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Besides correspondence, the collection includes personal photographs and some ephemera. Japanese American relocation photographs. These photographs provide a glimpse into the lives of Japanese immigrants and native born Japanese Americans a. Nisei residing in California from to , with primary emphasis on Much of the coverage documents scenes of: a the relocation process; b life in camps at Manzanar, Santa Anita, Tanforan, and Tule Lake; c post-war repatriation to Japan.

Joseph Roos papers This collection contains papers documenting the activities of Joseph Roos from his retirement from the Community Relations Committee of the Jewish Federation Council in until his death in These papers include correspondence, research files, memoranda and publications. Some documentation of Roos's earlier activities investigating the activities of the German Bund in Los Angeles in the s is also present.

Berstl Julius papers Literary archive of the German emigre author and playwright Julius Berstl The collection includes typescripts, manuscripts, personal and professional correspondence, personal and biographical documents, theater memorabilia, and a small number of literary journals, both in English and in German. Julius Berstl was born on August 6, in Bernburg, Germany to a theatrical family.

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Upon graduation from university, he became the dramaturg, or literary advisor, of the renowned Barnowsky Theaters in Berlin from During this period, Berstl wrote two of his most well-known plays: "Chu the Sinner" and "Dover-Calais. In he became a scriptwriter for the London BBC, for which he wrote over 60 radio dramas. His wife told him that after she died he should move to Santa Barbara; after she passed away in , he kept with her wishes and moved. He lived in Santa Barbara until he passed away in Hanns Eisler papers This rich collection contains Hanns Eisler's personal and business correspondence from his years in Southern California In addition the archive contains a few biographical documents and photographs.

The collection also contains several recordings for films on records by Hanns Eisler. Lion Feuchtwanger papers Lion Feuchtwanger was a celebrated German-Jewish novelist and outspoken enemy of the Nazis. He began his literary career as a theater critic and turned his talent to writing plays in the s and s. In , he went into exile in Southern France and in he emigrated to the United States. He was an important figure in intellectual and artistic circles in Los Angeles during the s and s. Feuchtwanger passed away in He died stateless as he was never returned his German citizenship and was denied American citizenship during the McCarthy era.

The collection includes Feuchtwanger's personal and business correspondence; manuscripts for plays, poetry, short stories, and historical novels; manuscripts by other writers such as Charles Chaplin's manuscript for Limelight; correspondence with publishers; newspaper clippings mentioning Feuchtwanger and other exiles; photographs from Feuchtwanger's life in Germany, his exile in France, and in the United States; copyright agreements and reviews of his works; ephemera; art works; audio and video recordings; and his speeches and open letters about Judaism, politics, and literature.

The papers also contain Feuchtwanger's extensive collection of autograph letters and the bookseller's catalogs used by Feuchtwanger to acquire his vast personal library. Furthermore, the collection includes materials on the establishment of the Feuchtwanger Memorial Library at USC, the International Feuchtwanger Society, and the artists' residence Villa Aurora, the former Feuchtwanger residence.

This archive contains the correspondence of Marta Feuchtwanger, wife of German-Jewish writer Lion Feuchtwanger, who survived her husband by almost thirty years. Marta Feuchtwanger remained an important figure in the exile community and devoted the remainder of her life to promoting the work of her husband. The collection contains Marta Feuchtwanger's personal correspondence, texts and manuscripts by her and others, royalty statements received for the works of her husband, correspondence with publishers, and newspaper clippings mentioning Lion and Marta Feuchtwanger and other exiles.

The collection also includes correspondence regarding the establishment and administration of the Feuchtwanger Memorial Library and Villa Aurora. Felix Guggenheim papers This collection comprises the business and private archives of literary agent and Pazifische Presse co-founder Felix Guggenheim The collection includes private and business correspondence, and contracts with publishers, authors and other business associates between and bulk The collection also includes manuscripts, some photographs and book reviews of works by many of the authors Guggenheim represented.

Authors of the German-speaking Exile community in Los Angeles are particularly well represented. Harold von Hofe papers The collection comprises materials related to von Hofe's tenure as a librarian at USC as well as manuscripts, research notes, articles, and correspondence. Most materials are related to Lion and Marta Feuchtwanger as well as other German-speaking exiles.

Leo Jacobsohn collection The collection contains leaflets, posters, printed forms, advertising, newspaper clippings for the s, reflecting German officialdom, shortages, inflation, and the rise of National Socialism. Ernst Jaeger papers The collection comprises correspondence between Ernst Jaeger and filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl, starting in the s to the s as well as screenplays, manuscripts and other correspondence from Ernst Jaeger.

Blending audio recordings, photographs and correspondence, the cinematic memorabilia offers insight into the tumultuous relationship of the one-time colleagues, revealing how Riefenstahl coped emotionally and financially with her unenvious status as a social pariah following Germany's World War II defeat. Materials that include letters in her own handwriting are an invaluable source for her perspective on life after the war, and they shed light on the reputation of her films and their importance as part of fascist propaganda.

Many of the postcards and letters in the collection are in her native German, though many have been translated into English. This discrete but rich collection not only provides insight into Leni Riefenstahl's personal and financial worries, but also details her relationship with her former collaborator and mentor, Ernst Jaeger. While the first part of the collection focuses on the relationship between Riefenstahl and Jaeger, the second part mainly focuses on Jaegers work in the US. Several manuscripts for screenplays as well as his personal and business correspondence highlight Jaeger's efforts in finding work and recognition in the film business.

Paul Kiess papers This collection contains the personal papers of Dr. Paul Kiess. The collection contains personal correspondence and correspondence with Christian organizations in the US, photographs, newspaper clippings, outlines for Dr. Kiess' speeches, and ephemera. Paul and his wife Edith, a half Jew, left Germany in and went into exile in Prague, Czechoslovakia, France, and London, before emigrating to the United States where Edith studied for her professional qualifying examinations in New York, and Paul went to Princeton where he lectured at various Christian organizations, and studied for his American bar exam.

Irmgard Lenel papers This collection contains the papers of Irmgard Lenel, who was born in Germany in and who immigrated to the United States in She was a politically active socialist involved with groups like Women for Legislative Action and the Friends Committee on Legislation. Her papers include correspondence, photographs, legal papers, and some periodical publications. Heinrich Mann papers The papers include personal and business correspondence, manuscripts and published articles, and personal documents and photographs, and pencil drawings dating from Heinrich Mann's years in France, and Los Angeles, Ludwig Marcuse papers This collection includes personal and business correspondence, manuscripts and published articles, and personal documents and photographs, and pencil drawings dating from Marcuse's years in France, and Los Angeles, Marta Mierendorff papers The collection consists of correspondence, manuscripts, notes, and ephemera regarding the lives and work of many German-speaking emigre artists in Southern California.

One focus of the collection are German Expressionist Theater director Leopold Jessner and his brother-in-law, the actor and director Fritz Jessner , both of whom left Germany in the s to escape the Nazi persecution of Jews. Furthermore it contains transcripts of various conferences on exile studies, articles, presentations, interview transcripts, Wim Wenders screenplays, and data sheets Marta Mierendorff created about various exiled German-speaking artists. The materials were collected by Marta Mierendorff b.

Schnurmann family papers Alfred Schnurmann born in Mulhouse, Alsace-Lorraine was the son of a prosperous Jewish wool merchant. In , Alfred and his daughter Marion were able to obtain visas to the United States as part of the "French" quota, and traveled to the U. He worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad until his retirement in In , Alfred married his girlfriend Faye Faber. The collection contains photographs, negatives, and slides dating from the s to the s, many of them taken in Germany before and during World War II, including some family photos. Also included in this collection are letters to Schnurmann from relatives and associates.

Numerous letters are from family members in Palestine and the new state of Israel. Correspondence between Alfred and his daughter Marion, during her stay at the Wyk orphanage in the s, is also included. They found that requiring customers to buy their products in person increased sales. Women also joined the workforce to replace men who had joined the forces, though in fewer numbers. Roosevelt stated that the efforts of civilians at home to support the war through personal sacrifice was as critical to winning the war as the efforts of the soldiers themselves.

The war effort brought about significant changes in the role of women in society as a whole. When the male breadwinner returned, wives could stop working. At the end of the war, most of the munitions-making jobs ended. Many factories were closed; others retooled for civilian production. In some jobs women were replaced by returning veterans who did not lose seniority because they were in service. Many women working in machinery factories and more were taken out of the work force.

Many of these former factory workers found other work at kitchens, being teachers, etc. The table shows the development of the United States labor force by sex during the war years. Women also took on new roles in sport and entertainment, which opened to them as more and more men were drafted. Night games offered affordable, patriotic entertainment to working Americans who had flocked to wartime jobs in the Midwest hubs of Chicago and Detroit although better paid than in the prewar Depression, most industrial war workers were on gas and tire rationing, limiting them to local recreation options.

The League provided a novelty entertainment of girls who played hardball as well as men, executing traditional baseball skills of sliding and double-plays while wearing short, feminine uniform skirts. Players as young as fifteen were recruited from farm families and urban industrial teams, chaperoned on the road and subject to strict rules of behavior that included mandatory makeup and feminine hair styling, no drinking or smoking, no swearing, no fraternization with men, and no wearing pants in public; moreover, the League only recruited white players.

Fans supported the League to the extent that it continued well past the conclusion of the war, lasting through Labor shortages were felt in agriculture, even though most farmers were given an exemption and few were drafted. Large numbers volunteered or moved to cities for factory jobs.

At the same time many agricultural commodities were in greater demand by the military and for the civilian populations of Allies. Production was encouraged and prices and markets were under tight federal control. Children were encouraged to help with these farms, too. The Bracero Program , a bi-national labor agreement between Mexico and the U.

Some , braceros "strong arms," in Spanish were recruited and contracted to work in the agriculture fields. Between and some , Italian and German prisoners of war were used as farm laborers, loggers, and cannery workers. In Michigan, for example, the POWs accounted for more than one-third of the state's agricultural production and food processing in To help with the need for a larger source of food, the nation looked to school-aged children to help on farms.

Schools often had a victory garden in vacant parking lots and on roofs. Children would help on these farms to help with the war effort. With the war's ever increasing need for able bodied men consuming America's labor force in the early s, industry turned to teen-aged boys and girls to fill in as replacements. The lures of patriotism, adulthood, and money led many youth to drop out of school and take a defense job. Between and , the number of teenage workers increased by 1. The war mobilization changed the relationship of the Congress of Industrial Organizations CIO with both employers and the national government.

Nearly all the unions that belonged to the CIO were fully supportive of both the war effort and of the Roosevelt administration.

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However the United Mine Workers, who had taken an isolationist stand in the years leading up to the war and had opposed Roosevelt's reelection in , left the CIO in The major unions supported a wartime no-strike pledge that aimed to eliminate not only major strikes for new contracts, but also the innumerable small strikes called by shop stewards and local union leadership to protest particular grievances.

In return for labor's no-strike pledge, the government offered arbitration to determine the wages and other terms of new contracts. Those procedures produced modest wage increases during the first few years of the war but not enough to keep up with inflation, particularly when combined with the slowness of the arbitration machinery. Even though the complaints from union members about the no-strike pledge became louder and more bitter, the CIO did not abandon it.

The Mine Workers, by contrast, who did not belong to either the AFL or the CIO for much of the war, threatened numerous strikes including a successful twelve-day strike in The strikes and threats made mine leader John L. Lewis a much hated man and led to legislation hostile to unions. All the major unions grew stronger during the war. The government put pressure on employers to recognize unions to avoid the sort of turbulent struggles over union recognition of the s, while unions were generally able to obtain maintenance of membership clauses, a form of union security , through arbitration and negotiation.

Employers gave workers new untaxed benefits such as vacation time, pensions, and health insurance , which increased real incomes even when wage rates were frozen. The experience of bargaining on a national basis, while restraining local unions from striking, also tended to accelerate the trend toward bureaucracy within the larger CIO unions. Some, such as the Steelworkers, had always been centralized organizations in which authority for major decisions resided at the top. The UAW, by contrast, had always been a more grassroots organization, but it also started to try to rein in its maverick local leadership during these years.

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The CIO leadership, particularly those in further left unions such as the Packinghouse Workers, the UAW, the NMU, and the Transport Workers, undertook serious efforts to suppress hate strikes, to educate their membership, and to support the Roosevelt Administration's tentative efforts to remedy racial discrimination in war industries through the Fair Employment Practices Commission.

Those unions contrasted their relatively bold attack on the problem with the timidity and racism of the AFL. The CIO unions were progressive in dealing with gender discrimination in wartime industry, which now employed many more women workers in nontraditional jobs. Unions that had represented large numbers of women workers before the war, such as the UE electrical workers and the Food and Tobacco Workers , had fairly good records of fighting discrimination against women. Most union leaders saw women as temporary wartime replacements for the men in the armed forces.

It was important that the wages of these women be kept high so that the veterans would get high wages. Early in the war, it became apparent that German U-boats were using the backlighting of coastal cities in the Eastern Seaboard and the South to destroy ships exiting harbors. It became the first duties of civilians recruited for local civilian defense to ensure that lights were either off or thick curtains drawn over all windows at night. State Guards were reformed for internal security duties to replace the National Guardsmen who were federalized and sent overseas.

The Civil Air Patrol was established, which enrolled civilian spotters in air reconnaissance, search-and-rescue, and transport. Its Coast Guard counterpart, the Coast Guard Auxiliary , used civilian boats and crews in similar rescue roles. Towers were built in coastal and border towns, and spotters were trained to recognize enemy aircraft. Blackouts were practiced in every city, even those far from the coast.


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All exterior lighting had to be extinguished, and black-out curtains placed over windows. The main purpose was to remind people that there was a war on and to provide activities that would engage the civil spirit of millions of people not otherwise involved in the war effort. In large part, this effort was successful, sometimes almost to a fault, such as the Plains states where many dedicated aircraft spotters took up their posts night after night watching the skies in an area of the country that no enemy aircraft of that time could possibly hope to reach.

Roosevelt to provide morale and recreation services to uniformed military personnel. Other women previously employed only in the home, or in traditionally female work, took jobs in factories that directly supported the war effort, or filled jobs vacated by men who had entered military service. Enrollment in high schools and colleges plunged as many high school and college students dropped out to take war jobs. Various items, previously discarded, were saved after use for what was called "recycling" years later. Families were requested to save fat drippings from cooking for use in soap making.

Neighborhood "scrap drives" collected scrap copper and brass for use in artillery shells. Milkweed was harvested by children ostensibly for lifejackets. In , Congress passed the first peace-time draft legislation. It was renewed by one vote in summer It involved questions as to who should control the draft, the size of the army, and the need for deferments. The system worked through local draft boards comprising community leaders who were given quotas and then decided how to fill them.

There was very little draft resistance. The nation went from a surplus manpower pool with high unemployment and relief in to a severe manpower shortage by Industry realized that the Army urgently desired production of essential war materials and foodstuffs more than soldiers.

Large numbers of soldiers were not used until the invasion of Europe in summer In —43 the Army often transferred soldiers to civilian status in the Enlisted Reserve Corps in order to increase production. Those transferred would return to work in essential industry, although they could be recalled to active duty if the Army needed them. Others were discharged if their civilian work was deemed essential. There were instances of mass releases of men to increase production in various industries. Working men who had been classified 4F or otherwise ineligible for the draft took second jobs.

In the figure below an overview of the development of the United States labor force, the armed forces and unemployment during the war years. One contentious issue involved the drafting of fathers, which was avoided as much as possible. The drafting of year-olds was desired by the military but vetoed by public opinion. Racial minorities were drafted at the same rate as Whites, and were paid the same, but blacks were kept in all-black units. The experience of World War I regarding men needed by industry was particularly unsatisfactory—too many skilled mechanics and engineers became privates there is a possibly apocryphal story of a banker assigned as a baker due to a clerical error, noted by historian Lee Kennett in his book "G.

Later in the war, in light of the tremendous amount of manpower that would be necessary for the invasion of France in , many earlier deferment categories became draft eligible. The churches showed much less pacifism than in The Church of God , based in Anderson, Indiana , had a strong pacifist element, reaching a high point in the late s. These churches helped their young men to both become conscientious objectors and to provide valuable service to the nation.

Goshen College set up a training program for unpaid Civilian Public Service jobs. Although young women pacifists were not eligible for the draft, they volunteered for unpaid Civilian Public Service jobs to demonstrate their patriotism; many worked in mental hospitals. Civilian support for the war was widespread, with isolated cases of draft resistance.

The F. Some enemy aliens were held without trial during the entire war. The U.

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There was large-scale migration to industrial centers, especially the West Coast. Millions of wives followed their husbands to military camps; for many families, especially from farms, the moves were permanent. One survey of migrants in Portland, Oregon and San Diego found that three quarters wanted to stay after the war. Large numbers of African Americans left the cotton fields and headed for the cities. Housing was increasingly difficult to find in industrial centers, as there was no new non-military construction. Commuting by car was limited by gasoline rationing.

People car pooled or took public transportation, which was severely overcrowded. Trains were heavily booked, with uniformed military personnel taking priority, so people limited vacation and long-distance travel. The large-scale movement of blacks from the rural South to urban and defense centers in the North and the West and some in the South during the Second Great Migration led to local confrontations over jobs and housing shortages.

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The cities were relatively peaceful; much-feared large-scale race riots did not happen, but there was nevertheless violence on both sides, as in the race riot in Detroit and the anti-Mexican Zoot Suit Riots in Los Angeles in As historian Roger Bruns notes, "the Zoot suit also represented a stark visual expression of culture for Mexican Americans, about making a statement—a mark of defiance against the place in society in which they found themselves. Standlee argues that during the war the traditional gender division of labor changed somewhat, as the "home" or domestic female sphere expanded to include the "home front".

Meanwhile, the public sphere—the male domain—was redefined as the international stage of military action. Wartime mobilization drastically changed the sexual divisions of labor for women, as young able-bodied men were sent overseas and war time manufacturing production increased. Throughout the war, according to Susan Hartmann , an estimated 6. Women, many of whom were married, took a variety of paid jobs in a multitude of vocational jobs, many of which were previously exclusive to men.

The greatest wartime gain in female employment was in the manufacturing industry, where more than 2. The composition of the marital status of women who went to work changed considerably over the course of the war. One in every ten married women entered the labor force during the war, and they represented more than three million of the new female workers, while 2. For the first time in the nation's history there were more married women than single women in the female labor force.

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In , thirty-seven percent of all adult women were reported in the labor force, but nearly fifty percent of all women were actually employed at some time during that year at the height of wartime production. According to Hartmann , the women who sought employment, based on various surveys and public opinion reports at the time suggests that financial reasoning was the justification for entering the labor force; however, patriotic motives made up another large portion of women's desires to enter. Women whose husbands were at war were more than twice as likely to seek jobs.

Fundamentally, women were thought to be taking work defined as "men's work;" however, the work women did was typically catered to specific skill sets management thought women could handle. Management would also advertise women's work as an extension of domesticity. Following the war, many women left their jobs voluntarily.

I did not go into war work with the idea of working all my life. It was just to help out during the war. By the end of the war, many men who entered into the service did not return. This left women to take up sole responsibility of the household and provide economically for the family. Nursing became a highly prestigious occupation for young women. These women automatically became officers. To cope with the growing shortage on the homefront, thousands of retired nurses volunteered to help out in local hospitals. Women staffed millions of jobs in community service roles, such as nursing, the USO , [34] and the Red Cross.

Women collected fats rendered during cooking, children formed balls of aluminum foil they peeled from chewing gum wrappers and also created rubber band balls, which they contributed to the war effort. Hundreds of thousands of men joined civil defense units to prepare for disasters, such as enemy bombing. This was historically significant because flying a warplane had always been a male role.

No American women flew warplanes in combat. Marriage and motherhood came back as prosperity empowered couples who had postponed marriage. The birth rate started shooting up in , paused in —45 as 12 million men were in uniform, then continued to soar until reaching a peak in the late s. This was the " Baby Boom ". In a New Deal -like move, the federal government set up the "EMIC" program that provided free prenatal and natal care for the wives of servicemen below the rank of sergeant.

Housing shortages, especially in the munitions centers, forced millions of couples to live with parents or in makeshift facilities. Little housing had been built in the Depression years, so the shortages grew steadily worse until about , when a massive housing boom finally caught up with demand. After much of the new housing was supported by the G. Federal law made it difficult to divorce absent servicemen, so the number of divorces peaked when they returned in In long-range terms, divorce rates changed little.

Juggling their roles as mothers due to the Baby Boom and the jobs they filled while the men were at war, women strained to complete all tasks set before them. The war caused cutbacks in automobile and bus service, and migration from farms and towns to munitions centers. Those housewives who worked found the dual role difficult to handle. Millions of wives tried to relocate near their husbands' training camps. During World War II the trend in immigration policies were both more and less restrictive. The United States immigration policies focused more on national security and were driven by foreign policy imperatives.

This Act was the first law in the United States that excluded a specific group- the Chinese from migrating to the United States. There was also the Nationality Act of , which clarified how to become and remain a citizen. In contrast, the Japanese and Japanese-Americans were subject to internment in the U. There was also legislation like the Smith Act , also known as the Alien Registration Act of , which required indicted communists, anarchists and fascists.

Another program was the Bracero Program , which allowed over two decades, nearly 5 million Mexican workers to come and work in the United States. After World War II, there was also the Truman Directive of , which did not allow more people to migrate, but did use the immigration quotas to let in more displaced people after the war. In contrast, the Immigration and Nationality Act, also known as the McCarran-Walter Act , turned away migrants based not on their country of origin but rather whether they are moral or diseased.

In the War Department demanded that all enemy nationals be removed from war zones on the West Coast. The question became how to evacuate the estimated , people of Japanese ancestry living in California. Roosevelt looked at the secret evidence available to him: [64] the Japanese in the Philippines had collaborated with the Japanese invasion troops; most of the adult Japanese in California had been strong supporters of Japan in the war against China.

There was evidence of espionage compiled by code-breakers that decrypted messages to Japan from agents in North America and Hawaii before and after the attack on Pearl Harbor. On February 19, , Roosevelt signed Executive Order which set up designated military areas "from which any or all persons may be excluded.

Germans and Italians were not interned, as shown from the Korematsu v. United States case. In February , when activating the nd Regimental Combat Team —a unit composed mostly of American-born American citizens of Japanese descent living in Hawaii—Roosevelt said, "No loyal citizen of the United States should be denied the democratic right to exercise the responsibilities of his citizenship, regardless of his ancestry.


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The principle on which this country was founded and by which it has always been governed is that Americanism is a matter of the mind and heart; Americanism is not, and never was, a matter of race or ancestry. Supreme Court upheld the legality of the executive order in the Korematsu v. The executive order remained in force until December when Roosevelt released the Japanese internees, except for those who announced their intention to return to Japan. Fascist Italy was an official enemy, and citizens of Italy were also forced away from "strategic" coastal areas in California.

Altogether, 58, Italians were forced to relocate. They relocated on their own and were not put in camps.