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The British sovereign possesses many hypothetical powers, including the right to choose any British citizen to be her Prime Minister PM and the right to call and dissolve Parliament whenever she wishes. However, in accordance with the current uncodified constitution, the PM is the leader of the largest party in the House of Commons, and Parliament is dissolved at the time suggested by the PM. The monarch retains the ability to deny giving a bill royal assent, although in modern times this becomes increasingly more unlikely, as it would cause a constitutional crisis.

Other royal powers called royal prerogative, such as patronage to appoint ministers and the ability to declare war, are exercised by the PM and the Cabinet, with the formal consent of the Queen. Today the sovereign has an essentially ceremonial role restricted in exercise of power by convention and public opinion. However the monarch does continue to exercise three essential rights: the right to be consulted, the right to.

As a consequence of these ideals, Prime Ministers hold weekly confidential meetings with the monarch in which the sovereign holds the right to express her opinions. According to the text, judge the following items. Thus transformed, the reprogrammed cells became capable of changing into nearly any cell type in the human body. Embryonic stem cells also have this ability, and may someday be used to cure degenerative diseases, grow new organs and even replace limbs.

Scientists have hailed embryonic stem cells as one of the most promising research fields in medicine, saying they could lead to myriad therapies. But currently, many stem cells are derived from embryos, which is a lightning rod issue that crosses political and religious lines. The new technique could sidestep ethical issues involving the destruction of embryos and collection of human eggs. But the false dawn immediately after the Civil War soon gave way to nearly a century of legal, economic and social discrimination.

Whatever the Fourteenth Amendment may have said about equal protection and citizenship, blacks in America enjoyed few of the blessings of liberty; they remained outsiders, condemned by the white majority as inferior. The separate facilities were far from equal, and beyond that, were designed to keep African Americans in a subordinate position. Civil rights groups never accepted segregation, and began a long and slow campaign in the courts to do away with it. World War II gave their struggle a new impetus. The fight against Nazi racism made many Americans take a closer look at racism at home, and the nation as a whole finally began taking measures to give African Americans their full legal and civil rights.

It has been a slow struggle, with progress often measured in small increments, but there has been progress, and the position of black Americans today has markedly improved over that of a half-century ago. Moreover, legal racism of the type that kept southern blacks from voting and relegated to separate and inferior schools is gone, wiped out by both court decisions and civil rights legislation. Since raw materials were expensive, textile workers rarely had enough capital to be self-employed, but would take raw materials from a merchant, like wool and cotton, spin1 or weave2 the materials in their homes, and then return the finished product and receive a piece-rate wage.

This system disappeared during the Industrial Revolution as new machinery requiring water or steam power appeared, and work moved from the home to the factory. During the Industrial Revolution, the role of women in society was greatly altered. With the Industrial Revolution, however, women in the working class were forced to leave the confines of their homes for factories and other workplaces, such as mines.

As with the children and men, the hours were long and conditions were hard. Those who were fortunate may have become maids for wealthier families; others may have worked as governesses for rich children. Domestic services, which is the largest profession women seemed to be involved in, ranged from cooking, cleaning,. Many middle class and wellto-do families could afford other women to do this work for them.

The industrial age led to a rapid increase in birth rates which clearly has an impact upon the physical strength of the mothers. The active beings in myths are generally gods and heroes. Myths often are said to take place before recorded history begins. In saying that a myth is a sacred narrative, what is meant is that a myth is believed to be true by people who attach religious or spiritual significance to it. This popular use, which is often pejorative, arose from labeling the religious stories and beliefs of other cultures as being incorrect, but it has spread to cover non-religious beliefs as well.

Because of this usage, many people take offense when the religious narratives they believe to be true are called myths. A legend, on the other hand, is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale the appearance of being real. A legend, for its active and passive participants, includes only happenings that are within the limits of possibility, defined by a highly flexible set of parameters, which may include miracles that are perceived as actually having happened, within the specific tradition of indoctrination where the legend arises, and within which it may be transformed over time, in order to keep it fresh and vital, and realistic.

In conclusion, a legend is a story which is told as if it were a historical event, rather than as an explanation for something or a symbolic narrative. Thus, examples of legends are the stories about Robin Hood, which are set in a definite period, the reign of Richard I of England , or about King Arthur. Exemplo: That is my boy, his name is John and his bank account is huge. Exemplo:That boy is mine my boy and that huge bank account is ours now.

Our bank account This car is faster than ours. Exemplos : A friend of mine. Some books of hers. We have enough. Housewives are going to order their, theirs goods through a computer. Tom types his, hers letters but we don't type our, ours. Karen and Susan are waiting for their, theirs boyfriends. I know my mine family very well. Your, Yours is an excellent car. She always shouts at her, hers children. Children ask their, theirs parents difficult questions. We are thinking about our ours next test. Are you thinking about your, yours? There are three magazines here. The firstis my, mine , the second is her, hers and the third is their, theirs.

Give him your, yours address. Mary's train is leaving at 3 o'clock, but John's is leaving in 3 minutes. My brother's favorite fruit is apple. The cats are sleeping in the dog's house. The teacher corrects the students' compositions. His 3. The parents of Mary and Susan are still Married. Exemplos: - I want some milk to drink. Exemplos: - Do you have any meat? I have no car.

Coisas - Something, Anything, Nothing. Lugares - Somewhere, Anywhere, Nowhere. Exemplo: I asked you to send me this chair.

Los Del Rio - La Macarena ( Full Spanish Version with Lyrics

Exemplo: They want to find a new manager. Eles querem achar um novo gerente. There is nobody in the world capable of making you laugh, cry and thrill with his priceless genius. Based on the picture and the text above, judge the following items. Religious and scientific beliefs were included in the narrative, which depicted both creationism.

Metamorphosis was the main theme for the Vila Isabel samba school in Rio de Janeiro. The titan Epimetheus was responsible for giving a positive trait 7 to each and every animal. However, when it was time to give man a positive trait, there was nothing left. Prometheus, his brother, felt that because man was superior to all other animals, man should have a gift no other animal possessed.

So Prometheus set forth to steal fire from Zeus and gave it to man. Zeus was extremely angry and decided to punish both Prometheus and his creation: mankind. To punish Prometheus, Zeus put his feet in unbreakable chains and set an eagle over him to eat his liver each day. To punish mankind, Zeus ordered the other gods to make Pandora as a poisoned gift for man. Pandora was given several traits from the different gods: Aphrodite gave her beauty; Apollo gave her musical talent and a gift for healing; Zeus made her lazy, mischievous1, and foolish; Hera gave her curiosity; Hermes gave her cunning, boldness and charm.

The most significant of these gifts, however, was a box, given to Pandora either by Hermes or Zeus. Before he was chained to the rock, Prometheus had warned Epimetheus 28 not to take any gifts from the gods. Epimetheus did not listen to his brother, however, and when Pandora arrived, he fell in love with her. Hermes told him that Pandora was a gift to the titan from Zeus, and he warned Epimetheus not to open the box. Until then, mankind had lived a life in a paradise without worry.

Epimetheus told Pandora never to open the box she had received from Zeus. She immediately closed it in time to keep one thing in it: hope. Thus, mankind always has hope in times of evil. Based on the text, judge the following items. I am sorry, but you can't sit. You must accept my gift. Some 2.

Does she work hard? Exemplo: Paul eats sandwiches every day. Brazil is one of the most beautiful countries. Exemplo: When the handsome prince Kisses Snow White, she wakes up. Exemplo: The best students are studying English now. Usado com frases no imperativo, implicam uma ordem. The neighbor is playing that song again. Exemplo: Susan is always brushing her hair.

Exemplos: Diz-se: He understands what you are saying. I can see you now. Use: - Loaf Baguete - Slice Fatia - Sliced Loaf The train left late. Exemplo: Susan lived in Greece for 2 years. Exemplo: He never sang in public. I used to go to the club every Sunday. I wish she were here with me. They were trying to help. Larissa and Lucas were sleeping. Exemplo: It was getting colder and colder. Exemplo: While Susy was on the phone, Paul was cleaning her bedroom.

Exemplo: I was taking a shower when Bob called. Exemplo: a The gas stove was burning when the young wife went upstairs to take a bath. Past Continuous Part 1 a was talking. P Which alternative presents a wrong use of the genitive case? Exemplo: We have gone to the theater. Compare: We went to the theater last week. Exemplos: I have worked here since I have worked here for eight years. Exemplos: Peter has had a car accident he is probably in the hospital now. Veja: Em um dia de teste, Ana diz ao professor. Exemplos: We haven't smoked lately. They have traveled many times.

Morgan has always lived in this house. I have never slept like this before. She hasn't finished that work yet. She has already cleaned the floor. Have you been waiting for so long? Exemplo: They had gone to Bahia at 4 p. Exemplo: She had turned the lights off before her mother called her. Exemplos: a She had been drinking too much.

Exemplo: a They always come to school by bus habitual , but they are going by car these days no momento. Exemplos: a I learnt how to play the piano when I was a kid. She is very young to do that. I will help you with your homework. Exemplos: The Bell is ringing. The baby is sick. She will call the doctor. Exemplos: People will probably visit the moon soon. Exemplos: We shall go in your car. Exemplos: We are going to travel by car. They are going to get married very soon. Exemplos: Are your bags heavy? I am going to help her premeditado. The car is going to hit.

He never liked it. Negative Estrutura: 1. Interrogative Estrutura: auxiliar sujeito verbo complemento? Exemplos: Present 1- You are good students. Are you good students? You are not good students. Do you drink wine? Did she dance all night long? Will they travel next year? Would we travel with them? One gets a job as an astronaut and rockets into deep space.

The other stays on Earth. The theory of relativity tells us that the faster you travel through space, the slower you travel through time. Or is it? Some researchers are beginning to believe that space travel could have the opposite effect. It could make you prematurely old. Space radiation acting on telomeres could however, reverse the effect. While the astronaut twin is hurtling through space, Cucinotta explains, his chromosomes are exposed to penetrating cosmic rays. Here on Earth, the loss of telomeres has been linked to aging. Astronauts on those missions could be exposed to cosmic rays for weeks or months at a time.

The European Union UN has stimulated this freedom of movement by opening national markets and by removing physical and technical obstacles. The constant growth in mobility puts severe strains on transport systems. The result is congestion, particularly for road and air traffic which reduces economic efficiency, and adds to fuel consumption and to pollution.

Although many aspects of transport policy come under national governments, it makes sense for the European single market to have a single transport infrastructure. This is why the EU has opened national transport markets across the Union to competition, particularly in the road and air sectors and, to a lesser extent, for rail. As a result, trucks can operate in countries other than their own, and no longer return empty on international journeys. Liberalisation alone cannot solve several deep28 seated problems.

These include the dominance of road over other forms of transport, pollution, and the fragmentation of transport systems, including poor links to outlying regions and between national networks. Congestion charging, where users pay for access to scarce infrastructure, is also being introduced. One example is the system, pioneered by London in , which charges motorists for driving into central districts of town and cities.

Rail is the first target. A freight train in the EU travels at an average speed of 18 kilometres per hour. Rail must improve speeds and service levels if it is to attract freight traffic from roads. Or how about Spiderman? If you agree with the above, you have been the victim of subliminal messages. For years we have been slowly influenced by all manner of messages through a variety of media, and it has often shaped our perception of money, wealth and success. Children have been programmed to believe that it is a sin to have money, rich guys are the evil ones and it is nobler to be poor.

I mean, look at the two examples in the first paragraph. Superman, an orphan raised by the hardworking but certainly not wealthy, Kents. His archenemy is Lex Luther of Luther Corp, rich, powerful and totally evil! These types of messages work so well because they by-pass our conscious mind, the part that applies rational thinking, judges things, decides if we are going to believe something or not.

From: blog archive, adapted. Considering the text above, judge the items below. When photography was invented in , many artists were repulsed by the new phenomenon. The visual arts of painting and sculpture had reigned for millennia. The new invention, which reflected reality back to us through a mechanical device, seemed cold and frightening.

People have always remembered, and tried to preserve and transmit their memories through time. History was recorded through the written word. The wisdom of the past was transmitted through the myth, the story, and later the epic poem, drama and novel. Yet, they are still on the screen, moving, laughing, dancing, just as they did when alive. The Lumieres began to show their short films in They were a sensation. Imagine if you can the astonishment experienced by the audiences, to see a projected moving image on a large screen. One effect was fright.

It is said that when the Lumieres showed their film of the arrival of a train at a station, the audience jumped back from the screen as if they were going to be run over by the oncoming train. Based on the text above, judge the following items. Her description of the loud and rushing civilization suggests that we push ahead in the name of progress, without fully appreciating the moment.

Through the character of Clarissa, Woolf challenges the usual definition of success. Perhaps we need not leave some magnificent gift behind in the form of a building or a concrete art piece. Instead, maybe it is how we live our lives and our appreciation for the present that are truly more powerful and eternal. The small gifts we offer others, like bringing people together through a party, can touch people differently than a monument. Our rush to leave a dramatic mark in the world leads to further destruction. Tension abounds in our modern world as we create technology to increase our efficiency.

Fr. Kentenich’s pedagogy on the peripheries –

However, in the process, our communities disintegrate. More and more people complain of feeling alienated. The evidence surrounds us. The internal time that allows us to slow down and be involved with people finds itself dominated by external societal time. By definition, describing any animal as primitive is not the same as saying that it has not undergone the same amount of adaptive change as everything else. Coelacanths are certainly very much like some fossils, but that does not mean that they have stopped evolving.

In much the same way, modern crocodiles are very similar to fossil crocodiles. In both cases we can see that these animals are supremely adapted to their environments, but these environments have not changed recently and nor have the animals. Mantis shrimps, as a group of animals, are twice as old as the dinosaurs.

Everything alive today is equally modern, and when biologists describe a creature as primitive they mean simply that it does not appear to have changed much recently. Fossils only give information about the harder parts of animals that existed in the past. Nothing about the physiology or behaviour of deceased animals is preserved in the rocks. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. Somehow, they already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.

But is there any reason why it should be? Seemingly not. Without modern machinery, it was essential to use every hand available to get the crops in before the weather broke. This explanation is open to the objection that those going up to Oxford or Cambridge would have been of a social status incompatible with manual labour of any kind. This may have been true from the late 17th Century to around World War II, but in earlier times the proportion of undergraduates from quite humble origins was rather higher.

On the face of it, the question seems simple. After all, language is so much a part of our everyday experience, so effortlessly employed to meet our impulses to communicate with one another, that it cannot be too intricate a task to figure out how it works. Plato, Lucretius, Descartes, Rousseau, Darwin, Wittgenstein, and Skinner, to name just a few, have all probed into some aspect of the human capacity for speech, yet none of them were able to explain the origin of.

These issues remain an enigma that awaits further exploration. This is not to say we have learned nothing or know nothing about our ability to utter meaningful sequences of sound. Centuries of careful observation and experimentation on language have revealed some extraordinary insights into its fundamental properties, some of them quite surprising. Perhaps most significant, language has no analogs in the animal kingdom. Nothing remotely similar to language has been discovered in the vast array of communication system utilized by the fauna of our planet.

Introduction to typology: the unity and diversity of language. Sage, Newbury Park, CA adapted. According to the text, judge the items that follow. However the monarch does continue to exercise three essential rights: the right to be consulted, the right to advise and the right to warn. In some cases, this can lead to ecological collapse or trophic cascading and the death of many species belonging to the ecosystem in question. Under this deterministic vision, the abstract notion of ecological health attempts to measure the robustness and recovery capacity for an ecosystem; i.

Often, however, ecosystems have the ability to rebound from a disruptive agent. The difference between collapse or a gentle rebound is determined by two factors: the toxicity of the introduced element and the resiliency of the original ecosystem. Ecosystems are primarily governed by stochastic chance events, the reactions they provoke on non-living materials and the responses by organisms to the conditions surrounding them. Thus, an ecosystem results from the sum of myriad individual responses of organisms to stimuli from nonliving and living elements in the environment.

The presence or absence of populations merely depends on reproductive and dispersal success, and population levels fluctuate in response to stochastic events. As the number of species in an ecosystem is higher, the number of stimuli is also higher. Since the beginning of life, in this vision, organisms have survived continuous change through natural selection of successful feeding, reproductive and dispersal behavior. Given the great diversity among organisms on Earth, most of the time, ecosystems only changed very gradually, as some species would disappear while others would move in.

Locally, subpopulations continuously go extinct, to be replaced later through dispersal of other sub-populations. Based on the text above, judge the items below. Say this prayer. Drink this potion. Swallow this pill. Take this antibiotic. Eat this root. Judge the following items based on the cartoon above. Domestic services, which is the largest profession women seemed to be involved in, ranged from cooking, cleaning, caring for family members, and making and mending clothing among various other chores.

Biodiesel, a renewable fuel, is seen as a way to make Brazil, and indeed the world, less dependent on oil. The manufacture of alcohol and biodiesel provides jobs for the poverty-stricken interior regions of the country and Lula has high hopes that, if the trend catches on across the globe, Brazil may become a large exporter of biofuels. Others say it is unrealistic to expect European countries, for example, to re-engineer their networks of service stations and build the many plants necessary to make biofuels from sugar and maize.

Like the hybrid car, biofuels may be an innovation with a global potential that will never be tapped. For the time being, the world will watch as Brazil embraces the renewable energy source and eagerly attempts to prove both its feasibility and benefits.

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A silent revolution is taking place at the Ale Jatinho petrol station on Avenida Brasil, on the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro. Religious and scientific beliefs were included in the narrative, which depicted both creationism and the big bang, and drew attention to the destruction of the Amazon rainforest. Over the next three centuries, it was resettled by the Portuguese and exploited mainly for wood pau-brasil , then sugarcane, coffee beans and gold mining.

People say he lived in the state of Uri in Switzerland in the early 14th century. He was an expert at shooting with the crossbow similar to a bow1 and arrow, but held flat. At the time, the Habsburg emperors wanted to dominate Uri. Hermann Gessler, the Austrian president of the town council raised a pole in the central square of the village with his hat on top and demanded that all the local people bow2 before it.

As Tell passed by without bowing, he was arrested. He received the punishment of being forced to shoot an apple off the head of his son, Walter, or else both would be executed. Tell had been promised freedom if he shot the apple. On November 18, , Tell divided the fruit with only one bolt from his crossbow, without a minor mistake or accident.

When Gessler asked him about the purpose of the second arrow in his case, Tell answered that, if he had ended up killing his son in that trial, he would have turned the crossbow on him. Gessler was furious at that comment. In a storm on Lake Lucerne, Tell managed to escape. This refusal to obey an order of the Austrian officer started a rebellion, leading to the formation of the Old Swiss Confederacy.

Eles morariam juntos. Exemplo: He can jump 7 feet high. Exemplo: Peter could go out with his friends every night. Exemplo: Can I use your pen? Exemplo: He could jump 7 feet high when he was young. Exemplo: The baby will be able to walk soon. No presente e futuro. Exemplo: Where is Peter? He may be at home. May I come in, teacher? May New Year bring you all wish. Exemplo: She said that he might be back around 8. Exemplo: I might get a job soon. Yes, and pigs might fly. Exemplo: Peter isn't home.

He may have gone to church because it's Sunday. Why was the meat so terrible? The old cook might have used sugar instead of salt. Exemplos: Susy can date Paul Susy is allowed to date Paul. Susy was able to wear make up. Exemplo: The maid must clean the house every day. One must eat in order to live. She is very old. She must be around Exemplo: People should ought to be polite. You should ought to pay your bills. Formas Interrogativas: Should sujeito? Exemplo: I used to swim in the river. Exemplo: Dare you climb that mountain?

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  • Fr. Kentenich’s Pedagogy on the Peripheries (3).
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Buses also travel on urban roadways, so infrastructure investments can be substantially lower than the capital costs required for rail systems. As a result, bus service can be implemented cost-effectively on many routes. The essence of a Bus Rapid Transit is to improve bus operating speed and reliability on arterial streets by reducing or eliminating the various types of delay. Consequently, Curitiba has one of the most frequently used, yet low-cost, transit systems in the world.

His archenemy is Lex Luther. It is raining. Exemplo: If he had studied more, he would have passed the test. Exemplo: If I were rich, I would buy a Mercedes. Exemplo: If you had studied more, you would have passed. Had you studied more, you would have passed. Exemplo: Billy will come whether you invite him or not. Plato, Lucretius, Descartes, Rousseau, Darwin, Wittgenstein, and Skinner, to name just a few, have all probed into some aspect of the human capacity for speech, yet none of them were able to explain the origin of language, why languages differ, how they are learned, how they relay meaning, or why they are the way they are and not some other way.

Exemplo: Carol cleaned the house. Part prep ag. O sujeito da V. O objeto da V. Exemplo: John sent me a love letter. A love letter was sent me by John. I was sent a love letter by John. Exemplo: She kissed the boy. The boy was kissed by her. Exemplo: Someone opened the door. But by , NASA plans to send humans outside of that protective bubble to return to the moon and eventually travel to Mars. Many middle class and well. Over the next three centuries, it was resettled by the Portuguese and exploited mainly for wood paubrasil , then sugarcane, coffee beans and gold mining. Pandora was given several traits from the different gods: Aphrodite gave her beauty; Apollo gave her musical talent and a gift for healing; Zeus made her lazy,.

The cup was broken by she. The door was knocked. The car have been stolen.

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The job would be finish by the students. Drops Brazil was the last country in the world to abolish slavery I have a lot of money 3. Exemplo: She has few books to study. Exemplo: We have little time. Exemplo: We have a little food. She has a few hours to study. Drops The first country to issue postage stamps was England in Brazil was the second Exemplo: This book was the least successfull of his carrier. Exemplos: The most handsome you are, the most jealous I become.

After all, language is so much a part of our everyday experience, so effortlessly employed to meet our impulses to communicate with one another, that it cannot be too intri. Many middle class and well-to-do families could afford other women to do this work for them. The data were gathered through the answers given by a meaningful number of families living in different parts of Brazil. Based on the chart, judge the following items.

Tom did. I met Paul. Exemplo: Whose car is this? Whose is this car? This car belongs to Bill. Exemplo: What do you want to eat? I want a hamburger. Exemplo: We have tea and coffee, which do you want? I want some tea. Exemplo: How often do you swim? I swim every day. Quantos anos? Exemplo: How old are you? Que profundidade? Exemplo: How deep is the swimming pool? De que tamanho? Exemplo: How big is your house? Por quanto tempo. For five years. Que altura? Exemplo: How tall is she? By bus. I have two. Only one hour. I have to study.

In January. Exemplo: The girl who is talking to John is his sister. Exemplo: The singer whom they admire is Caetano Veloso. Pode substituir who, whom e which. Exemplo: The letter that I received was sent by my mother. Exemplo: The house where I had lived is very confortable. Exemplo: I always remember when is your birthday.

This system disappeared during the Industrial Revolution as new machinery requiring. He is answering the phone. He is my manager. It was published in today's paper. It is very beautiful. Her fortune is large. Exemplo: She is always studying. Exemplo: She sometimes works at night. Exemplo: Is John working in the morning? Yes, he always is. Exemplo: Yesterday I worked all day. Exemplo: Jane can speak English well.

Exemplo: She walks too fast. Exemplo: lugar modo tempo He played the guitar beautifully at school yesterday. But the false. I hate milk. He goes to work at 6 a. Proverb There is a time for everything. Exemplo: Open the window you? Their very first record, She loves you, sold one million copies. The group disbanded in Exemplo: She said that she worked every day.

He says that he is busy. Dinheiro: Carol paid 70 dollars for her jacket. Posse: Exemplo: John is the brother of Carol. Exemplo: An hour. Exemplo: The music written by Tom Jobim is wonderfull. Exemplo: He plays the guitar very well. Exemplo: The poor. Exemplo: English is very easy. Exemplo: Your father and mine are friends. Exemplo: John is my best friend. Whether in Montemayor's religious writings or in the Diana, the innocent suffering of the virtuous is exalted and happiness is determined to be impossible in the human condition.

In my opinion Harriet Turner's book suffers from having been written to serve both the target generalist audience of the Landmarks series and that composed of specialist peers. On a theoretical level her logical starting point is to reject the suitability of socio-mimetic approaches to the realist novel. Turner, along with most critics, considers Fortunata and Jacinta, written in and , its author's masterwork; for Turner it is also the best Galdosian example of la fazienda.

Other parts of Turner's book are much more successful. They cover material known to readers of the novel, but succeed in revealing significant perspectives not previously enjoyed. The Italian novella emerges as a literary genre with the Decameron's unity of structure, theme and style, its synthesis of entertainment and exemplariness, and its treatment of contemporary society. The present volume offers in Chapter 1 an interesting introduction to the novella and examination of the Decameron that aid in understanding how the genre provided a pattern for the Spanish novela.

Chapter 2 provides a useful overview of the development of the genre in Spain that focuses on miscellanies, collections of novelas , collections of anecdotes, and novelas in narratives. Yarbro proposes that most works of the sixteenth century do not contain artistic reconstruction of personal and social experience, but rather an emphasis on storytelling, at times didactic, at times entertaining.

In Chapter 3 Yarbro studies El Abencerraje, which she considers the first Spanish novela to transform historical reality and social milieu into a work of art. She deftly demonstrates how the internal structure of the work is bound to the theme of harmony and unity and how its exemplariness offers universal brotherhood as a solution to the conflict between Old and New Christians.

Next Yarbro studies some of Cervantes' novelas which she maintains were intended as entertainment. They do not berate corruption of values in society, but rather seek to redefine them in novelistic situations. She demonstrates how novelas in the Quijote are related to their context and to one another thematically. Some novelas ejemplares oppose social values and attitudes through entertainment rather than moralizing. Some critics may take issue with her relating artistic vision within works to authors.

Although some scholars will disagree with Yarbro's belief that Cervantes' novelas are shaped to his vision of life rather than the artistic vision within the works, they will certainly appreciate some of her insights. Another highlight of the book is its treatment of Lope's novelas as an alternative to the tradition of the genre. Yarbro skillfully points out how Lope grapples with the theory of the novela and projects his literary persona into his works as he attempts to dignify them with erudite digressions.

Exemplariness is found in his treatment of society's values and ideals. This book deserves a better format, and should have had another reading to eliminate its typos. Several references in notes to professors and classes at Harvard which do not contribute to the study are already mentioned once in the preface. Yarbro's study, with its careful research, offers a new view of the novela in Spain, one that shows the development of the genre and various authors' contributions to it.

Ochoa's tape includes numerous songs of protest about conditions in Mexico today; malinchismo, however, with its underlying misogyny, is not condemned, but rather confirmed as a potent ideological tool of Mexican nationalism. Cypess's discussion makes obvious that La Malinche is always becoming, a sign perpetually appropriated by others for their own specific ideological project.

What matters then is who these others are, and not necessarily who Malinche really was. In the first chapters of the book Cypess concentrates on exposing how this discourse has functioned. The rest of her efforts are directed at the ways in which recent writers have appropriated La Malinche for a more decidedly subversive and feminist purpose.

The Chicanas studied here do something similar, although their identification with Malinche has very much to do with ethnic pride. Cypess offers very perceptive and compelling readings of the many works she reviews. She covers prose, poetry and drama with equal ease and elegance.

But La Malinche as sign is illusive precisely because she is the product of semiological encoding and decoding. It is not surprising, then, that some of Cypess's readings will evoke disagreement; for example, Emilio Carballido's play Ceremonial en el templo del tigre can easily be interpreted not as a critique but as a confirmation of traditional malinchismo in its insistence that Mexicans reject foreigners albeit in this case they are represented by U. Gender and Representation in Mexico, one of the best yet in its weaving of history, ideology and the deconstruction of a powerful but altogether socially constructed sign.

He has written an outstanding background essay delineating the historical-ideological context and the aesthetic influences inspiring and informing the poem, as well as providing the reader with intrinsic analysis of the poem's form and content. He also furnishes background information on this most extensive version of the poem which includes the Cantos not published until after the author's death, a critical bibliography, and textual notes accompanied by an extremely useful index to the notes following the text which clarify obscure and archaic meanings of words, [] historical and geographical references, and important lexical interrelations between La Araucana and other contemporary or classical literary texts.

As Lerner's introduction unfolds, the reader becomes increasingly aware that La Araucana is being studied by a scholar who has devoted considerable effort to its analysis and contextualization on a variety of important levels. Lerner explicates the ideology of the text which is never dissociated from an equally rigorous analysis of its insertion within the Renaissance aesthetic renovation of epic poetry.

Lerner distinguishes La Araucana within the tradition of Spanish epic poetry as the most famous of the historical epic poems dealing with the conquest of America; he notes that the poem was viewed as a historical document for over three centuries. The poem reflects the author's knowledge of classical literary tradition as well as his consciousness of the contemporary aesthetic debates occurring around him. Ercilla's epic poem, like Lucano's, centers around an extensive military campaign and relies much more heavily on oneiric and magical elements rather than mythological ones.

It is America, Lerner continues, which had the most profound and permanent influence on Ercilla's literary vocation. In this sense, the poem certainly reveals less concern with generic traditions than it does with the depiction of New World realities and events for its readers. Lerner's introduction also comments on the poem's important thematics of heroism: the presentation of its protagonists, both Araucano and Spanish including an especially interesting commentary on the female characters [] , obeys both generic and ideological necessities.

In addition to the historical background on the poem, Lerner's semantic and literary analyses also contribute to the reader's understanding of the poem within its historical context. He demonstrates the ways in which various characteristics structuring the epic genre are integrated by Ercilla with the historical data he has chronicled. Dada la relativa escasez de obras sobre el tema, este tipo de estudio es siempre bienvenido. III y V. Mudito, el ejercitante; III. Mudito, el profeta; IV. Citas en castellano de los textos analizados; B.

Lista de las obras de Donoso; y C. The last few years have seen the publication outside Brazil of several significant studies of Brazilian popular music. They parallel the international release of the CDs of many contemporary Brazilian recording artists and of multi-volumed musical anthologies such as those compiled by David Byrne and Gerald Seligman, as well as the re-release in CD form of several earlier bossa nova collections. Arguably the most comprehensive, if not also the most commercial, of such recent books is McGowan and Pessanha's The Brazilian Sound, a flashy paperback volume chock-full of photographs and various other graphic enhancements to the text.

It is also, in some respects, the most propaedeutic. The work is divided into nine chapters, followed by a glossary of Brazilian musical terms, a select bibliography, and a discography of the recordings that the authors regard as both representative of contemporary Brazilian popular music and as most currently available outside Brazil.

After a short foreword by jazz musician Paul Winter himself a North American convert to the Brazilian sound , and a concise introduction, the work opens Chapter 1 with an overview of Amerindian, Portuguese, and African contributions to the development of Brazilian popular music over the course of the last five centuries. Some effort is made to place this discussion within the larger context of Brazilian history and culture.

Chapters 2 through 9 are each devoted to a particular musical genre or tradition: samba, bossa nova, MPB, the mineiro sound, Bahia, the Northeast and North, jazz and instrumental music, and rock. The rise of MPB in Brazil is attributed, at least in part, to the political repression and censorship of the military regimes of the s and 70s. Popular music festivals, short-lived though they may have been, are recognized by the authors both as having played a signal role in catalyzing political protest and as having catapulted a number of young MPB artists to stardom. Again, there is mention of the controversy surrounding the movement, both right and left having criticized it for attempting to fuse traditional Brazilian genres and instrumentation with those of American and British rock in order to create an often satirical mixture into which just about anything, Brazilian or not, could go.

This is followed by a look at the largely African-inspired genres of the popular music of Bahia state, particularly studying its capital, Salvador.

Visor de obras.

Here, the music of patriarch Dorival Caymmi is discussed in greater detail. Chapter 7 is devoted primarily to Northeastern music. The chapter ends with a treatment of some of the folk rhythms and performers of the Brazilian North. Brazilian instrumental music and jazz are the topic of Chapter 9. Greater space is given to discussing the many collaborations between Brazilian and American jazz musicians and to a number of additional Brazilian jazz performers of note. Rounding out the book is a presentation of the Brazilian rock scene from the mids to the present.

Indeed, there is no denying the dictionary-like qualities of many of the entries, particularly those appearing as short boxed summaries with little or no connection to the main body of the text. I would argue, nonetheless, that it is precisely in this format that the work's greatest strength lies. Unlike Perrone's study, which penetrates much more deeply into the works of a limited number of poet-composers, McGowan and Pessanha seek to give the [] broad picture, leaving little out in the process.

Their style is light and lively, their approach diachronic. The plethora of photos, maps, drawings, illustrations, and rhythm patterns, while certainly contributing to the need to abbreviate the book's textual descriptions, by the same token greatly enhance its texture. For all its flash and commerciality, The Brazilian Sound is an attractive primer and a fundamental reference work for the Brazilianist scholar.

One of Chile's most prominent men of letters, Ariel Dorfman has distinguished himself as essayist, novelist, poet, dramatist, and writer of short stories. Perhaps because his works are often complex and difficult to interpret, the bibliography on Dorfman is hardly extensive. For this reason Salvador Oropesa's monograph will be especially welcome to those interested in contemporary Spanish American literature.

Oropesa has divided his book into six major chapters, four dealing with Dorfman's four novels, one treating a selection of his short stories, and one discussing his writings on pop culture. In his introduction, Oropesa presents an overview of Dorfman's life and work and, in addition, alludes to the major influences on his literary formation, including Borges, Kundera, Marx, Barthes, and Jakobson. Oropesa also sees it as a Brechtian work whose preoccupation with the narrative process makes the reader more conscious of its ideological content. Moros en la costa stands out as a strong statement, with Marxist overtones, on Chile under Salvador Allende.

Laconic in its prose and more traditional in structure, Viudas contrasts sharply with its predecessor. Here Dorfman has invented an allegory about his homeland under General Pinochet's military regime, the setting of which is a Greek village Longa suffering from Nazi oppression during World War II. Oropesa sees in this tragic novel a Manichean struggle between good and evil, the widows of the village embodying good and their German oppressors, evil. Also pointed out by the critic are resonances of Borges in the narrative technique.

The two protagonists are militant Allende supporters in the process of writing a satirical film script about Augusto Pinochet. But this work has multiple narrative voices and at least three plot threads, one of which involves fetuses refusing to be born into a society suffering from the abuses of power a major theme. Among the possible influences on this text are Brecht and modernist fiction writers, who emphasize estrangement techniques, and Barthes and Jakobson, whose ideas on deconstruction are plainly discernible.

Important aspects of this novel, we are told, include elements of the absurd, parallels between linguistic and physical violence, and echoes of Milan Kundera's fiction. Para leer al pato Donald , Dorfman's best-known treatise on pop culture, is the principal subject of Oropesa's final chapter, which analyzes this well-known essay both as an example of postmodernism and as a Marxist attack on the capitalistic ideology conveyed by the eponymous Disney cartoon.

Salvador Oropesa's monograph is marred by printing errors, but his scholarly study represents a fine contribution to the bibliography on an internationally acclaimed writer. Schutte's work is well-documented, clearly written, critically presented and interesting to read. In seven chapters Schutte presents the connections between the various political and intellectual movements in Latin America since Thus, Schutte presents some of the theoretical conclusions she has reached in the process of trying to understand a variety of problems faced by Latin American women in their cultural context, especially in the area's hyper machismo, and some of the strategies used to solve them.

Her conclusions are as follows: 1 solutions for women's problems in Latin America can not be imported ready made from elsewhere ; 2 feminism is a minority perspective among Latin American women ; and 3 Latin America's heterogenous women's movement seeks to preserve the integrity of the reconstituted family as it participates assertively in social life In summary: any theory of Latin American cultural identity and social liberation must take into consideration, as this book does, neglected minorities. Very few books of criticism have been written to explicate or analyze another critical study of a literary work.

Weinberg's book is a valuable contribution to the study of one of the best essayists in Latin American literature. Os autores comparam as culturas americana e brasileira, e, nesta, predominantemente, a paulistana. Animal rights, liberation theology, lack of support for public education, the abortion controversy, wet dreams, and homosexuality are included.

Entirely in Spanish, this text is intended for an advanced conversation course and allows teachers to select and reject from its abundant material according to situational requirements. Each of its four units includes readings, questions involving both content and opinion, vocabulary [] exercises, and creative activities such as writing a short poem or filling in a chart comparing two stories point by point.

The units are divided thematically into the four categories of tradition and change; cultural contrasts; human rights; and women. While the authors are confident that many of the films are available at local video stores, they provide us with the address of the University of Oregon's Archive for Spanish Films on Video, just in case.

Entertaining idiomatic equivalences are discussed in detail, as are dialectal differences within Spanish and some words in both languages that defy simple translation. The book cites vocabulary items estrenar, sobremesa and tertulia as uniquely Spanish concepts, but does not explain or include the last two in the glosario.

In fact, not one of the following words culled from the text appears in the lamentably inadequate fourteen-page glossary: archisabido, cetrino, empedernidamente, impedido, presupuesto, rifa, trampantojo, zarparse. Black-and-white photographs combined with pencil drawing and even a diagram for dance steps complement the text.

The timeliness of the material and the many creative questions are designed to goad the student into formulating a personal response. Since the text depends so much upon its timeliness, it will require revision in a relatively short time to avoid anachronisms. But the very vitality and gusto that the three authors have imparted to the text the first time around will surely motivate them as they gather material for future editions as well.

The most notable change in the second edition of this elementary textbook is the new sequence of grammar presentations which affects chapters While the situational themes of the chapters remain the same some in a different order , the grammatical structures presented in each have changed. All of the present indicative tense forms and uses are now in chapters The subjunctive appears later chapter 9.

This means introducing the present subjunctive forms at the end of a semester, since the authors suggest covering chapters in one semester. The book treats the rest of the subjunctive mood in chapters 10, 13, 15 and Another change is the attractive presentation of the book. The page layout and graphics are better than in the first edition and there is more color, including maps and new photographs. Also, the contents of each chapter are better publicized.

Both of these sections are new to the second edition. The first three present vocabulary, grammatical structures and culture. The vocabulary is presented in context and through varied formats. A complete list of the vocabulary organized by theme and part of speech ends each chapter. The grammar is related to the communicative theme and is linked to a linguistic function to show the relationship between the grammatical structure and its meaning e. Indicating ownership: Unstressed possessive adjectives. There are three or four exercises for each grammar presentation.

Usually, the first two are structured e. Some of these are new and others are resequenced in the second edition. These contextualized activities stress games and roleplays. The authors have done an excellent job of incorporating culture as well as reading practice into each chapter. Although many of the cultural topics are similar to those found in other textbooks, they are thematically relevant and will be of interest to the students. An extensive and thorough Introduction presents the sound system and alphabet, punctuation and diacritics, and rules of accentuation. Appendixes of readings, verb forms, and a trilingual dictionary complete the text.

A footnote on explains the difference in connotation between the Portuguese discutir and the English discuss or Spanish discutir. The problematic letter x with its four possible pronunciations is presented clearly and concisely on , and the explanation is immediately followed by an application. Like all the exercises in the text, answers are provided to the odd numbers.

The menu on 69 supports the food vocabulary of Unit 2, but also augments cultural learning with its four kinds of bananas [] and five varieties of mangos. Grammar presentations are thorough, concise, and in English. Especially fine are the sections dealing with difficult concepts or contrasts such as the usage of the present perfect and the subjunctive versus the indicative in Portuguese as opposed to Spanish and English. The judicious use of schema and mnemonic devices appeal to varied learning styles.

Readings are varied and gradually increase in length. Though the author of the text wrote some of the readings, many are from well-known Brazilian writers. Brazilian songs, long a staple of the Brazilian Portuguese classroom, provide readings and culture while often focusing on some issue of Portuguese language acquisition. As the Introduction points out, students are supposed to do mechanical drills as homework to prepare for the use of Portuguese in context in the classroom. Supporting materials consist of an Instructor's Manual and a set of three tapes.

The Instructor's Manual discusses diverse learning styles and methodologies, offers suggestions on how to organize a class, presents a sample syllabus and several sample tests, and offers detailed suggestions and activities for teaching each unit. The book provides answers to all even-numbered textbook exercises. The first two tapes correlate with the Introduction and Units 1, 2, and 3, with Brazilians from different regions reading all pronunciation exercises, dictations, and dialogues. The last tape contains spoken vocabulary, in which a speaker from Espirito Santo and one from Minas Gerais read aloud all the vocabulary in Appendix C.

Students are thus able to hear distinct differences among native speakers, such as luz versus lu i z. And yet, because the supporting materials are so good, one wishes there were tapes to accompany Units as well, and that record companies would give rights of reproduction for a tape of Brazilian music to accompany the lyrics so efficaciously used in the text.

The background of the action is the history of Spain during the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, from shortly before the War of Independence to the Russian Revolution. Sooner or later the repercussions of these events reach Artefa, the imaginary village in Las Alpujarras that is the setting for the novel and that suffers from the same poverty, hunger, epidemics, and political and ecclesiastical abuses that plague the rest of the country. A genealogical table enables us to keep track of the characters of this saga and to disentangle the web of relationships that span five generations.

The sections which compose the novel eventually all fit together, like the pieces of a giant jigsaw puzzle, but many segments can be read as independent units. Their import, however, is heightened when they are set in the context of the book as a whole. Even though the cast of characters is large, a surprising number of them are memorable because of their vitality, their humanity -or inhumanity- and their idiosyncrasies.

The epistolary format of the novel allows the narrator to comment upon his narrative and give us advance notice of future turns of the plot. Talens displays a fine disregard for chronology, and anachronisms abound. Talens's parodic bent is particularly evident in his use of Biblical quotations and stories.

And three wise men visit the newborn Carmen and bring her gifts one January day. The passage that describes comedy and the nature of laughter, which is a result of diction and incidents, highlights the strategies and devices that Talens has employed, including repeated violations of the laws of nature, humorous treatment of characters, and frequent recourse to ribald language, innuendo, and word play. Alayeto, Ofelia. Potomac, Md. Susana A. Loyola University Chicago. Cantalapiedra, Fernando.

Kassel: Edition Reichenberger, Jean S. Trinity University. Miguel Delibes. El escritor, la obra y el lector. Barcelona: Anthropos, Luis T. University of Colorado at Boulder. Fagundes, F. Ornelas , editors. Jorge de Sena. O Homem Que Sempre Foi. Richard A.

University of South Florida. Hegyi, Ottmar.

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Newark, DE: Juan de la Cuesta, Hahn, Juergen. Potomac, MD: Scripta Humanistica, The relationship between reality and literary motifs is, in general, complex. It is obvious that real events, when perceived as unusual or extraordinary, have tended to inspire authors of all ages. Eventually, a situation inspired in reality becomes entrenched in literary traditions, taken out of its original context. While not in itself impossible, we perceive it as a motif because of the artificial circumstances in which it becomes embedded. Other motifs are by their very nature impossible and therefore easily recognized as such.

Their presence, however, in a literary work, will easily contaminate the entire work with a feeling of unreality. Depending on one's artistic vision of the world, this is not necessarily undesirable. Edward H. Indiana University.