Authorities in certain areas, such as the Pan American Health Organization, are now working to prevent cases of Chagas disease infection by using strong bug repellent sprays and insecticides to kill off populations of kissing bugs. Burning or diffusing certain essential oils, such as citronella oil , may keep some bugs from making their way into your home. You can also consider contacting a professional pest control company if you suspect there are kissing bugs in your area or around your home.
The CDC recommends taking precaution against kissing bugs entering your home by doing some of the following:. But it can help you to feel better. And it can help you overcome your infection more easily with help from medications or other treatments. You can follow a parasite cleansing diet on your own by doing some of the following for several weeks:. While it only happens very rarely, sometimes a Chagas disease infection can occur due to drinking contaminated water or eating contaminated foods. This is especially true in regions of South America where infections are more common.
People have reported a number of cases of foodborne Chagas disease after eating foods including sugar cane, fruit juice, palm berry, acai berry and possibly undercooked meat. To limit your risk of acquiring any type of parasite while traveling, follow these tips to stay on the safe side:. Overall, Chagas disease is rare in the United States. Two bugs that resemble kissings bugs include wheel bugs and western corsairs, both of which are mostly harmless.
Visit your doctor right away if you spot a kissing bug nearby and suspect that a bite has occurred. Josh Axe is on a mission to provide you and your family with the highest quality nutrition tips and healthy recipes in the world More Health Dr. Axe on Facebook 22 Dr. Axe on Twitter 22 Dr. Axe on Instagram Dr. Axe on Google Plus Dr. Axe on Youtube Dr. Axe on Twitter 8 Dr. What are mitochondria and how do they help us?
Chagas Heart Disease. Dyspnea often occurs most prominently with exertion, but may also occur when lying down orthopnea , when bending over bendopnea , or may cause sudden awakening from deep sleep paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. Swelling of the legs, and possibly of the abdomen, often results from water and salt retention that occurs with heart failure. Weakness and fatigue. Reduced cardiac pumping ability can cause significant weakness and fatigue.
The cardiac arrhythmias commonly associated with heart failure often produce palpitations. Loss of consciousness may result from dangerous cardiac arrhythmias. Stroke is associated with heart failure of any type, because of an increased propensity for blood clotting. Sudden death. Chagas Gastrointestinal Disease.
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)
Advanced Chagas gastrointestinal disease can lead to massive, flaccid dilation of the colon megacolon or esophagus megaesophagus. In these cases, symptoms of constipation or dysphagia can become so severe as to be life-threatening. Causes and Risk Factors of Chagas Disease.
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What are your concerns? Article Sources. J Card Fail ; Circulation ; Continue Reading. How Chagas Disease Is Treated. How Chagas Disease Is Diagnosed. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Toxoplasmosis? An Overview of Rubella. Symptoms of Lyme Disease. Active flavonoids 14 , 15 , 16 and 17 from ethanol extracts of L.
In vivo studies were also performed by Meira and collaborators [ 11 ] to evaluate the effects of the same extracts against T. The treatment reduced significantly blood parasitemia in mice when compared to those treated only with vehicle. The authors suggest that the potent activity of concentrated ethanolic extract from P. In Solanaceae family, distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of Americas, Africa, and Australia, the genus Solanum is the most representative comprising about species [ 18 ]. Several Solanum species have their biological activities intensively investigated, being proved the antiviral, diuretic, antifungi, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, and other pharmacodynamic properties.
In the light of chemical ecology, the antiparasitic effect of S. At least that is believed by some authors [ 19 ]. Solanum nudum Dunal or zapata has been used ethnopharmacologically to treat fevers. Extracts from leaves were reported to have antimalarial activity in vitro against asexual blood forms of protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. An early phytochemical analysis showed a very similar profile of secondary metabolites for both species extracts, revealing the presence of triterpenes, phenols, saponins, flavonoids, coumarins, and anthocyanosids on polar extracts.
The authors found that biological activity of S. Meanwhile, the ethanol and dichloromethane extracts from S. The ethanol extract activity was comparable to benznidazole 4 , probably due to the identification of polar compounds, known to exhibit antiprotozoal activity such as saponins, flavonoids, and coumarins. In the dichloromethane extract was found the presence of steroids such as diosgenone, which can explain its activity [ 12 ]. The cytotoxicity is related to the cell type, although steroids of Solanum species are also important for their cytotoxicity.
Based on activity observed for dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of S. However, additional studies on toxicity using other cell lines are required in order to discriminate whether the toxicity shown by these extracts is against tumoral or nontumoral cells [ 12 ]. More than 20, known compounds are triterpenoids produced by plants through squalene cyclization.
Experimental and Clinical Treatment of Chagas Disease: A Review
The terpenes are considered to be the most representative group of phytochemicals [ 21 ] being the structural base for several classes of derivatives. Hence, compounds from these classes are very abundant in nature being an attractive group to be screened for biological activities of interest. For example, the phenolic abietane ferruginol 20 , isolated from the roots of the herb Craniolaria annua Martyniaceae known locally as escorzonera , showed activity against trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of T.
Though, it also showed cytotoxic effects against fibroblastic Vero cells. Some semi-synthetic abietane-type diterpenoids isolated from Plectranthus barbatus Andrews boldo de jardim , Dracocephalum komarovii Lipsky, Salvia cilicica Boiss, and Juniperus procera Hochst. African juniper berries have shown promising trypanocidal activity together with a quinone derivative of dehydroabietic acid, methoxycarnosic acid, and a few others [ 3 ]. A complete survey of abietane type terpenois and their biological activities is reviewed by Gonzalez [ 22 ], covering literature from up to The triterpenes ursolic acid 23 and oleanolic acid 24 obtained in their pure form from Miconia species Melastomataceae were tested and shown to be active against the blood form of T.
Animals treated with both substances presented low parasitemia when compared to animals treated with benznidazole 4 [ 5 ]. It was also demonstrated that ursolic acid 23 and oleanolic acid 24 were capable of controlling the peak of parasitemia in infected mice and, interestingly, treated mice did not show any alterations in their biochemical parameters, reinforcing the idea that these triterpenes are not toxic for animals. Considering the low or absent level of toxicity of triterpenes for mice, as well as their high trypanocidal activity, these results suggest that both compounds can be used for the development of new drugs against T.
Both were tested in vitro in their pure form against antiepimastigote and antipromastigote forms of parasites L. The authors also tested the substances caryophyllene 25 and eugenol 26 regarding their cytotoxicity. About T. Many compounds from this chemical class often show high activity against T.
Some scholars in the area suspect that these compounds have the power to generate free radicals within trypanosomes [ 14 ]. Complementary ultra structural studies demonstrated that many compounds from this chemical class may affect mitochondrial function. It is also practicable that these sequiterpene lactones may affect calcium metabolism, once they are similar to thapsigargin 28 , a potent inhibitor of this ion. However, this hypothesis has not been tested yet. Interestingly, some of these terpenic molecules are feasible to chemical modification in order to comprehend their mechanisms of action in such organisms or intended to optimize their effectiveness on elimination of parasites.
It is possible to strategically perform chemical reactions on specific functional groups on some known natural products. This approach proved to be very effective, once with the increasing on lipophilicity of isolated diterpenes lead to a substantial improvement on their trypanocidal activity, for example. It is also reported that parasites have a rudimentary defence system highly sensitive to oxidative stress, being their main vulnerability [ 14 ].
They are very abundant in nature being responsible for many interesting properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and free-radical scavengers. The ethanol leaf extract from the bay cedar, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Malvaceae , was active in vitro against the tested parasite strains of T. The cytotoxicity presented by the aforementioned extract reinforces the need for further tests, including in vivo trials, like antineoplastic activity in tumor cells, before considerate G. In this study, the authors reported that sakuranetin 30 presented good activity against all tested Leishmania species and against T.
This chemical modification yielded an inactive compound against the tested parasite species. In conclusion, Grecco and collaborators [ 24 ] provided flavanone important structural information required for comprehension about anti-protozoan activity of these flavonoids. Lectin is the name given to a group containing all sugar-specific agglutinins of nonimmune origin.
Those substances were found to be valuable because they could recognize and bind carbohydrates specifically and reversibly. Hence, the lectins have great potential and value in the study of glycoproteins, helping to comprehend the mechanisms of many physiological and pathological processes [ 25 ]. Therefore, lectin isolated from triatomine insect Rhodnius prolixus Reduviidae showed to interfere on the life cycle of Trypanosoma rangelii effectively.
Apparently, carbohydrates on the surface of T. It is evident that many medicinal plants from Artemisia genus Asteraceae have ethnopharmacological importance. The classic example refers to Artemisia annua that furnished artemisinin 2 as aforementioned. Likewise, the species Artemisia absinthium L. Different researchers have demonstrated antimicrobial and antiprotozoal effects against T. Among the major constituents identified on A.
Usually the collection of wild herbal populations can result in extracts and essential oils with variable compositions [ 10 ].
So, after A. Essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of velame, Croton pedicellatus, and sangre de drago, Croton leptostachyus Euphorbiaceae , showed to be active against the extracellular forms of T. Unfortunately, despite of being active, Neira and co-workers [ 27 ] found out that these oils were toxic for Vero cells.
The crescent need for bioactive molecules that can be used as potential natural drugs, being able to cure diseases and reducing undesirable side effects at the same time, leads the researches all around the world to look to the sea. Many papers available in the literature report the search for new active compounds, and they have found that marine biodiversity is a promising source of natural products with remarkable biological activities.
Chagas disease - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
To the best of our knowledge, studies involving marine sponges yield close to new pharmacologically active metabolites every year [ 28 ]. Being ancient organisms, some sponges contain diverse groups of metabolically active compounds. Hence, the investigation of biological activity is an important source to obtain extracts or compounds with potential biomedical action. So much that the effect of acetone extract from lyophilized Brazilian and Spanish marine sponges, Chondrosia reniformis esponja de vidro—glass sponge , Tethya rubra the red golfball sponge , Tethya ignis esponja de fogo—fire sponge , Mycale angulosa common sponge , and Dysidea avara soft sponge , was evaluated on growth of T.
All the tested extracts showed activity against epimastigote forms of the parasite.