Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction This book is based on my doctoral dissertation from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem of the same title. As a master's student, working on an entirely different project, I was well aware that many of Newton's theological manuscripts were located in our own Jewish National and University Library, but I was under the mistaken assumption that scores of highly qualified scholars must be assiduously scouring them and publishing their results.
It never occurred to me to look at them at all until, having fmished my master's, I spoke to Professor David Katz at Tel-Aviv University about an idea I had for doctoral research. Others consider the refer-. While it may be argued that the designation "Abraham the.
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Hebrew" accords with much of the traditions of the early semi-. Septuagint interpretation of Genesis , which describes Abra -. The references to Abraham in the land are primarily concerned. This does appear. Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, , Posener , " Textes Egyptiens ," in Le probleme des Habiru , ed.
Bottero Paris: Imprimerie Nationale , , p. Bruce, in Archaeology and Old. Testament Study , ed.
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Press, , pp. Westminster Chapel, , p. Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 : While such grants might associate tribes with sedentary groups,. Abraham is concerned not with his " nomadism " but with his status. But this is when he is in Canaanite Kirjath-Arba bargain-.
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Lot is also called a ger in. Sodom , and Jacob is a ger when in Laban's territory ;. There is therefore no reason to think that Abraham considered. In this lay the measure of. Hebrews , 16 certainly agrees with this. NEB lays stress on his settling, albeit as a foreigner, in the promised. This does not mean that he, like any man, was.
Lehmann's interpretation of this transaction as Hittite. American Schools of Oriental Research : has been ques -. However, Tucker's and van Seters '. Cuneiform Studies 19 : , a late neo-Babylonian form ignores. Museum [ London : British Museum , ], vol. This material is cited with gracious permission from:. Roy Zuck. Dallas Theological Seminary.
However, it is accompanied by a recrudescence of a critical trend in Old Testament scholarship which virtually dismiss- es Abraham as an eponymous ancestor, a mythological hero of legendary sagas, or the projection into the past of later Jewish ideologies seeking for a "founding father. With this development, Old Testament scholars have reacted against and reappraised the extrabiblical evidence which has led to the more conservative understanding and interpretation of a second- millen - nium B.
The editors regret that illness forced Dr. Wiseman to cancel the lectureship, but they are pleased to present the series in print. However, dismissing those parallels would not of itself argue against the historical origin or nature of the Genesis texts so much as against the various theories proposed for their interpretation. It is the primary purpose of this paper to examine some of these contentions. However, these contentions will be examined more from an interpretive standpoint than from the chronological standpoint , since it can be shown that in the long "continuity" of tradition in the ancient Near Eastern traditions, social custom, legal convention , or literary form are by themselves no sure means of chronological identification.
It is reported that these texts make reference to Canaan , Pales- tine , and Syria ca. Many place-names may prove to be local to Ebla , and the appearance of personal names such as "Abraham" can be paralleled in other cuneiform texts cf. Thompson, The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives , pp. Thus the ultimate destination is declared from the beginning when " Terah took Abram his son and Lot. En route at Haran after Terah's death the renewed call is still for Abraham to leave "land, family, and father's house to go to the land I will show you" Gen.
There is no reason to assume that a journey from southern Mesopotamia to Syro -Palestine was undertaken only by semi- nomads in antiq - uity. Movements in stages by groups of persons, possibly merchants, are attested by records of Old Babylonian itineraries. Moreover, emphasis is placed on the crossing of the Euphrates River ' Eber nari ,' cf.
Genesis places no stress on Abraham's " nomadism "; it merely states that he moved in response to the divine call from Haran to the land of Canaan , with no detail of that land which he crossed, to Shechem Gen. The route would have taken him through or near some of the city-states known to have dominated the region in both the second and first millennia B. At Moreh , near Shechem , Abram built an altar to the Lord after He in a theophany granted as a gift the land where he then was Gen.
Following the separation from Lot , which sprang from local Canaanite opposition and insufficiency of grazing for the flocks and herds, Abraham was given a further revelation about the extent of the land Gen. From a vantage point on high ground he was able to look north, south, east, and west at the covenant- promised territory before walking throughout its length and breadth ; cf.
The southward measurement was made by Abraham first; he moved to Mamre where he stayed for some time There a further theophany reaffirmed the possession of the land through an heir. For a long time, I wondered why God had given specific regulations for such a seemingly unimportant subject.
Then, I found this:. To fully appreciate all of the implications, you must try to think like a rabbi: you need to maintain an extremely high respect for the precise details of the instructions. They resorted to heroic measures in their attempt to comply with the letter of the law. This poses a technical problem. Notice that if the breadth of their camp was larger than that of the Levites, the excess would be southeast or northeast, not east.
Therefore, if they were to strictly comply with their instructions, their camp could only be as wide as that of the Levites, and they then would have to extend eastward to obtain the required space.
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The camps of Reuben, Ephraim, and Dan had the same constraint on the south, west, and north respectively. The length of each leg would thus be proportional to the total population in each camp…. If we assemble what we can infer from the Torah account, we can imagine what the camp of Israel looked like from above: the Tabernacle and the Levites in the center, surrounded by the four faces of the tribal standards, and each of the four camps of Judah, Ephraim, Reuben, and Dan, stretching out in the four cardinal directions.
We can also tally the approximate size of each tribe to determine the relative length of each camp as they stretched out in each of the four cardinal directions. The startling results are on the next page…. It would appear that when the Israelites encamped, they formed a giant cross! This is a graphic macrocode, indeed! And this is from the Torah, not the New Testament!
First, in the center of the camp was the Tabernacle, which represented the dwelling place of God on Earth.
If we want to have fellowship with God, it is only when we are one of His people, brought to Him through the cross. Ephesians and that He might reconcile them both to God in one body through the cross, thereby putting to death the enmity.
When the Hebrews were afflicted because of their wickedness, God instructed Moses how to heal the people. John And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up,. In Ezekiel, God instructs His angels to bring judgments on the people of Jerusalem for their wickedness.
Ezekiel Now the glory of the God of Israel had gone up from the cherub, where it had been, to the threshold of the temple. Revelation Then I saw another angel ascending from the east, having the seal of the living God. And he cried with a loud voice to the four angels to whom it was granted to harm the earth and the sea,. Revelation They were commanded not to harm the grass of the earth, or any green thing, or any tree, but only those men who do not have the seal of God on their foreheads. However, this foreshadowing is not as apparent in our English Bibles…The passage goes on to explain that all those in Jerusalem were destroyed, except for those who had the mark on their forehead.
As I mentioned, in English, few of us would see a foreshadow of the cross in this passage. However, in both Greek and Hebrew, the foreshadowing is a lot more obvious. And, of course, the letter T is in the shape of the cross. The foreshadowing here was even more apparent to the early Christians because they frequently traced the sign of the cross on their foreheads to demonstrate that they belonged to Jesus. In fact, at least by the year , after a person was baptized, the bishop would anoint him with oil by tracing the sign of the cross on the forehead of the newly baptized person.
Jesus died for us, was buried, and arose from the dead on the third day 1 Corinthians He invites all people everywhere to come to Him to be saved Matthew When a Christian sins Hebrews , the Lord will forgive him when he repents of sin and confesses it to the Lord in prayer 1 John You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Bereshit Amazingly, the very first word of the Bible tells us about the cross of Jesus. They pierced My hands and My feet; Long before the time of Christ, this passage was understood by the Hebrews as being Messianic.
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Notice several things.