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First, compounds are listed under the headword of their second constituent when. Thus, to have a good time, glossed divertirse, is. Second, English compounds whose first element is a preposition offsides outcast, overcome are listed as separate headwords, chiefly ,. Conversely, derived words, that is, words that contain one or more affixes e. Appearing together with the compound words per- tinent to any given grammatical category are illustrative phrases, a category de- fined so as to include idioms, collocations, proverbs, and, especially, sentences required to clarify usage in some way, as when the usage of gustarle a uno as a gloss of to like is illustrated by the phrase he likes dogs, with the translation le.

Para la. Los significados dentro de una entrada aparecen ordenados de manera que el frecuente figure primero. Por ejemplo, el equivalente de acceso en casi todas sus acepciones es access, excepto cuando se refiere a un ataque de tos o rabia, en cuyo caso se traduce como fit. El uso del punto y coma indica acepciones distintas. De tal forma, hombre rana aparece como — rana, en la entrada de hombre. Hay ciertas excepciones a esta regla, sin embargo. No obstante, las palabras derivadas, i. Spanish orthography very closely mirrors Spanish pronunciation, much more so than is the case in English.

This explains why, in bilingual dictionaries such as this, each English entry must be accompanied by a phonetic representation, while Spanish pro- nunciation may be presented in synoptic form. This synopsis is only meant as an introduction, however. In spite of the clarity. For these reasons, readers who wish to perfect their pronunciation of Spanish are strongly advised to seek the help of a competent teacher. To say that orthography mirrors pronunciation means that there is a close cor- relation between letters and sounds.

Thus, most Spanish letters correspond to a single sound, or to a single family of closely related sounds, as is the case for all vowels, and the consonants f, l, m, n, p, t, and s. In a few cases a single letter represents two very different sounds, as c, which is pronounced as k before a, o, and u, but th as in thin, or as s in America before e or i. The overarching differences between Spanish and English pronunciation are tense- ness of articulation and syllabification within the breath group.

Due to the tenseness of their articulation, for example, all Spanish vowels have a clear nondiphthongal character, unlike English long vowels, which tend to be bipartite e. Syllabification is a problem for English speakers because in Spanish, syllables are formed without respect to word boundaries, such that el hado 'fate' and helado 'ice cream' are both pronounced as e-la-do, and the phrase tus otras hermanas 'your other sisters' is syllabified as tu-so-tra-ser-ma-nas.

In fast speech, vowels may combine, as in lo ofendiste 'you offended him', pronounced lo-fen-dis-te. Finally, when Spanish con- sonants occur in clusters, very often the articulation of the second influences that of the first, as when un peso 'one peso'is pronounced um-pe-so, and en que 'in which'. As a part of a diphthong, it sounds like the y of English yes, year. Examples: bien, baile, reina. Notably, a is similar to the always pronounced this way, even when not stressed. This contrasts with the English tendency to reduce unstressed vowels to schwa [a] , as in America, pro- nounced in English as [a-me-ri-ka].

Examples: cura, agudo, uno. When u occurs in diphthongs such as those of cuida, cuento, deuda, it has the sound of w as in way. At the beginning of a breath group or when preceded by the m sound which may be spelled n , they are both pro- nounced like English b. Examples: bomba, en vez de, vine, invierno. In other environments, especially between vowels, both letters are pronounced as a very. This sound has no equivalent in English. Examples: haba, uva, la vaca, la banda. However, this sound is not ac-. Examples: casa, cosa, cuna, quinto, queso, crudo, aclamar.

Note that, as mentioned above, the vowel u is not pronounced in quinto and queso. In contrast, when appearing before the vowels e and i, c is pronounced as s in. Spanish America and the southwest of Spain, and as th as in thin in other parts of Spain see s for more information. However, it represents a single sound, which is similar to the English ch in church and cheek.

Examples: chato, chaleco, mucho. In terms of articulation, it is pronounced by the tongue striking the teeth rather than the alveolar ridge as in English. Second, it is represented by two variants. The first of these, which is similar to that of English dame and did, occurs at the beginning of breath groups or after n and 1. Examples: donde, falda, conde. In all other situations the letter rep- resents a sound similar to the th of English then.

Examples: hado, cuerda, cuadro, usted. This sound tends to be very relaxed, to the point of disappearing in certain environments, such as word-final and intervocalic. Examples: gente, giro. At the beginning of breath groups before the vowels a, o, u, and before the consonants 1 and r, it is pronounced like the g of English go. Examples: ganga, globo, grada. In all other environ- ments it is pronounced as a very relaxed-. Examples: lago, la goma, agrado. Examples: kilo, keroseno. Examples: lado, ala, sol. II is no longer considered to be a separate letter in the Spanish alphabet.

However, it does represent a single sound, which differs widely in pronunciation throughout the Spanish-speaking world. In most areas, pronounced like the y of Eng.

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In extreme northern Spain and in parts of the Andes, it sounds like the lli in Eng. In the River Plate area it is pronounced like. Examples: madre, mano, cama. Examples: no, mano, hablan. There are exceptions, however. For example, before b, v, p, and m, it is pronounced m, as in en Barcelona, en vez de, un peso, while before k, g, j, ge-, and gi-, it is realized as [q], the final sound of Eng. Examples: caro, tren, comer. In contrast, at the beginning of words, and after n, 1, s, the letter r is realized as a trill, as in rosa, Enrique, alrededor, Israel.

The double letter rr always represents a trill, as in carro, correr, guerrero. America and in parts of southern Spain. In most of Spain, in contrast, it is realized with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, producing a whistling sound that is also common in southern dialects of American English. Examples: solo, casa, es. In these dialects, esta may be pronounced as ehta or eta. Between vowels, it is usually pro- nounced ks or gs but never gz , as in examen, proximo, though in a few words it is pronounced as s, e.

Before a consonant, x is almost always. In most areas it is pronounced like the. In the River Plate area it is pronounced like the g in beige or the sh in ship. Examples: yo, ayer. In most parts of Spain, except the southwest, it is pronounced as the th in Eng. In southwestern Spain and all of Spanish America, in contrast, it is pronounced s. Examples: zagal, hallazgo, luz. Spanish words are normally stressed on the next-to-last syllable when they end in a vowel or the consonants n or s.

Examples: mesa, zapato, aconteci mien to, hablan, mujeres. Words whose pronunciation does not conform to this rule are considered exceptions, and their stressed syllable is indicated with an accent mark. Conversely, Spanish words are normally stressed on the final syllable when they end in a consonant other than n or s. Examples: mujer, actuali dad, pedal voraz. For the purposes of stress assignment, diphthongs are considered the same as simple vowels. Thus, arduo and industria are considered to have two and three syllables respectively, with regular stress on the penultimate However, some syllable.

Thus, the orthography esta was assigned to the demonstrative adjective 'this', fem. This convention is no longer observed by most writers. All Spanish nouns, not just those that denote male or female beings, are assigned either masculine or feminine gender. As a general rule, male beings mu- chacho "boy', toro 'bull' and nouns ending in -o lodo 'mud' are assigned all. Otherwise, nouns ending in con-. Where the masculine noun does not end in -o, the. Finally, some words vacillate as to gender, e. The equivalent of English the is as follows: masculine singular, el; Definite Article.

In spite of this, these nouns remain feminine in the singular, as shown by adjective. When preceded by the prepositions a and de, the masculine singular article el forms the contractions al and del. Indefinite Article. A su vez, dividimos a los ND 2. Radiological diagnostics of skeletal tumors. The book contains contributions concerning the following topics: 1.

Self-regulating the effortful "social dos ". In the current research, we explored differences in the self-regulation of the personal dos i. In 6 studies, we examined whether the same trait self-control abilities that predict task persistence on personal dos would also predict task persistence on social dos. That is, would the same behavior, such as persisting through a tedious and attentionally demanding task, show different associations with trait self-control when it is framed as benefitting the self versus someone else?

In Studies , we directly compared the personal and social dos and found that trait self-control predicted self-reported and behavioral personal dos but not social dos , even when the behaviors were identical and when the incentives were matched. Instead, trait agreeableness--a trait linked to successful self-regulation within the social domain--predicted the social dos. Trait self-control did not predict the social dos even when task difficulty increased Study 4 , but it did predict the social don'ts, consistent with past research Studies The current studies provide support for the importance of distinguishing different domains of self-regulated behaviors and suggest that social dos can be successfully performed through routes other than traditional self-control abilities.

METHODS: We subjected 16 Wistar rats to laparotomy 6 hours after the induction of fecal peritonitis with autogenous stool and subsequently divided the rats randomly into 4 groups: I-control, no treatment; II- drying of the abdominal cavity; III- lavage of the abdominal cavity with 3 mL of 0. Six hours following the laparotomy, the animals underwent cardiac puncture, and 1 mL of blood was collected for cytokine assessment before the animals were euthanized. Liver Tumors For Parents.

Types of Tumors Lying next Magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis was performed after clinical staging. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were compared with the classic fields described for the "box" technique. Target volume within less than 1 cm margins of the fields' limits was considered as geographic miss. Two pictures of an metastasized tumor after it has gone through irradiation in a year-old male patient. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors. This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data.

ABCC-RERF sample data using autopsy cases revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of cases from the TRC data, and 15 Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors MEGT tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the rad group, the rad group, and the or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.

These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors including hyperparathyroidism , adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors.

CT of abdominal tumor. CT findings in 33 patients who had an abdominal tumor were evaluated. CT revealed a tumor in 31 cases. The organ from which the tumor originated was correctly diagnosed in 18 patients. Whether the tumor was solid or cystic was correctly predicted in 28 patients. The diagnosis malignant or benign nature of tumor was correct, incorrect and impossible, in 23, 3, and five patiens, respectively. Kondo, M. Tumor macroenvironment and metabolism. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs.

Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient's outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors.

Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. All rights reserved. Provides an introduction to DOS commands and strategies for the effective organization and use of hard disks. Functions discussed include the creation of directories and subdirectories, enhanced copying, the assignment of disk drives, and backing up the hard disk.

Bronchial carcinoid tumors : A rare malignant tumor. Feb 3, Bronchial carcinoid tumors BCTs are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as Dentre os principais gastos que contribuem para o aumento dos custos da qualidade destacam-se a sucata e retrabalho de p Children's Brain Tumor Foundation. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor. Pereira, L. Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it.

Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed. Author [pt. Testicular germinal tumors. This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of testicular germinal tumors. The presumed diagnosis is based in the anamnesis, clinical examination, testicular ultrasound and tumor markers. The definitive diagnosis is obtained through the inguinal radical orchidectomy. Tissue engineered tumor models. Many research programs use well-characterized tumor cell lines as tumor models for in vitro studies.

Because tumor cells grown as three-dimensional 3-D structures have been shown to behave more like tumors in vivo than do cells growing in monolayer culture, a growing number of investigators now use tumor cell spheroids as models. Single cell type spheroids, however, do not model the stromal-epithelial interactions that have an important role in controlling tumor growth and development in vivo.

We describe here a method for generating, reproducibly, more realistic 3-D tumor models that contain both stromal and malignant epithelial cells with an architecture that closely resembles that of tumor microlesions in vivo. Because they are so tissue-like we refer to them as tumor histoids. They can be generated reproducibly in substantial quantities. The bioreactor developed to generate histoid constructs is described and illustrated.

It accommodates disposable culture chambers that have filled volumes of either 10 or 64 ml, each culture yielding on the order of or histoid particles, respectively. Each particle is a few tenths of a millimeter in diameter. Examples of histological sections of tumor histoids representing cancers of breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and urinary bladder are presented.

Potential applications of tumor histoids include, but are not limited to, use as surrogate tumors for pre-screening anti-solid tumor pharmaceutical agents, as reference specimens for immunostaining in the surgical pathology laboratory and use in studies of invasive properties of cells or other aspects of tumor development and progression. Histoids containing nonmalignant cells also may have potential as "seeds" in tissue engineering. For drug testing, histoids probably will have to meet certain criteria of size and tumor cell content. Using a COPAS Plus flow cytometer, histoids containing fluorescent tumor cells were analyzed successfully and sorted using such criteria.

Na segunda etapa foram utilizados 84 ratos, sendo estes separados em 7 grupos G de 12 animais cada. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de pega e a longevidade nos grupos. The aim of this work was standardize technical norms to obtain a model of Walker tumor in animals and get the tumorous cells number needed to increase the tumorous join percentage and longevity, it makes possible the research development in several health areas.

The work was realized in two stages. In second stage were used 84 rats, these separated in 7 groups G with 12 animals each one. Tumor interstitial fluid. Tumor interstitial fluid TIF is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical PET and endocrine tumors.

The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors : of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors , gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors , FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed.

Tumor penetrating peptides. Full Text Available Tumor -homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. This C-end Rule or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue.

Phage screening has also yielded tumor -penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor -homing peptides can be constructed from tumor -homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue.

The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor -penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds.

Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is. Carcinoids tumors of the digestive tract. Eighteen cases of carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract have been analyzed. They have been selected at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, taking into account patients, age and sex, lesions' location and size, clinical manifestations, presence of metastases as well as a classical carcinoid syndrome establisment.

Carcinoid tumors come from the digestive tract 'argenta fim'' cells, the ones which produce endocrines. Such endocrines are responsible for a great number of clinical manifestations. The classical syndrome is directly related to the presence of hepatic metastases. The authors propose to correlate what has been found with descriptions in medical literature emphasizing the radiographic aspects which have been observed. A frequent ''apendicular'' location and the difficulty of giving a precise diagnosis before surgery is also emphasized.

Epilepsy and Brain Tumors. Epidemiology It is estimated 61, new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in in the U. The incidence statistic of 61, persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant 22, and non-malignant 38, brain tumors. Data from American Brain Tumor Association.

During the years , approximately , people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81, persons were living with a malignant tumor , more than , persons with a benign tumor. For every , people in the United States, approximately are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor.

This represents a prevalence rate of O legado dos desenhadores da guerra. A Teoria dos Conjuntos de Cantor. Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response.

The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro- tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system.

The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope.

Diccionario Uropi-Español - Ideopedia

Imaging of pancreatic tumors. Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most frequent solid tumor of the pancreas. This tumor has distinct features including early obstruction of the pancreatic duct, diminished enhancement after administration of contrast material due to desmoplastic growth, high propensity to infiltrate adjacent structures and to metastasize into the liver and the peritoneum. Hormone active endocrine tumors cause specific clinical symptoms. Imaging is aimed at localization of these hypervascular tumors.

Non hormone active tumors are most frequently malignant and demonstrate very varying features. Cystic pancreatic tumors are increasingly detected by means of cross sectional imaging. Exact classification can be achieved with knowledge of the macropathology and considering clinical presentation as well as age and gender of the patients.

Solubilidade e disponibilidade dos micronutrientes em fertilizantes. Central nervous system tumors. Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system CNS pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location.

The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors. Management of CNS tumors. The use of intraoperative US for the establishment of tumor location and tumor histology is demonstrated.

MR imaging also is beginning to make an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of tumors of the CNS. Examples of MR images are shown. The authors then discuss the important aspects of tumor histology as it affects management and newer concepts in surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy on tumor treatment. The role of intraoperative placement of radioactive sources, the utilization of heavy particle radiation therapy, and the potential role of other experimental radiation therapy techniques are discussed. The role of hyperfractionated radiation and of neutrons and x-ray in a mixed-beam treatment are discussed in perspective with standard radiation therapy.

Current chemotherapy techniques, including intraarterial chemotherapy, are discussed. The complications of radiation therapy alone and in combination with chemotherapy in the management of primary brain tumors , brain metastases, and leukemia are reviewed. A summary of the current management of pituitary tumors , including secreting pituitary adenomas and chromophobe adenomas, are discussed. The treatment with heavy particle radiation, transsphenoidal microsurgical removal, and combined radiotherapeutic and surgical management are considered. Tumor metastasis management of lesions of the brain and spinal cord are considered.

Tumor carcinoide apendicular Appendiceal carcinoid tumor. The objective of this paper was to make known an interesting case of carcinoid tumor that presented a clinical picture of acute appendicitis. The patient was an eight-year-old boy that underwent appendectomy due to an acute appendicitis. The anatomopathological report confirmed an endocrine cell tumor argentaffinoma, carcinoid tumor in the distal third of the organ that infiltrated up to the serosa, and acute suppurative appendicitis.

The patient was referred to an oncohematology service for oncospecific treatment. As it is a rare tumor at early ages, and taking into account what a inconsequent behavior may represent for the child, it was decided to present this case to the national and international scientific community. The follow-up of the patients with acute appendicitis and of the conclusions of the histological examination is extremely important considering what an inadequate conduct may represent for the child in a situation like this.

An exceptional collision tumor : gastric calcified stromal tumor and The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen. Key words: Collision tumor , stromal tumor , adenocarcinoma Pituitary gland tumors. This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out.

Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders.

A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required.

The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging MRI with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. Pseudomyxoma peritonei originating from appendix tumors. Although, it is a very rare condition, it is nonetheless a very severe one and therefore it is crucial to know how to correctly diagnose and treat it.

Objective: This study provides updated data on how to diagnose, classify and treat pseudomyxoma peritonei that originates from appendix tumors. Methods: A bibliographic research was performed on PubMed database, including articles published since , as well as, cross-referencing with the initial research. Discussion: In the past, patients diagnosed with pseudomyxoma peritonei would only undergo palliative measures, so their overall survival rate was greatly reduced. Over the years pseudomyxoma peritonei treatment has evolved and patients are now undergoing treatment which is a combination of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Despite the great progress we have witnessed in recent years, which have led to a large increase in survival rates, more research needs to be done, on what to do when the disease is in an unresectable stage. Ewing tumors in infants. Malignancies in infancy are extremely rare. Ewing tumors are hardly ever noted in these children. Since it is generally assumed that malignancies in infancy have an extremely poor outcome, we wanted to investigate whether this was also the case in Ewing tumors.

We identified in the Munster data. Pavel M. Doxorubucin and streptozocin after failed biotherapy of Neuroendocrine tumors. Int J. Gastrointest Cancer ; 35 Yao J. Targeting vas- cular endothelial growth factor in advanced carci- noid tumors : a random assignment phase II study. Atypically localized glomus tumors.

Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors , may aid diagnosis. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor IMT is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone.

Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4, bone tumors covering from to , 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors 0.

Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma 4 cases , giant cell tumor 4 cases , chondromyxoid fibroma 3 cases , fibrous dysplasia 2 cases , fibrous cortical defect 1 case and aneurysmal bone cyst 1 case. Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma.

The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors , especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma.

Completely Updated & Revised Fifth Edition

Vanishing tumor in pregnancy. Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented. Vimal, M. A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues.

Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation. Immunohistochemical studies for neuronal differentiation in glial tumors revealed subsets of tumors having both characteristics of glial and neuronal lineages. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation can be observed with diverse phenotypes and histologic grades. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle and papillary glioneuronal tumor have been newly classified as distinct disease entities.

There are other candidates for classification, such as the glioneuronal tumor without pseudopapillary architecture, glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands, and the malignant glioneuronal tumor. The clinical significance of these previously unclassified tumors should be confirmed. Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse Juazeiro do Norte particularly considering the belief that the End do the World is about to happen and the need of having their sins forgiven, Man, pilgrim in this world, takes advantage of the weapons offered by the Holy Writ and by the Compassion Books to fight against the eternal enemy.

They are: the alms, the fasting, the prayer, the humiliation. Tumorous interstitial lung disease. The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor -dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception.

High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor - or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable.

Tumors of peripheral nerves. Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance MR neurography.

Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. Wilm's tumor in adulthood. Wilms' tumor occurs extremely rarely in adults. There is no consensus in the literature on the problems of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the diseasa.

Ten adult patients aged with Wilms' tumor formed the study group. They made up 0. The peculiarities of the clinical course that distinguish adult nephroblastoma from renal cancer and Wilms' tumor of the infancy were analysed. The latent period appeared to be long.

Problems of diagnosis are discussed. Angiography proved to be of the highest diagnostic value. Complex treatment including transperitoneal nephrectory, radiation and chemotherapy was carried out in 7 cases, palliative radiation treatmenchemotherapy andn 3.

Unlike pediatric nephroblastomt - i Wilms' tumor in adults was resistant to radiation. Treatment results still remained unsatisfactory: 6 patients died months after the beginning of treatment. Radiotherapy of pineal tumors. Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region i. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions.

Defesa dos direitos humanos: sistemas regionais. The text underlines the institutional character acquired by the main systems to promote Human Rights in the twentieth century. Taking the Universal Human Rigths Declaration, of , as the basis for analysis, the author brings up three different approaches to promote these rights: the European, the American and the African. The evolution of each of them is described using its procedure as a basic reference. Besides, an analogical analysis, brings to the fore singularities, without ignoring reciprocal influences dictated by particular contexts, though.

The author stresses the importance of the International Penal Court, as a means to establish ecumenical justice. At the same time, he reminds the reader of the risks implicit in the possible non-ratification of the IPC by United States. A segunda alma do partido dos trabalhadores. Lula's presidency seem to have blended PT's two apparently contradictory "souls". By implementing policies that favor capital while at the same time foster the social inclusion of the poor, and that have also improved working class citizens' life standards, Lula has been able, as a president, to preserve the ideals that animated the party's foundation and the more pragmatic programme for government set out in Parallel evolution of tumor subclones mimics diversity between tumors.

Intratumor heterogeneity ITH may foster tumor adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicines approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumor intratumor heterogeneity relative to genetic differences between tumors intertumor heterogeneity is unknown. To address this, Tumor control probability after a radiation of animal tumors. Tumor control and regrowth probability of animal tumors irradiated with a single x-ray dose were determined, using a spontaneous C3H mouse mammary carcinoma.

Cellular radiation sensitivity of tumor cells and tumor control probability of the tumor were examined by the TD 50 and TCD 50 assays respectively. Tumor growth kinetics were measured by counting the percentage of labelled mitosis and by measuring the growth curve. A mathematical analysis of tumor control probability was made from these results.

A formula proposed, accounted for cell population kinetics or division probability model, cell sensitivity to radiation and number of tumor cells. During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease.

Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the macroenvironment and the primary tumor will enable the design of specific therapies that have the potential to prevent dissemination and metastatic spread. This chapter will summarize recent findings detailing how the primary tumor and systemic tumor macroenvironment coordinate malignant progression.

Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors. Radiofrequency ablation, The PCa Tumor Microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment TME is a very complex niche that consists of multiple cell types, supportive matrix and soluble factors. Cells in the TME consist of both host cells that are present at tumor site at the onset of tumor growth and cells that are recruited in either response to tumor - or host-derived factors.

Crosstalk results in an orchestrated evolution of both the tumor and microenvironment as the tumor progresses. In return, the TME produces soluble factors, structural support and direct contact interactions that influence the establishment and progression of PCa. In this review, we focus on the host side of the equation to provide a foundation for understanding how different aspects of the TME contribute to PCa progression. We discuss immune effector cells, specialized niches, such as the vascular and bone marrow, and several key protein factors that mediate host effects on PCa.

This discussion highlights the concept that the TME offers a potentially very fertile target for PCa therapy. Epilepsy and brain tumors. Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors , and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors.

Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy.

As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. CNS tumors : postoperative evaluation. Full text: Imaging assessment of brain tumors following surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including the location of the tumor , the surgical procedure and the disease process for which it was performed.

Depending upon these factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities may be required to demonstrate any clinically relevant situation, to assist the surgeon in deciding if repeat surgery is necessary. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging MRI can show the shape, size, signal intensity, and enhancement of a brain tumor. It has been widely used to diagnose and differentiate brain tumors and to assess the surgery outcomes. Longitudinal MRI scans have also been applied for the assessment of treatment and response to surgery.

The newly developed MRI techniques, including diffusion weighted imaging DWI , perfusion weighted imaging PWI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy MRS , have the potential to provide the molecular, functional and metabolic information of preoperative and postoperative brain tumors. Postoperative diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging are especially useful in predicting early functional recovery from new deficits after brain tumor surgery.

This lecture will stress the principles, applications, and pitfalls of conventional as well as newly developing functional imaging techniques following operation of brain tumors. Tumor cell surface proteins. Kennel, S. Cell surface proteins mediate interaction between cells and their environment. Unique tumor cell surface proteins are being identified and quantified in several tumor systems to address the following questions: i how do tumor -specific proteins arise during cell transformation; ii can these proteins be used as markers of tumor cell distribution in vivo; iii can cytotoxic drugs be targeted specifically to tumor cells using antibody; and iv can solid state radioimmunoassay of these proteins provide a means to quantify transformation frequencies.

TSP was not detected on normal lung tissue, embryonic tissue, or other epithelial or sarcoma tumors , but it was found on lung carcinomas of other strains of mice. Considerable amino acid sequence homology exists among TSP's from several cell sources, indicating that TSP synthesis is directed by normal cellular genes although it is not expressed in normal cells. The regulation of synthesis of TSP and its relationship to normal cell surface proteins are being studied.

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The antibodies have been used in immunoaffinity chromatography to isolate TSP from tumor cell sources. This purified tumor antigen was used to immunize rats. Antibody produced by these animals reacted at different sites epitopes on the TSP molecule than did the original MoAb. These sera and MoAb from these animals are being used to identify normal cell components related to the TSP molecule. Central nervous system CNS tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species.

Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit.

Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response.

Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor , while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy.

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The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients.

Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients. Teacher Packet. Learning Activity Packets. Oklahoma State Dept. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center. These elementary activities cover only the DOS commands necessary to….

Stochastic models for tumoral growth. Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border, and surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stoch Uterine mesenchymal tumors.

Full Text Available Uterine mesenchymal tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can frequently be diagnostically challenging. Differentiation between the benign and malignant counterparts of mesenchymal tumors is significant due to differences in clinical outcome, and the role of the surgical pathologist in making this distinction especially in the difficult cases cannot be underestimated.

Although immunohistochemical stains are supportive toward establishing a final diagnosis, the morphologic features trump all the other ancillary techniques for this group of neoplasms. This review therefore emphasizes the key morphologic features required to diagnose and distinguish uterine mesenchymal tumors from their mimics, with a brief description of the relevant immunohistochemical features. Targeting the tumor microenvironment. Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem.

There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline.

In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions. Full Text Available Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor -associated macrophages and tumor -associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance.

Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor -associated macrophages and tumor -associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor -associated macrophages and tumor -associated neutrophils.

In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor -associated macrophages and tumor -associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor -associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors.

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Benign Liver Tumors. Overview of Heart Tumors. Tumors By Siddique A. Renal tumors in infancy. The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail.

Author 24 refs. Radioimmunoassays for tumor diagnosis. Aside from imaging techniques several radio- immunological analyses are used for tumor diagnosis. Oncofetal antigens, for instance the carcinoembryonic antigen CEA and alpha-fetoprotein AFP , have become the most important substances for many malignancies. However, nearly all of the so-called tumor markers are not suitable for early diagnosis or screening either because of low sensitivity or low tumor specifity.

On the other hand follow-up measurements give a very sensitive index of the success of treatment and may indicate tumor progression when other signs are still not present. Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

The discovery that these tumors , formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict and subsequently to plan the therapy.

As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered e. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines. The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies.

The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor -associated antigens TAAs , through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types.

To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra- tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies.

Multiple Primary Tumors. Dec 5, Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It is not very Pituitary Tumors : Condition Information. They can press on or damage the pituitary gland and prevent it from secreting adequate levels of hormones. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. NINDS pituitary tumors information page. Dentre os principais gastos que contribuem para o aumento dos custos da qualidade destacam-se a sucata e retrabalho de produtos durante o processo produtivo.

Enanismo pituitario canino: reporte de dos casos. Por uma carta dos bens fundamentais. AbstractThis article addresses the question of whether the stipulation of fundamental rights and obligations and prohibitions related to them is sufficient to properly ensure the needs and vital interests, especially those from collective interest. Fundamental goods are those whose access is guaranteed to each and every one since they are the object of fundamental rights, excluded from the logic of the market.

The warranty for new goods and basic goods in the bottom of civilization requires a political decision to submit the right market relations. Thus, to the international charters and conventions and fundamental constitutional rights should be added Charters and international charter of basic goods. Hence the need for a new dimension of the constitutionally guaranteed: a constitutionally guaranteed in the long term, and global, apart from the individualistic logic of rights and shortsightedness and narrow localism policy of national democracies.

Antibody tumor penetration. Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin.

We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin Perlecan and tumor angiogenesis.

The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with thr Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention Adrenocortical tumors in children. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart.

Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT.

The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors , the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

Neuroendocrine tumors and smoking. Full Text Available Neuroendocrine cells are dispersed around the body and can be found within the gastrointestinal system, lungs, larynx, thymus, thyroid, adrenal, gonads, skin and other tissues. These cells form the so-called ''diffuse neuroendocrine system'' and tumors arising from them are defined as neuroendocrine tumors NETs. The traditional classification of NETs based on their embryonic origin includes foregut tumors lung, thymus, stomach, pancreas and duodenum, midgut tumors beyond the ligament of Treitz of the duodenum to the proximal transverse colon and hindgut tumors distal colon and rectum.

NETs at each site are biologically and clinically distinct from their counterparts at other sites. Symptoms in patients with early disease are often insidious in onset, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The majority of these tumors are thus diagnosed at a stage at which the only curative treatment, radical surgical intervention, is no longer an option. Due to the increasing incidence and mortality, many studies have been conducted in order to identify risk factors for the development of NETs.

Still, little is known especially when it comes to preventable risk factors such as smoking. This review will focus on smoking and its contribution to the development of different subtypes of NETs. Conjunctival tumors in children: histopathologic diagnosis in cases. The objective of this paper is to report the histopathologic diagnoses spanning over of conjunctival tumors in children younger than 14 years. Rodolfo Robles V. The data pertaining to gender, age, and histopathologic diagnosis of all cases was collected. The same ocular pathologist made all diagnoses.

Results: One hundred sixty-five cases were found, with a mean age of 7. Melanocytic lesions were the most common tumors found Conclusions: Melanocytic lesions were the most common tumors found, and of all the cases, only one was malignant; this was in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum. These findings are consistent with those reported in other studies regarding the frequencies of the histopathology of conjunctival tumors in the pediatric population. O impacto dos sintetizadores no processo composicional. A Tutela Penal dos Direitos Humanos. Lugares dos mortos na cristandade ocidental.

Full Text Available Resumo. Twenty male Wistar rats g randomized in 2 equal groups G Control and G Hyperthermia were inoculated with Walker carcinosarcoma tumor. Tumor volume was measured on days 5, 8, 11, 14 e 17 post inoculation in both groups.