerned with donations and their personal welfare rather than with the mosque itself. Which prompts the question: Is Al-Aqsa is an Islamically sacred site, or is it a tool to collect donations by trying to elicit global Islamic sympathy — just a goose that lays golden eggs for its managers?
Israel, Christianity, and Islam. Wars of liberation in the 19th Century restored Christian sovereignty to lands in Eastern Europe that had been under Muslim dominion for centuries, leading millions of Muslim to flee to Anatolia, Syria and Palestine. And in Israel emerged in the same way, re-establishing Jewish law and culture in a land where the last sovereign was the Ottoman Empire, replaced after World War I by the British Mandate.
The article explores the implications of this situation for the Israel-Palestinian Arab conflict. Unlike most wars, solving the conflict in the Middle East does not only depend on the cession of land, since Israel is also the focus of age-old religions hatreds. The bigotries involved are so appalling that one avoids mentioning them, yet they still underlie the struggle. From its beginnings, the Arab-Israeli conflict involved not only the region of the Middle East but also Europe and the Church.
It was hardly on account of its wealth and territorial extent that the Holy Land became a land of hostilities, but rather because it was the place where theological extremisms confronted one another. Only there, in their ancient homeland, could the Jewish people be freed from the curse with which Christianity had afflicted them. This malediction, which had been transmitted through Christian channels to Islam, was henceforth combined within the context of jihad and associated Jews and Christians in the same condemnation.
Thus, the principle of a divine curse against the Jews as a people, first conceived by the early Church Fathers in patristic writings was later adopted and reinterpreted through Islamic dogma against both Jews and Christians. Despite the Islamic persecutions of Christians, judeophobia — common to both Christianity and Islam — has sealed the tight alliance between the Church and Islam in favor of the Palestinian cause.
Thus, in the Land of Israel, the Jewish people have been confronted not only by prejudices arising from Christian doctrine but also by those arising from Islamic doctrine. The suppression of these Muslim prejudices against Jews that are generated by jihad doctrine would also imply the abolition of these same Muslim prejudices against Christians.
Peace in the Middle East means equality among religions. Therefore, their historical zones of confrontation and interaction should be examined in order to understand their modern expressions. Characteristics of the Conflict The Israeli-Arab conflict is only one regional, limited aspect of the traditional, worldwide struggle engendered by the ideology of jihad. For over a millennium, Muslims had conquered and held lands populated by Christians and Jews on three continents: Africa, Asia, and Europe.
The system of dhimmitude includes the notion of tolerance, but this latter term cannot express all the interactions of political, religious, and juridical factors that, over the centuries, shaped the civilization of dhimmitude. In this context, the Jews formed a small minority among the non-Muslim populations, all to be targeted by the jihad ideology. Islamic law confers an identical status on Jews and Christians as the People of the Book the Bible , while Zoroastrians and others, considered pagans, were relegated to a far worse situation and subjected to more severe oppression.
In the Islamic-Christian context, the jihad-wars of Islamization, unleashed from the seventh century and sustained for over a millennium, have again in the last decades ignited jihad fires in Lebanon, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Armenia, Sudan, Nigeria, Kashmir, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The Israeli-Arab conflict is only a recent and small component of the age-old geographic struggle that emerged from this jihad ideology. From the Islamic point of view, the position of the Jews, as with the Christians, comprises two aspects: as Jews, and as Israelis.
The first concerns their legal situation as a tolerated, dhimmi religious minority in an Islamic country. The second is rooted in the complex issues involved in a dhimmi people liberating its country from the laws of jihad a system that imposes dhimmitude. This process of liberation was manifested in all the Christian countries, where — from Portugal to the Caucasus — the laws of dhimmitude imposed by invading jihad armies on indigenous non-Muslim populations were progressively abolished.
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It is this common ground that imparts to these east European states, and to Israel certain similar factors that are superimposed over different characteristics. In fact, these similarities do not result from any European backing of Israel, but rather these links emerge from the Islamic doctrine that binds together Jews and Christians.
Without going into historical detail, one may recall that those European Christian lands Islamized by jihad were liberated only after centuries of bloody struggle. The process of de-Islamization began in the Middle Ages, first in Spain, Portugal, and the Mediterranean Islands; it then continued in the 18th century and throughout the whole of the 19th century in the Balkans. In Central Europe, Islamized territories had reached up to southern Poland and Hungary; in the 19th century they still encompassed Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and the semi-autonomous Romanian principalities.
These wars of national liberation continued up to World War I; the recent bloody, unfinished conflicts in the Balkans are a reminder. Like the Israelis, those peoples also were threatened with annihilation by a jihad-war that challenged their right to separate from the dar al-Islam. As with Palestine, the Balkan territories conquered by jihad constituted a waqf in Islamic law — also called a fay land, the booty granted by Allah to the Islamic community collectively — to be managed by the caliph.
Moreover, the waqf principle is not limited to territories conquered by jihad. There lies the origin, the justification and the ideological driving force behind the jihad-wars of conquest. It is incorrect to assert that this injunction to achieve world conquest is a modern extremist interpretation by Islamist fanatics, as some contemporary political commentators assert.
This interpretation has in fact constituted the basis of jihad since its principles were first elaborated by Muslim jurists and theologians in the 8th and 9th centuries. In this context, the principle of waqf land applied to Israel constitutes a tiny part of a universal, geopolitical concept.
The 19th century wars of liberation restored national territorial sovereignty to east European peoples, in the same way as the Jewish people recovered a part of their Land of Israel Palestine in This process allowed the free development of their culture and their legal system. The rebirth of those Christian states led to the dramatic flight to Anatolia, Syria, and Palestine of millions of Muslims, whose laws had subjected the indigenous non-Muslims to the dehumanizing system of dhimmitude.
It would destabilize the descendants of those peoples who had suffered over the centuries under the yoke of dhimmitude. The wars that abolished the system of dhimmitude suppressed an injustice, which any return to the previous situation would reimpose. It should be stressed that dhimmitude implies the expropriation of indigenous people, who are relegated to dhimmi status after their land has become a Muslim waqf for the sole benefit of the Muslim community umma. Jews and Christians are only tolerated as dhimmis, provided they submit to restrictive rules that include prohibition on land ownership in their own country.
The abolition of those laws enabled these populations to restore their national independence and their rights. The clash here is between the liberation of dhimmi people against their subjugation and death in the grip of dhimmitude. In other respects, even though the condition of the Jews and Christians as dhimmis is identical from the Islamic point of view, there are important differences on the theological and the political level. Theology: On the doctrinal plane, there is convergence and fusion between the Christian doctrine that alleges a divine condemnation of the Jews to exile and degradation and the Muslim doctrine that retains the divine condemnation of the Jews to humiliation but applies it also to the Christians.
For Jews, the Islamic position represented an improvement compared to Christian theology, which isolated them from the rest of humanity in a unique, demonized category. For the Christians, to be placed on the same level as the people who aroused their hate-filled contempt was severely felt by them as a further deliberate humiliation imposed on them by Islam. This resentful attitude on the part of the Christians was one factor contributing for so long to the obfuscation of the history of dhimmitude, which was the common juridical and theological condition for both Jews and Christians.
Christianity developed from Judaism. The breach of this close symbiosis was accompanied by a hostile rejection of the mother-religion. It is important to stress that the conflict between the early Byzantine church and Palestinian Jewry was fought most intensely in the Holy Land itself — where Judaism had been central since the second millennium BCE. It was in 5th-century North Africa that St. Augustine d. The responsibility for upholding this dogma fell upon the Church in the Holy Land. It was this church that supervised the exclusion of Jews from Jerusalem, their humiliation, and the implementation of their persecution.
Only a few years before the Arab conquest, after the brief Persian occupation and at the instigation of the Patriarch Sophronius, the Emperor Heraclius decreed the first massacre of Jews in the Byzantine Empire. It was this same patriarch who later implored the Muslim conquerors to retain one basic principle of Christian dogma: the de-Judaization of Jerusalem. Thus, it was through local Christian channels that this policy was transmitted to Islam.
Conscious of being the guardians of this doctrine, the churches in the Holy Land heaped humiliation and suffering on Palestinian Jewry and upon the few allowed back in Jerusalem by the Muslim authority. In this Christian theological context, the Zionist movement and the Balfour Declaration of fed the frenetic antisemitism that provided a fertile ground in Christian Europe for the Shoah.
The Christian doctrine that condemned the Jews to wandering and to degradation was maintained unchanged until Vatican II Revision of the doctrine aroused passionate opposition, particularly within the Eastern Arab dhimmi Churches, mouthpieces of their patrons, the Arab League states. Despite the efforts of religious and lay Christians who felt close to Jews and Judaism, the results of Vatican II were rather ambiguous and marked the success of the antisemitic majority in the Catholic church.
They maintained a policy of delegitimizing and demonizing the State of Israel, and supported its replacement by a State of Palestine. Besides, the condemnation of antisemitism was not accompanied by a total rehabilitation of the Jews. This ambiguity allowed Christians to pity the misfortunes of the Jews, allegedly brought about by their own malevolent natures. The transfer of the malevolent nature of the Jews to the State of Israel was steadily sustained by a tireless activism from the Palestinian church leaders allied to the PLO.
This whole process of demonizing the State of Israel was conceived of, elaborated upon, and transmitted to Europe by these Palestinian dhimmi Arab churches. The liberation of Jerusalem in exacerbated that tendency; ever since, the European populations have been flooded in the media by anti-Israeli indoctrination. This step left the unpleasant impression that the belated establishment of diplomatic relations with Israel needed to be balanced by recognition of the PNA.
This situation resulted from the weight of the antisemitic and pro-Islamic tendencies representing a sizeable sector of the Church. Those same currents had succeeded in imposing on Vatican II in a perfectly symmetrical position on the part of the Church in regard to both Jews and Muslims. The Christian dogma of supersession concerns the Jews — but not Muslims.
Conversely, Islam applied this dogma to Judaism and Christianity, both of which religions, according to Islamic doctrine, were preceded and completed by Islam. The absence of such reasoning in Judaism concerning Christianity creates a false symmetry between Judaism and Islam. Moreover, from its beginning, Islamic jurisprudence established and perfected a mandatory Christian status based on theology.
Hence, there is an absolute absence of symmetry in the theological, juridical, political, and historical domains between Islam and Judaism in relation to the Christians. The Christian refusal to acknowledge the radical asymmetry between Judeo-Christian and Muslim-Christian relations creates confusion on the path to reconciliation. Despite many high-quality works by Christian theologians and thinkers — and their tireless efforts supporting a Judeo-Christian rapprochement— anti-Judaism and anti-Zionism still remain dominant forces throughout Europe.
Thus, not only has the Shoah been taken over for the benefit of those who otherwise deny it and want to pursue a policy for Israel demise, but the unjustified exaggeration of Christian guilt toward Islam — based on a false connection to the Jewish tragedy in Europe — reinforces antisemitism. Political Aspects: Generally speaking, since the s, the policy of various European governments toward Israel has been manifested by hostility. This policy has combined the economic and political interests of these states with their rivalries to obtain markets in the Arab world, especially for sales of military weapons.
In this context, Israel is treated like those Christian peoples whose claims hindered the interests of the major European powers in the 19th century. State interests took precedence over any solidarity regarding humanitarian principles. In the 19th century only public opinion obliged the powers to intervene belatedly to curtail the massacres of Christians during the course of the many rebellious struggles in the Balkans. Later in the century, the Armenians were abandoned, since no European power, even Russia, had an interest in destabilizing Turkey.
Half a century later, the destruction of the Christian political structures in Lebanon by the Muslim-Palestinian alliance left Europe and America generally indifferent. This Christian tragedy earned no more than shameful silence from most European intellectuals and in the media — particularly from all those who showed compassion for the Arab Palestinians, day after day, for decades.
This observation applies equally to the victims in East Timor and the Moluccas as well as to the Sudanese African Christians and animists, who for years have undergone a jihad-war and enslavement by northern Arab Muslims without much protest from the European Union. This silence was all the more striking in that it contrasted with the massive media campaign on behalf of the Muslims in Bosnia, in Kosovo, and later in Chechnya. Today, the genocide of Christians in Indonesia is hardly mentioned in the press.
Furthermore, the various forms of discrimination suffered more and more by Christians in Muslim countries have rarely aroused a media campaign or consistent interest from major humanitarian organizations. Hence, in its relations with the Muslim world, the West applies a similar policy to Christians and Jews alike. One should also stress — and it is of major importance — the totally different policy of the Turks from that of the Arabs toward former dhimmi populations. The Ottomans in the 19th century and Turkey in the 20th century received and settled millions of Muslim refugees, and both made peace with their former subjugated peoples.
The Short-Term Policy of Economic Interests European democracies are governed by parties whose representatives dispose of little time to apply their policies, which are based mainly on economic and social improvement. As a rule, the aims of democracies are short term issues. This situation does not exist in Third World dictatorships — like Syria, Iraq, and Libya, for example — whose dictators-for-life plan long-term ideological policies. Experts usually claim that economic development is an essential factor toward achieving peace and the suppression of hatred and prejudice.
This claim is belied by the situation in Saudi Arabia, one of the richest countries in the world, where the prejudices toward women and non-Muslims have barely changed over the centuries. Moreover, such generalizations neglect significant civilizational differences, whereby some societies bestow prestige on a religious-inspired warlike strategy of world conquest over any current economic considerations.
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In the jihad-civilization, peace is only an interval between a continuation of hostilities. It implies the fusion of North-South populations and the intensification of European economic interests in the Arab and Muslim world. Another Syrian familiar with the incident said that the fixer had refused an offer from an Ahrar al-Sham commander to provide escorts. But another Syrian activist said that Mr.
Yasuda, the Japanese journalist, had been seized by the Nusra Front in Idlib Province, and that he was later seen in the Nusra-controlled Christian village Yaqoubiyyeh. Abu Omar al-Shimali, an antigovernment activist reached in Aleppo Province, said he was trying to check on the missing Spaniards. Every foreign reporter entering Syria is being kidnapped. This is the 3rd killing of journalists in Iraq this year following the killing of Iraqi photographer Adnan Abdul Razzaq, allegedly murdered by the Islamic State IS in Mosul, and reporter Ali Ansari, fatally hit while covering the fight between the Iraqi army and the IS in Mykdadyah, north of Baghdad.
The militant group Islamic State may be trying to push Syria back into the dark ages, but it is fighting a very modern war. From slick propaganda videos to online surveillance and wide restrictions on Internet use, the Islamic State is trying to control media output and stamp down on dissent. What happens next is brutal; the men are strung up on trees and shot, stressed the CPJ reporting from Beirut.
In what appears to be a forced confession, the victims identify themselves as Faisal Hussain al-Habib and Bashir Abduladhim al-Saado. The outlet's first-hand stories and images have provided one of the only alternative narratives to the militant group's vision of its "state," shining a light on to the public lashings, beheadings, and draconian social rules. Without its coverage, these crimes would go unreported in a country that, CPJ research shows, has become one of the most dangerous places to be a journalist. RBSS has broken a number of stories, helping establish its credibility among Syria watchers globally.
In an indication of the value Islamic State puts on RBSS hostages, great effort has clearly been taken to produce last week's video. It overlays the victims' interrogation with reconstructions of their apparent crimes. Although the video of the murders fits within an established Islamic State narrative the now infamous orange jumpsuits a particularly haunting image , many aspects of the victims' story are unknown.
The footage, which has since been removed from YouTube, has not yet been independently verified by international observers and RBSS denied that al-Saado and al-Habib worked for the group. None of us recognize their faces. Their Twitter and personal email accounts have been hacked. But the journalists inside Raqqa face the greatest risk. If a suspect is caught in the street, they will be killed in front of everyone," Abu Mohammed said, referring to threats the group has received.
It is not just the threat of violence that media activists must contend with. More subtle means have also been used to discredit them. Khaled, who asked that we not use his full name to protect his identity, said his group, which has a few activists in Raqqa but is not established like RBSS, will not stop reporting because of the allegations but "they do make it harder for people to trust us. This increase is related to the intense fighting in Middle East. Near 30 journalists were murdered in criminal acts outside war zones especially in Latin America, Philippines and India. The Middle East and North Africa are the deadliest regions for media work with 23 journalists killed.
The developments for media in Libya and Yemen are new this year as compared to last year, while less and less journalists are taking risk to cover Syria, extremely dangerous, and which became a prohibited area. Latin America follows the Middle East with 17 journalists killed in seven countries. Three countries of Central America are most affected by the violence against the media: Mexico witnessed the killing of 4 journalists, Honduras 3 and Guatemala 3.
Criminal acts targeted journalists in Brazil 3 killed , Colombia 2, Paraguay 1. In the Dominican Republic another journalist was killed. Europe comes in third place with 13 killed. Never before has Europe lost so many journalists since the war in ex-Yugoslavia during the 90s. Africa is in fourth place with 9 journalists killed mainly due to the war in South Sudan where 6 journalists were killed, 5 of them ambushed to death together, an unprecedented development.
Asia follows with nine killed due to the continued violence in the Philippines 3, India 2, Pakistan 2, Afghanistan 1 with an isolated case in Indonesia. During the summer of , Tyler Hicks, a photojournalist for The New York Times, was sitting in his hotel room in Gaza when he heard an explosion.
Украина заняла 7 место в мире по количеству убитых за полгода журналистов
He looked out the window and saw the boys. He grabbed his helmet, flak jacket, and cameras, and ran toward the beach. Not knowing whether the Israeli gunner would strike again, he strode into the sand and captured the scene: four young boys, cousins, had been killed by Israeli shelling. Other journalists followed and were eyewitnesses to the killing of the four children. On June 12, an Israeli military tribunal has closed the case involving the killing. The Military Advocate General found that the attack in question was in line with Israeli domestic law and international law requirements.
The Military Advocate General ordered that the investigation file be closed without any further legal proceedings — criminal or disciplinary — to be taken against those involved in the incident. The PEC expresses its deep disappointment. Independent journalists were direct witnesses. In all conflicts, there are collateral damages. It is inevitable. But there is no excuse. The responsible for violating IHL and human rights must be prosecuted in any conflict, in any country. Media workers paid a heavy toll in the conflict. Gaza was last year the second deadliest spot after Syria for journalists.
More than a dozen journalists were killed. The PEC urges both sides to carry out swift, credible and independent investigations. Thank you for your attention 29 June PEC urges the members of the Human Rights Council to intervene by pressing for all parties to the conflict in Yemen to refrain from any attack on media organizations and to preserve independent reporting on the current crisis not only in the country but also outside, especially in neighboring countries Arabic below.
No agreement has been reached so far. The PEC is concerned that the space for free journalism is decreasing because of tensions in the whole region. Last week in Geneva we were witnesses of unacceptable pressures to silence speakers at a press conference. In addition, at least 12 journalists are currently being held hostage and their lives are feared to be in danger, according to our sources. These attacks and threats have dire consequences for the security of journalists.
Thank you for your attention, 24 June PEC hopes that impunity will not prevail and that a tribunal will in the near future judge all those responsible for crimes and atrocities committed. Syria has been the most deadly country for journalists for three consecutive years. Many have been abducted and are still missing. We pay tribute to the American journalist Austin Tice , apparently detained since more than days, and calls for his immediate release while our thoughts remain with him in his plight and suffering.
Despite numerous appeals for his release, Mazen Darwish is still arbitrarily detained by the Syrian authorities. The conflict has entered a new phase. Fewer journalists are covering the war, because it is too dangerous. The war in Syria has disappeared from the front pages of the newspapers.
Public opinion sees no more footage on their screens. There are less victims this year among journalists in Syria. Regrettably, this is not a good sign. A large part of the country is under the control of the group ISIL Islamic State in the Levant and is inaccessible to the media and the humanitarian workers. In Geneva, the UN Special Envoy met with numerous representatives of the Syrian society and other concerned countries. The big powers are still hoping that a military solution is possible. The rivalry between regional powers has extended to other parts of the Middle East.
We thank the Commission of inquiry for its invaluable work. We hope that impunity will not prevail and that a tribunal will in the near future judge all those responsible for crimes and atrocities committed. The PEC will be more than happy to cooperate with him during his mandate. The report urges countries to ensure that people are free to protect the privacy of digital communications by using strong encryption and anonymity tools. The situation of the freedom of expression is very critical in many countries. The new means of communication have given every individual new opportunities to express himself.
At the same time those new means of communication have given to governments and others abilities for intrusive surveillance. Some countries use these opportunities to control the activities of the civil society and to turn free information into a war propaganda. This is a welcome step.
But there is a need to improve the reporting mechanisms in order to implement the best practices recommended in the resolution adopted last year, including on the Internet for online media. The PEC calls upon the Special Rapporteur to pay special attention to the situations of conflict in which journalists are attacked by both sides, and where the media is not free to report. The mandate of the Special Rapporteur is very broad. It is a huge task to monitor freedom of expression for 7 billion people in countries around the world.
The PEC calls for the UN to create a new mechanism to report specifically on these situations of conflict and best practices to address in particular the challenge of impunity, either by appointing an independent expert on freedom of the press, or a special unit at the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Switzerland has flown out of Azerbaijan the opposition journalist who had been sheltering for 10 months at its embassy in Baku, a day after the inaugural European Games opened in the tightly-controlled country.
Emin Huseynov flew out of Azerbaijan on the plane of Switzerland's Foreign Minister Didier Burkhalter, who attended the Euro Games ceremony in Baku late on Friday, the swiss federal department of foreign affairs said. His departure came after months of negotiations with the Azerbaijani authorities, department spokesman Jean-Marc Crevoisier told the ATS news agency. The year-old journalist and rights activist arrived in Bern and has until September to decide whether he wants to apply for asylum in Switzerland, Crevoisier was quoted as saying. A fierce critic of authoritarian President Ilham Aliyev's human rights record, Huseynov has been sheltering at the Swiss embassy in Baku since August 18, when he evaded Azerbaijani police to enter the building fearing for his life.
At the time, the activist had been sought by prosecutors on charges of "illegal entrepreneurship and tax evasion. Human rights groups accuse Aliyev's government of consistently using spurious charges to jail regime critics and of stepping up a campaign to stifle opposition since his election for a third term in PEC deplores that seven journalists remain behind the bars on the basis of fabricated charges such as hooliganism, possession of drug and weapons and tax evasion: Nijat Aliyev arrested May 20, , Araz Guliyev arrested September 8, , Parviz Hashimli arrested September 17, , Seymur Hazi arrested August 29, , Khadija Ismayilova arrested December 5, , Hilal Mamedov arrested June 21 and Rauf Mirkadyrov arrested April 19, PEC calls for their immediate release.
The PEC board selected also the non-governmental organization Information Press Center in Kiev, a member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network GIJN , for the dedication and courage of its members which actively defended the freedom of the media in difficult circumstances especially in Crimea.
Since the start of the crisis in Ukraine in January , 13 journalists have been killed in this country, on both sides. Four of them were Russian journalists last year. An Ukrainian pilot Nadya Savchenko is detained in Russia, charged with involvement in a mortar attack in which last year two Russian journalists were killed near Luhansk.
The PEC calls today for a humanitarian gesture. PEC calls for independent, thorough and quick enquiries on all murders of journalists in order to prosecute those responsible. Many Ukrainian journalists from the Crimea and Donbas were forced to leave their homes for other parts of the country to save their lives or freedom. According to the PEC figures, the situation on the ground is not improving: 65 journalists have been killed around the world since January this year in 5 months.
The PEC Prize is given annually in Geneva by the PEC committee to reward a person or an organization who worked for the protection of journalists and the freedom of the press during the past year. The resolution reflects in particular the need to combat impunity for attacks and violence against journalists, to enhance reporting on violence against journalists and to improve international coordination to strengthen the protection of journalists. PEC president Hedayat Abdel Nabi expressed hope that resolution will be implemented in letter and spirit and the media workers would see concrete measures in this regard.
Resolution is the second that the Security Council has adopted on this crucial subject since resolution in December The awareness of the extent of the problem is steadily progressing among Member States, but the situation on the ground is not improving, stressed PEC Secretary General Blaise Lempen.
According to the PEC figures, since January, 65 journalists have been killed around the world against 53 for the same period last year. PEC reminds that the Geneva based NGO supports the adoption of a legally-binding international agreement on the protection of journalists in conflict zones to implement the UN resolutions on the ground and to fight impunity.
Among other things, the resolution condemns the prevailing impunity for attacks against journalists and in this regard urges Member States to take appropriate steps to ensure accountability. It also calls for the immediate release of journalists who have been kidnapped or taken as hostages, and for Member States to ensure a safe environment for journalists in accordance with international obligations.
It calls on states to fulfill their obligations as regards the protection of journalists during armed conflicts and makes it a requirement for UN peacekeeping operations to provide regular reports on the safety of journalists. New threats like targeted assassinations by terrorists groups and cyber-attacks against media installations have emerged. While the tally in one year from May to April has risen to journalists killed. Out of the 51 victims, more than one third, 21 were killed by Islamist extremists, among them 8 gunned down at Charlie Hebdo in Paris on 7 January.
Terrorist groups were able to attack media installations by cyber-attacks as that of TV5 Monde, an entirely new development.
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Lempen added that the attacks against Charlie Hebdo and TV5 show that conflicts in the Middle East could extend to the democratic West and endanger freedom of the press all over the world. Libya most dangerous country The Middle East remains the region with the highest casualties: 17 killed. In the region, Libya has become this year the most dangerous country where 8 journalists were killed, Yemen follows with 4 killed. The situation in Central America remains bad: 6 journalists were killed in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras since the beginning of the year out of which 3 were targeted in Guatemala.
The situation in Ukraine is also preoccupying with 4 journalists killed out of which three were targeted killings. PEC President Hedayat Abdel Nabi noted that progress has been achieved on the level of discussions towards the protection of journalists but expressed her dismay that no concrete action has developed up to date. Abdel Nabi renewed the PEC call to encourage UN member states to move towards concrete decisions to fight impunity and actions on mechanisms of enquiry, accountability, monitoring and follow-up.
Le sigue Yemen con cuatro asesinados. En tres casos, se trata de muertes deliberadas. LIBYA: PEC is deeply shocked by the discovery of the bodies of four libyan journalists and one egyptian photographer - Libya has become the most dangerous country this year with 8 journalists killed. Geneva, April 27 PEC Islamic State militants have slit the throats of five journalists working for a Libyan TV station in the eastern part of the country, an army commander said on Monday, according to Reuters.
The reporters had been missing since August, when they left the eastern city of Tobruk after covering the inauguration of the country's elected parliament to travel to Benghazi. Their route took them through Derna, a militant Islamist hotspot. Faraj al-Barassi, a district army commander in eastern Libya, said militants loyal to Islamic State were responsible for killing the journalists, whose bodies were found outside the eastern city of Bayda. He did not say when the five journalists were believed to have been killed.
The reporters - four Libyans and one Egyptian - had been working for Barqa TV, an eastern television supporting federalism for eastern Libya. Militants loyal to Islamic State have exploited a security vacuum in Libya, where two governments and parliaments allied to host of armed groups are fighting each other on several fronts four years after the ousting of Muammar Gaddafi. Islamic State, the group which has seized parts of Syria and Iraq, has claimed responsibility for the killing of 30 Ethiopian and 21 Egyptian Christians as well as an attack on a Tripoli hotel, embassies and oilfields.
According to PEC figures, Libya has become the most dangerous country for this year. Eight journalists have been killed in this country. Two days ago, Muftah al-Qatrani, director of Al-Anwar, was found shot in the head in his Benghazi office. Two Tunisian journalists have been killed by Islamic militants at the beginning of the year. PEC strongly condemns the killing of an Ukrainian journalist. He was shot dead on Thursday in Kiev by two masked gunmen, the interior ministry said, a day after a former lawmaker loyal to ousted President Viktor Yanukovich, Oleh Kalashnikov was also killed.
Oles Buzina was until March the editor-in-chief of Segodnya newspaper. The PEC stressed that whatever the motivations are journalists must be spared from being targeted because of political rivalries. Oles Buzina is the 39th journalist killed around the world since the beginning of Russian President Vladimir Putin, in a televised call-in show, referred specifically to Buzina's death saying it had been politically motivated. Anton Herashchenko, an adviser to the Ukrainian interior minister, said in a Facebook post that Buzyna - like Kalashnikov - was a key witness in a criminal case related to pro-Russian activists who in early attacked the pro-Western protests on Kiev's main square.
The protests eventually led to the ouster of the Kremlin-friendly Yanukovich, who fled the country in February last year. The PEC calls for a quick, transparent, independent and thorough investigation by the Ukrainian authorities of this targeted killing. Oles Buzina is the 12th journalist killed in Ukraine since the start of the civil unrest in and the third this year. Christian is a member of the PEC board since many years.
Campiche is member of the PEC executive committee since It is a great day for the PEC when one of its executive committee members and a very dedicated and active member becomes president of Impressum which assembles Swiss journalists one of the largest national syndicates of journalists worldwide. Lempen added that the PEC executive committee congratulates Campiche warmly. The PEC seizes this opportunity to request every State in this room to report on the implementation of the resolution and what it has done to develop the best practices agreed upon.
The PEC is deeply concerned that some States have done nothing to implement the resolution since September last year, and, on the contrary, have threatened, arrested, abducted, dismissed, injured, killed journalists. The Geneva based NGO PEC calls upon the authorities of these countries to implement the resolution that they have adopted in letter and spirit. The military operations last summer have killed 16 media workers and these killings must be thoroughly investigated.
Media facilities have suffered several attacks which contravened international law. The PEC calls upon the Commission of Inquiry to shed light on these attacks and killings in order to identify those responsible. The lack of protection given to media workers in the most longstanding conflict between Israel and Palestine is matter of deep concern for our organization. Last year was the worst and the deadliest year in the history of Palestinian media.
The PEC reiterates its condemnation of all violations against media freedoms in Palestine and stresses the need to prosecute the perpetrators of all these violations and to put an end to the escalating attacks against media in Palestine. The PEC calls on the Members of the Human Rights Council to exert real pressure on the Israeli and Palestine authorities to induce them to comply with international law that guarantee media freedom and freedom of expression.
Middle East was on the top of the list, with 52 journalists killed, followed by Asia with 32, Latin America with 29, Sub-Saharan Africa with 15 and Europe The situation is deteriorating rather than improving. As of today, 33 journalists have already been killed in , which represents a significant increase compared to the same period of last year, with 12 more killed in only 2 months and a half. It condemned a despicable attack against freedom of expression with no justification, targeting in particular four well-known cartoonists, symbols of tolerance.
The PEC honors the struggle and battle for the freedom of expression of all cartoonists around the world. The PEC expresses its deep concern that these attacks and others by extremists could have a chilling effect on the free press around the world. These attacks against freedom of expression require the Human Rights Council to react firmly and to send a very strong message to all criminals that there would be zero tolerance and no impunity for perpetrators of such crimes.
No concession must be made to those assailants on freedom of expression. Journalists paid a very high price to inform the public opinion of the terrible human sufferings and the gross human rights violations in Syria. According to the PEC records, in 4 years, since March , at least 75 media workers have been killed in Syria. During the past three years, Syria was the most dangerous place for journalists to work. The PEC pays tribute today to their sense of duty, which is indispensable to document the tragedies of war. A peak in the horror was reached in recent months.
The PEC strongly condemned these outrageous acts of barbarism and banditry and calls upon the international commission of inquiry to document those responsible for those heinous acts and to put them on the list of perpetrators to bring them to justice. The PEC urges the Syrian authorities to release them immediately. Since the start of the year, 29 journalists have been killed while only doing their job. Sergii Nikolaiev died of wounds he received on Feb. The tragedy occurred in the village of Pisky located just 1. Several of his colleagues on the scene reported that Nikolaiev was wounded by explosion of the mine, while Segodnya newspaper reported that he was wounded by shells.
Nikolaiev, 43, has worked in numerous conflict zones, including wars in Georgia, Libya, Syria, and Somalia. He has become the tenth journalist killed since the beginning of in Ukraine, the seventh directly caused by the war five Russians, one Italian, one Ukrainian. One year after the Euromaidan revolution in Kiev, the PEC is concerned that the space for free journalism is steadily decreasing.
PEC condemns all obstacles to reporting on the conflict and calls on all parties to respect the freedom of information for all journalists. The war propaganda has created a profound atmosphere of distrust which governments are exploiting to impose their own forms of control on media. Balanced and impartial news to the public are more than ever needed. The NGO is very concerned by the situation in Russia , where the murder of Boris Nemtsov in central Moscow, if related to the conflict in Ukraine, could have a further chilling effect on the freedom of the press.
At the 28th session of the Human Rights Council, which starts on Monday for four weeks in Geneva, PEC will highlight various worrying situations: the situation in Syria and Gaza , on the reports of both Commissions of enquiry, the restrictions in Ukraine and Russia , the crackdown in Azerbaijan , the intimidation in Egypt , the impunity in Mexico, Honduras, Philippines, Pakistan and other dangerous places.
Jailed Al Jazeera journalist Mohamed Fahmy has been released from prison in Egypt on bail pending a retrial. Fahmy's release early on Friday morning comes a day after an Egyptian court granted bail to him and his colleague Baher Mohamed after they spent days in prison. PEC says days of their lives were wasted. A retrial was ordered by the country's Court of Cassation last month, overturning a lower court's verdict that had falsely found them guilty of helping the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood group. He has since returned to his home in Australia. The journalists strenuously deny collaborating with the banned Muslim Brotherhood after the overthrow of President Mohammed Morsi by the military in They say they were jailed simply for reporting the news.
PEC calls for the release of nine other journalists still detained in Egypt. Two weeks before the beginning of the next session of the Human Rights Council in Geneva, the PEC hopes that Egypt will fully comply with its international obligations to respect all human rights. Mass death sentences and harsh punishments at times based on scant or no evidence have come under strong international criticism. The Swiss embassy in Baku has been secretly sheltering Azerbaijani journalist and human rights activist Emin Huseynov for the past six months, a Swiss national television SRF report has revealed.
The Swiss government has been negotiating at the highest level possible with Azerbaijan, but the Azerbaijan government has been against letting Emin Huzeynov leave the country. Last year was particularly difficult for free speech advocates in the former Soviet republic. The oil-rich Azeri government escalated its repression against its critics in , with a dramatic deterioration in its already poor rights record. The Swiss embassy building in the Old City of Baku is approachable directly from the street, one of the reasons it was chosen by Huseymov last August when he was facing imminent arrest, according to Rundschau investigative journalist Serena Tinari.
But Huseymov also had Swiss connections. As part of his pro-democracy activities, he attended an OSCE conference on human rights in the Swiss capital Bern last year, where he met then Swiss president Didier Burkhalter. The journalist had met Burkhalter once before when the Swiss president was on a state visit to Baku.
He told Rundschau that the journalist was arrested in and and suffered beatings that amounted to torture. Repression against the freedom of opinion is continuing, including the online media. Her only crime has been having the courage to investigate a subject that is completely off-limits in Azerbaijan — corruption at the highest level of government. Japan confiscates journalist's passport to stop him going to Syria - the Press Emblem Campaign PEC questions the legitimacy of the decision - the passport seizure has brought sharp criticism from journalists and free-speech advocates.
Government says it took travel documents away from freelance photographer Yuichi Sugimoto, 58, for his own safety. Tokyo defended on Monday its confiscation of the passport of a Japanese journalist planning to travel to Syria, as the country reels from the execution of two citizens by Islamist extremists. But the year-old, who has covered conflict zones in Iraq and Syria over the years, said he had no plans to enter areas controlled by ISIL, Kyodo News reported. Has a government the right to interfere with the free choice of a journalist to do his duty and to inform the public on the human sufferings in war zones?
The passport seizure has brought sharp criticism from journalists and free-speech advocates. She said the group was considering filing a formal protest. Japanese officials said last week that they had repeatedly tried to dissuade one of the hostages, journalist Kenji Goto, from traveling to Syria in October, but that he ignored their warnings.
He was kidnapped shortly after entering the country. What do you think? Send us your opinion to: pressemblem bluewin. PEC welcomes release of Peter Greste, a move in the right direction. This is a move in the right direction. Greste and the two other Al Jazeera journalists were accused of collaborating with the banned Muslim Brotherhood after the overthrow of President Mohammed Morsi by the military in The three men said they were simply reporting the news. There are no words to express the sorrow of the PEC at this tragic development which is a tragedy that humanity and the world at large is to deal with.
Kenji Goto went to north-east of Syria only to help. He was not a fighter. An exchange was possible to save the lives of the hostages. It is better than to pay a ransom, which fuels terrorism, even if we cannot negotiate with criminals who are committing crimes against humanity. Those criminals must be prosecuted. Up to date 23 journalists have been killed since the beginning of , an unprecedented record. It is the bloodiest month of January on record. It is more than ever necessary to establish a working group to discuss measures to better protect journalists in conflict zones.
PEC firmly condemns an outrageous act of banditry and calls for the immediate release of the Japanese hostage. He went in the north-east of Syria to witness the war because as a Japanese he believed to be less at risk than an American, a British or a French. Japan has no military enrolment in Syria or in Iraq. It is the deadliest month of January on record. The turmoil in the Middle East is taking a heavy toll on the media.
The NGO warns of high risks for journalists covering the conflict. Last year, journalists were killed in the line of duty, the second deadliest year over a ten year period. Luisa Ballin. Laurence Deonna. Des foules gigantesques. Tous pour "Charlie-Hebdo"! Le monde leur appartient toujours. Y retourneriez-vous en reportages? Je ne retournerai pas en Syrie. Parce que cela me ferait pleurer. Les livres non coraniques ont disparus des librairies. Les journalistes ne le font-ils pas assez? On parle beaucoup, des journalistes occidentaux qui se rendent dans les points chauds. Il est aussi important de donner la parole aux journalistes qui ne racontent pas que la guerre.
Exclusive Interview with Laurence Deonna, journalist, writer, "To be published, the reporter and the photographer must move closer to the drama at the risk of their lives" - Interview by Luisa Ballin for PEC. They were thousands and thousands to take to the streets to pay tribute to a beheaded newspaper that they may never have read. All for " Charlie Hebdo "! All for free speech! All for democracy!
Often themselves objects of cartoonists, the Heads of State marching in serried ranks. Touching, it was, it is true, and yet I could not help but think of the crazy excitement of the early days of the Arab Spring and its flowers now withered, bloody, Libya, Syria and Yemen. As for television interviews that have marked the tragic moments about which you speak, I want to tell you: men, almost exclusively men.
The world has not changed. The world is still owned by them. Freedom of expression for women is when? When I wrote this book of memories "Ruffled Memories" I felt as if I was a hundred years old, and everything I talking about was so ancient! Whereas if you look at the eternity of humanity, in only a few years the world has changed a lot, especially in the area of reporting. I always thought that technologies more than ideologies changed people and that's what we see this time. In my time, when we left, there were not all these checks at airports or phobia of terrorism.
Certainly, there was a great solitude, no mobile phones, no computers, we were alone. If we managed to get a phone line, you had to book at a certain time, between 4 and 5 o'clock in the afternoon, or send a telegram, often not knowing if there was a post office where one was going. At the time was the work of a reporter and a photographer more dangerous or less risky than today? I think it was less dangerous. Shortly before her death, I spoke with Ella Maillart Editor's note: Genevese writer, photographer and world traveler who was her friend. She told me that she could not have done today all she had done, such as crossing Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, areas that I know well.
It is also more dangerous because we have rushed into a society of unbridled and frightening consumerism where everything sells. To be published, the reporter and the photographer must move closer to the drama, at the risk of their lives. I found it noble enough to die for a cause, but I find it pathetic and saddening to die for a press group. Would you go back to write stories today? I would not in order to do stories.
Yet it is important to tell things in other words than those we see all day on TV or hear all day on the radio because we always hear the same words, while millions of people think differently. What I liked during my reporting was listening to little people. I loved to take my time, which is impossible today because one must sell at all costs, to be the first to give the news. How can we really see a country, listen to people, describe the landscape or, for instance, look at posters that tell so much? That seems extremely difficult today, to observe the small details that make the richness of a true story.
I will not return to Syria. Because it is extremely dangerous? Because it would make me cry. I knew the country in the 60s and it probably had looked like the same Syria for centuries.