A maximum of 15 players can play rugby union at any one time whereas rugby league permits 13 players. In both games, the positions are divided into "backs" and "forwards". Many of the positions have similar names but in practice are very different. In the backs, rugby league centres are split into left and right centre rather than inside and outside centres. The reduction in the importance of the scrum and the removal of the line-out from rugby league, has meant it is a faster free flowing game. Very different skill sets and body types needed for the different positions has become more obvious as union players specialise more.
In rugby league, props are physically big, straight running forwards whose job it is to set the platform and get the go forward while still possessing agility and good ball handling skills. They are similar to the loose forward trio of flankers and number eight in rugby union. Depending on their speed and ball playing skills, lock forwards in rugby league can generally play as both a forward and as an extra five-eight.
Scrum-half is a specialized position in rugby union and similar to the hooker in league: the number 9 initiates most moves by his or her team and must be an excellent passer of the ball in rugby union as with league. In rugby league any player can act from dummy half, however, in the professional modern game it is a specialised job for the hooker to instigate and direct the forward platform. He must also be able to probe with a running and varied kicking game from dummy half while still possessing strong and effective tackling.
The similarity between the two games has meant that players can switch between the two codes. League initially recruited big name players from union, like Herbert "Dally" Messenger in ,  and the RFU responded by banning any player that played rugby league for life. Players who achieve play international rugby in both codes are known as dual-code internationals. In , when the new "Northern Union" code was still in its infancy, a match between the Kangaroos and the Wallabies was played before a crowd of around 20,, with the rugby league side winning, 29— This was precursor to the following Christmas when two Challenge games were organised between the two sides but this time with one of each code.
The Navy won the union game, 9—3, on Christmas Eve but proved equally adept at league recording a 24—3 win on 28 December. In , a Northern Command army rugby league side defeated a Northern Command union side, 18—11, at Headingley under rugby union laws. The following year a Combined Services rugby league side beat a Combined Services union side, 15—10, at Bradford again at rugby union.
These were the only league v union matches played until With both sports becoming professional matches between union and league teams have been played. In May , Bath Rugby and Wigan RLFC , who were then England's top union and league sides respectively, made history by playing against each other at both codes of rugby.
Wigan won, 82—6, in the first match, played under league rules, and lost the second, 44—19, under union rules. Since then other games have been played between union and league teams using the laws of one of the codes, or in some cases using a different set of laws for each half. Since the two match series in , there has only been one similar endeavour to bring together union and league.
In January , St Helens rugby league took on Sale rugby union in a single game played at Knowsley Road, intended to have one half under league rules and the other under union rules. Unlike Bath, who were to all intents and purposes still the amateur side they had been, Sale had the benefit of almost a decade of professionalism to improve both strength and fitness that was necessary for them to adapt to the constant tackling required in rugby league.
Traditionally, the two rugbys have been seen as divided along class lines, with union associated more with the middle class, and league with the working class. In England, rugby union is widely regarded as an "establishment" sport, played mostly by members of the upper and middle classes. For example, many students at public schools play rugby union. In Wales, rugby union is associated with small village teams which consisted of coal miners and other industrial workers playing on their days off.
In Australia, the two codes were also strongly divided down class lines. The same perceived class barrier as exists between the two games in England also occurs in these states, fostered by rugby union's prominence and support at private schools. In New Zealand, rugby union is played throughout the whole country where as rugby league is still considered to be a lower class game by many, or a game for "westies" referring to lower class western suburbs of Auckland and more recently the poorer southern Auckland where the game is popular.
In France, rugby union is widely played and has a strong tradition in the Basque , Occitan , and Catalan areas [ citation needed ] along the border regions between Spain and France. It rivals the popularity of association football. Rugby league has historically been played in much the same region.
In the UK, the "two codes" of rugby are very different in scale and turnover. Australia in , rugby league had 1,, participants in the sport including school clinics , and , registered players. A significant portion of Rugby Union's revenue is derived from the national team touring overseas and visiting tours, while Rugby League's is largely generated by its strong domestic league. The number of rugby union players in New Zealand is estimated to be ,, with 35,  playing rugby league.
Rugby union generally has a broader reach around the world, largely due to the unrestricted spread of the game across commonwealth countries, promulgated by British armed forces, during a time when the armed forces inexplicably banned rugby league in the early 20th century. The oldest international rugby union competition is the Six Nations Championship , starting in with games played between England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland.
France joined in and Italy in In the Southern Hemisphere teams of South Africa, Australia and New Zealand started their own annual international competition known as the Tri Nations; it adopted its current name of The Rugby Championship when Argentina joined in Rugby union was previously a medal sport at four Olympic games, in Paris and , London and Antwerp , and returned to the Olympics in  in the sevens form.
Rugby union sevens is a core event at both the Commonwealth Games and the Asian Games. The major annual international competition in rugby league is the Four Nations , first played in It originally involved Britain, Australia and New Zealand before expanding to include a fourth invited nation in Rugby league introduced its World Cup in and it has been held intermittently since, in various formats. Rugby union's first World Cup was held in and both are contested every four years. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Comparison of two of the codes of the team sport rugby: rugby league and rugby union.
Further information: History of rugby league and History of rugby union. See also: Football word. Further information: Rugby league gameplay and Rugby union gameplay. See also: Tackle football move.
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Further information: Rugby league playing field. Further information: Rugby league positions and Rugby union positions. See also: List of dual-code rugby internationals. The Age. Retrieved 27 May Evening Standard. London : ESI Media. Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 14 June Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 22 June Independent, The.
Retrieved 25 September Rugby's great split: class, culture and the origins of rugby league football 2nd ed. Retrieved 27 February No superstar has done more to drag an undermanned team to the title. The Spurs were a team in transition, with David Robinson on his farewell tour and the backcourt of second-year point guard Tony Parker and rookie shooting guard Manu Ginobili yet to grow into co-stars. In the playoffs, Parker Yet the Spurs still dispatched of the three-time defending champion L.
Lakers and a win Dallas Mavericks team with a little help from Dirk Nowitzki's knee injury to reach the Finals. There, against a New Jersey Nets team making its second consecutive Finals appearance, Duncan took over to an unprecedented degree. He averaged Duncan settled for the only in the past 27 Finals , his second championship and the third spot on this list. Peak domination by the center who could call himself "Big Champion" for the first time at the end of this run.
Coming off a regular season in which he was one first-place vote away from a unanimous MVP, O'Neal extended his position atop the league over an even 1, playoff minutes, a career high and good for ninth in modern NBA history. His O'Neal was particularly dominant coming off extended rest at the start of each series: In four Game 1s, he averaged But O'Neal left something for the clinchers, too.
He had 32 points and 18 rebounds in the deciding Game 5 in the opening round against Sacramento. Though O'Neal's overall stat line 18 points, nine boards from Game 7 against Portland was pedestrian, he came up with half of those points during the run that brought the Lakers back from a point deficit. While the highest-scoring of Jordan's six championship runs didn't produce the kind of iconic memories as other years, it was plenty productive. Despite the growth in his supporting cast, Jordan used 38 percent of Chicago's plays during the postseason, the highest figure of any player ever to win a championship.
In fact, until Carmelo Anthony produced a Yet Jordan maintained his efficiency by making a career-high 28 3-pointers at nearly a 40 percent clip. Having breezed through the first two rounds , Jordan and the Bulls ran into a tough New York Knicks defense with home-court advantage. After he was spotted at an Atlantic City casino in the wee hours before Game 2, Jordan shot of as the Knicks took a series lead. He responded with 54 points back home in Game 4, then a triple-double 29 points, 14 assists, 10 rebounds in a series-changing Game 5 win at Madison Square Garden. The Lakers defended their championship with a playoff run, one John Hollinger ranked the greatest in post-merger history , and O'Neal put up nearly a carbon copy of his performance, averaging identical rebound totals, 0.
Why does get the nod?
The big difference is in turnovers -- O'Neal averaged 2. There were plenty of impressive performances along the way. He bounced back from his worst performance of the playoffs 19 points on 8-of shooting in a Game 2 win at San Antonio with 35 points on of shooting from the field in a point Game 3 evisceration en route to the sweep.
But his best all-around performance of the series might have come in Game 2, as the Lakers rebounded with the first of four consecutive wins: 28 points, 20 rebounds, nine assists and eight blocks. The year before he was reunited with college teammate Clyde Drexler, Olajuwon dragged a Rockets team without a second star to the first of back-to-back championships.
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Olajuwon averaged more than twice as many points in the playoffs as Houston's second-leading scorer Vernon Maxwell, But the Rockets' fleet of outside shooters ideally suited Olajuwon's game, and he dominated the defensive end, becoming the only player to average 4. Houston needed Olajuwon to be great every night, and he scored at least 20 points in 22 of 23 playoff games, including a pair of point efforts. Having returned home to the Cavaliers, LeBron delivered the city of Cleveland its first major pro sports championship since in dramatic fashion.
Facing a Golden State Warriors team that had set the all-time NBA record with 73 wins, the Cavaliers fell behind in the Finals only to deliver the most important comeback in league history -- with James powering the way. Over the final three games against Golden State, all of them wins, two of them on the road, James averaged He also delivered the signature play of his remarkable career in the late stages of Game 7, chasing down Andre Iguodala in transition to block a layup attempt that would have given the Warriors the lead.
Naturally, James was phenomenal even before the Finals comeback. The postseason run was the only time in LeBron's career that he blocked at least 3 percent of opposing 2-point attempts and had at least three steals per plays in the playoffs -- something only Ben Wallace for the Detroit Pistons has done while playing more than minutes since the ABA-NBA merger. While the 76ers couldn't quite live up to Malone's famous "fo', fo', fo'" declaration -- they actually went fo', fi', fo', losing Game 4 at Milwaukee in the Eastern Conference finals -- they came as close to playoff perfect as any team before them.
Malone carried the team there in far and away his best postseason run. Aside from a point outing in as many minutes during the first game of the postseason against New York, Malone was more about consistency than big performances. He recorded a double-double in all 13 games Philadelphia played and wrapped up an NBA Finals sweep of the Lakers with his only effort 24 points, 23 rebounds. In the Finals, Malone outscored Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and outrebounded him in virtually identical minute totals.
LeBron's third top playoff performance -- one more than Jordan -- came as the Heat repeated in , a championship that looked doomed late in Game 6 of the NBA Finals. Thrown by the San Antonio Spurs backing off defensively and daring him to shoot, James had an uneven Finals. He scored just 50 total points on sub percent shooting in the first three games as San Antonio took a lead. With Miami trailing at home in the fourth quarter of a must-win Game 6, James found his groove, leading a comeback that was capped by Ray Allen's improbable 3 to force overtime.
Given new life, James brought the Heat home in Game 7 with 37 points on of shooting and 12 rebounds. For the second consecutive postseason, LeBron led all players in both offensive and defensive win shares in the playoffs, according to Basketball-Reference. A playoff run that culminated with the Celtics beating the Lakers in seven games in the first of their three meetings goes down as the best of Larry Legend's career -- barely. Bird's He scored at least 20 points in 22 of 23 games. Bird's best outing came in Game 5 of the conference semifinals, as Boston closed out New York behind his 39 points, 12 rebounds and 10 assists.
Bird outscored Bernard King in the series, Going against Lakers stopper Michael Cooper in the Finals, Bird alternated tough shooting nights with great ones. In a crucial Game 4 win at L. Picking between Bird's and playoff runs is like choosing between Biggie or 2Pac: Either way, you're arguing for greatness. By , Bird's evolution into a perimeter-oriented small forward was complete. He became the first NBA player to make 50 percent from the field, 40 percent on 3-point shots and 90 percent of free throws taken in a playoff run with at least 50 3-point attempts three players have done it since, none of whom reached the Finals that season.
Bird also averaged 8. If anything, Bird wasn't tested enough as Boston was forced to a Game 6 just once. He peaked at 36 points in both Game 2 and Game 5 against the Atlanta Hawks in the conference semifinals. During the NBA Finals, facing the Houston Rockets, Bird topped the point mark just once but recorded two of his three playoff triple-doubles, including 29 points, 12 assists and 11 rebounds as Boston closed out the series in Game 6. No asterisk here. Duncan's first championship run saw him average The hidden key to Duncan's playoff success?
He made With Kobe Bryant emerging as a co-star, O'Neal carried a slightly lighter load in terms of scoring and rebounding in the Lakers' third consecutive title. But he was still capable of taking over, including a point, board effort in the infamous Game 6 win over Sacramento in the Western Conference finals. A young, explosive Wade lived at the foul line all postseason; his attempts rank fourth in NBA history, and only then-teammate Shaquille O'Neal has taken more.
Wade's playmaking -- he recorded four point-assist double-doubles -- also helped get Miami to the NBA Finals. Gregoriou , Karyn L. Neuhauser - Palgrave MacMillan. This collection of exclusive articles presents the latest research in the area of mergers and acquisitions. It presents what drives corporate Brown - Palgrave MacMillan. Companies and their advisors are frequently faced with questions regarding mergers, acquisitions, and divestitures. Until now, relevant information Cook - Palgrave MacMillan. Hoskisson , Robert E.
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