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Coward achieved enduring success as a playwright, publishing more than 50 plays from his teens onwards. Many of his works, such as Hay Fever , Private Lives , Design for Living , Present Laughter and Blithe Spirit , have remained in the regular theatre repertoire, he composed hundreds of songs, in addition to well over a dozen musical theatre works, poetry, several volumes of short stories, the novel Pomp and Circumstance , a three-volume autobiography. Coward's stage and film acting and directing career spanned six decades, during which he starred in many of his own works.

At the outbreak of the Second World War Coward volunteered for war work, running the British propaganda office in Paris. He worked with the Secret Service , seeking to use his influence to persuade the American public and government to help Britain. In the s he achieved fresh success as a cabaret performer, performing his own songs, such as " Mad Dogs and Englishmen ", " London Pride " and " I Went to a Marvellous Party ".

Coward's plays and songs achieved new popularity in the s and s, his work and style continue to influence popular culture, he did not publicly acknowledge his homosexuality , but it was discussed candidly after his death by biographers including Graham Payn , his long-time partner, in Coward's diaries and letters, published posthumously.

Coward's father lacked ambition and industry, family finances were poor. Coward appeared in amateur concerts by the age of seven, he attended the Chapel Royal Choir School as a young child. He was a voracious reader. Encouraged by his ambitious mother, who sent him to a dance academy in London, Coward's first professional engagement was in January as Prince Mussel in the children's play The Goldfish.

In Present Indicative , his first volume of memoirs, Coward wrote: One day It stated that a talented boy of attractive appearance was required by a Miss Lila Field to appear in her production of an all-children fairy play: The Goldfish; this seemed to dispose of all argument. I was a talented boy, God knows, when washed and smarmed down a bit, passably attractive. There appeared to be no earthly reason why Miss Lila Field shouldn't jump at me, we both believed that she would be a fool indeed to miss such a magnificent opportunity.

The leading actor-manager Charles Hawtrey , whom the young Coward idolised and from whom he learned a great deal about the theatre, cast him in the children's play Where the Rainbow Ends. He worked with other child actors including Hermione Gingold. Streatfeild introduced him to her high society friends.

In , he appeared in a comedy produced by Hawtrey. Coward recalled in his memoirs, "My part was reasonably large and I was quite good in it, owing to the kindness and care of Hawtrey's direction, he took endless trouble with me That year he appeared in the D W Griffith film Heart. The film tells the story of a schoolgirl who seduces her adoptive family after her mother commits suicide. International Standard Serial Number An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title.


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ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in and published as ISO in The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be or an X, is a check digit.

For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right. The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier , was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.

Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the s. In the s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application.

An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the s. Dublin Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster , at the mouth of the River Liffey , is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains , it has an urban area population of 1,,, while the population of the Dublin Region , as of , was 1,,, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,, There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD.

Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin , the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin.

It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in , meaning the Irish government recognised as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name.

Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin ; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves.

Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond.

Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 10 October The Avengers Companion. Bay Books. Reed Business Information. Floyd, 19, 20, Folly Creek, Fontaine, , , Ford Foard , 51, 70, , Fort La Fayette, Fort Warren, Fort Charlotte, Fort Algernon, Fort Henry, Fort Field, 84, 85, 89, 94, , Fort Road, Fort Christanna, , , Fort Klamath, Fort Charles, Foster, 6, , Fountaine, Four Mile Creek, Fowke, 55, Fowler Ffowler , 15, 18, 68, , Fox, , , , Frazier, Frederick Town, Freeman, 15, 18, 68, 71, 73, 74, , , Freeine, Friend, Friggott, Froughton, Frye Fry , 17, , , Fryer, XI Fuller, Gaines, 59, , Galle, 32, Galt, 80, 87, 88, , , Gapinge, Garberson, Garland,- 51, , Garlington, 33, , Garner, Garrett, , , Garrison, Garton, Gaskins, Gates, 12, 84, Gatewood, Gayle, Geddy, , George, George Georg , 32, 41, 94, 90, 97, 98, , , , , , George Baptist, Georges Creek, General Assembly, General Court Records, 2G0.

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Isle of Man, Jackson, 57, 60, 71, , , Jack of the Feather, J acob, James, 34, 49, , , James City Court-house, James Island, 13, 67, James City Island, 12, 13, 17, 71, 74, , , , January, Xlll Jarvis, Jefferson, 12, 20, 22, , , , , , , , Jeffries, Jenings, 92, 93, , , , , , , , , , , Jenkins, , , Jessie, 32, Jewett, Johnson Johnston , 12, 68, 73, 79, , , , , , , , John, John, , , Joilon, Jonathan, The, Jones, 40, 41, 46, 47, 75, , , , , , , , , , , , , , Jordan, , Jordans, , Joyner, 73, 74, Juring Point Creek, 68, , Juring Point, 15, 68, 71, Justice, Kavanaugh, Kay, Keef, Keith Keath , 32, 85, 87, , , Kecoughtan Kicoughtan, Kiceotan, Kirketan , , Kello, Kemp Kempe , 41, 68, 71, , Kenneges Creek, Kenner, Kennon, Kent, Kerby Kirby , 68, Kerr, , Kersboom, Kethes Creek Keths , 14, 16, 67, 68, 69, Kequotan, Key Kay , , Kidd, Kimberley, Kingsmell, Kingstone, King, 63, , , , , , King Edward, King, James, 6, King George County Records, King George, , Kingsland, Kinny, Knigiits of the Horseshoe, Knowles, Koch, Kyrle, Lacon, La Fayette, 56, Lake, Lamb, Lampkin, Lancaster, Landers, Langhorne, Lang, Langley, Lanier, Lardden, Larthropp, Lassells, Laurance, Laurie, Lawnes Creek, 13, 67, 72, , , Lawrence, Lawson, 17, Law, , Leach, Lear, 93, 94, 96, , , , , , , Lea, Lee, 25, 30, 61, 64, , , , , , , , , Lee of Virginia, 25, 64, , Lee Hall, Le Grand, Lee Parish, Legard, Leidy, , Lemoine, Lennon, , , Lessee, Leo, Levy Point, Levy, Lewaigue, , Lewellin, Lewis Creek, Lewis, 43, 53, 57, 58, 63, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Lezayre Parish, Licking Hole Creek, Lightfoot, , , , Lile, Lincoln, Liiulsay, Liiigaii, Line Hill Swamp, 22S, I Linthiciim, Linton, Little, , Littlepage, Little Creek, Little Swamp, Little Plymouth, 1G8.

Littleton Lyttleton , G2, G3. As audiences of western theatre we are conditioned primarily to process plot, character, thought, diction, music, and spectacle, that are bound by unity of action, place, and time. In the era of artificial intelligence, big data, social media, bit-coin, and the dark web, we are essentially "born-digital". But if theatre is an exploration of humanity and human experience, how then does contemporary theatre function when it no longer entirely "human"? Can we as theatre audiences be reflected within this digital maelstrom?

The answer is we already have been. Web-based platforms create a space where theatre is created, edited, distributed, stored and retrieved. Performance art is mediated through technology as much as it is created through digital means. An early example of this was Who was Fergus Kilpatrick?

Devised by The Company and commissioned by Project Arts Centre, the piece utilised, theatre, video "and stories filled with white lies and conspiracies [that] clash with old footage, old documents, old heroes to uncover new answers, a new company and a new truth". And how is our contemporary understanding of the past altered or deleted for corrupt gains or political advantage? In the play, a grieving figure of Muldoon himself, played by Stanley Townsend, engages in a relationship of memory with his recently deceased lover, the artist and print-maker, Mary Farl Powers.

This also serves to portray grief in its simplest and most raw of states — the desire to make a loved one present again from what is lost and gone. The Second Violinist premiered at the Galway festival in and starred Aaron Monaghan as a lone and isolated figure, often playing video games on his phone as he commutes on the bus. Theatre company Dead Centre have created new ways in recent years of considering how we witness and contemplate contemporary life and also how we encounter the archive and production histories of major plays and canonical figures through digital production and performance.

Chekhov's First Play opens with the 'real' director, Bush Markouzal playing a character of a director, speaking to his audience and instructing them on how they can hear his running commentary on the play, through the headphones that all audiences members were given. In the theatre, as much as in a gallery, the interface exists as a space between actor and audience.

The digital interface introduces a further facet or performance space, a virtual and intangible space that is both present and live. Hope it's not too strange. It can feel a little intimate. Like even though everyone can hear this, it feels like I'm just talking. The Director comments in real-time upon the live action, revealing that "[he] had ambitions once, to create new forms of theatre. I have a feeling that we don't anymore", she directs it to the audience as much as to her on-stage cast members.

Ollie West played Hamnet, the son of William Shakespeare who died aged 11, and who remains "one letter away from being "a great man", Hamlet". The videography within the play, designed by Jose Miguel Jiminez and with sound design from Kevin Gleeson, presents a live co-existence of viewpoint that relays onto a large video wall the audience looking at themselves looking at the play. Andrew Clancy's design includes a large video wall that simultaneously projects the dead child and past with the contemporary living Hamnet.

The inverse to this process applies to the digital archive of performance. Work which was produced in traditional media but through digitisation allows us to reanimate performance, gesture, sound, music, even audience laughter and silence, in order to create a digital and virtual reality of performance. The intimate gesture of McCann's posturing and the constant movement of his hands bring an intimacy to his performance.

This is in stark contrast to Ralph Fiennes' portrayal of the same role at the Gate Theatre in Fiennes cuts a cocky, brash and unrepentant Frank Hardy, a huckster selling false promises and security. In a sense, this was Faith Healer for the Celtic Tiger-era - baseless bravado beneath a polished exterior. Theatre in such form will also leave you questioning the reality of performance, the reality of theatre, and even the validity of our contemporary society as well as of our documented history. This work tightly embraces the aid of digital technology and painstaking video and sound editing and blatantly flaunts the presence of pre-recorded scenes amid live feed.

Geography helps us answer the question of "how do we wish to live? Geography considers both human and non-human processes and how they affect each other, for example how and why floods occur and how they impact landforms, human settlements and industries. It combines scientific and social literacy; it provides a bridging space in the curriculum to bring together the creativity of the arts, the insights of social science and humanities as well as the important principles of natural science methods and practices.

Understanding the earth and society should be a pre-requisite to govern. It's about understanding the complexity of our world, appreciating the diversity of cultures that exists across continents. And in the end, it's about using all that knowledge to help bridge divides and bring people together. Geography provides a tangible means for students to put theory into practice, to take learning from the classroom into the real world. It provides the lived context to connect understanding of physical properties — such as landslides - to the fundamental cycling of water to the importance of decision making about appropriate land use and settlement location.

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It helps people to understand their place in the world and comprehend current and historical social, cultural, economic, environmental and political events. Geography provides the intellectual glue that can bind together insights from physics, chemistry, biology, geology, sociology, economics, political science and many other disciplines. Geographical understanding helps us plan for uncertain futures based on our knowledge of past and current conditions. Geography helps inform human development illustrating how our very survival relies on the effective functioning of both natural and social systems.

However, geographers are not created at university, the seeds are sown in primary school and cultivated at second level. Geography fosters critical thinkers who are able to navigate the complexity of our data rich world. Practical and relevant, it is a living, breathing discipline, a science of sciences; a site of synthesis and integration. It helps create the kind of global citizens that are required to navigate the challenges that lie ahead.

Founded in as a mutual defence organisation to counter Soviet expansionism in Europe, NATO today faces a multiple range of threats. Ironically, its biggest challenge is posed by its most powerful member, the United States. An attack upon one is considered an attack on them all.

There were a number of remarkable aspects to this, chiefly that it led to military action outside of Europe in Afghanistan under the auspices of NATO and with the support of the UN. NATO does not provide the best mechanism to confront contemporary challenges This was not what the founders had envisioned for NATO, but it was evidence of its ability to adapt. It may also be asked what the war in Afghanistan has achieved after 18 years.

Interventions in Afghanistan and Libya have come at an enormous human cost and ending the Afghan conflict must be a priority. Not surprisingly, this has alarmed Russia as the west is perceived to be encroaching into the former Soviet sphere of influence and threatening Moscow. For its part, there is overwhelming evidence of Russian efforts to meddle in the political affairs of Western states. This does not have to be on a scale to precipitate armed conflict, but all economies and civilian infrastructures are vulnerable. A further major threat is posed by Poland, Hungary and Turkey, all of which have moved to the right contrary to the democratic values espoused by NATO.

These developments, along with a truculent Trump, are undermining relations between member states and the cohesion of the alliance. Such a turn of events would end the Atlantic Alliance as currently constituted and present Russia with a major victory. For that reason alone, this might not be a good development right now.

Centenary Essays

It is worth recalling that it is not that long since the war in the former Yugoslavia and it will take some generations to overcome the legacy of that bitter ethnic conflict. NATO was critical in enforcing a peace agreement to end the fighting. At the very least, American pressure on its NATO allies to spend more on defence should be countered with an argument that the US should spend less.

If the US keeps up its current level of military expenditure, then Russia and China will respond similarly and the arms race escalates. Contrary to what some analysts might have us believe, there is no significant military threat from conventional Russian forces massing on the European frontier. Russia is in decline with an ageing population and shrinking economy. A more immediate threat to Europe stems from a combination of right wing populism, extremism and the risk of cyber-attack and political subversion from outside powers.

The growth in Chinese technological and economic power also presents a more long term threat on the horizon. NATO does not provide the best mechanism to confront contemporary challenges. Large military budgets do not address the causes or consequences of political upheaval and social exclusion. Military expenditure does not neutralise extremism. Although Israel continues to occupy a large portion of the Golan, both parties agreed an 80km long and narrow zone of separation which would be monitored by the UN peacekeeping force.

UNDOF remains an important mission in an area of significant strategic importance. Under the disengagement agreement between Syria and Israel, it is the only military presence allowed in the area of separation. Therein lies one of the main dilemmas as the Assad regime could not be relied upon to fulfil its part of the agreement in recent years. Fortunately, the situation has stabilised and Irish troops have been able to redeploy fully along the Syrian side of the area of separation since Although most commentators will highlight the out of date mandate as the critical weakness in the mission, the reality is that the volatile situation on the ground has been the most pressing problem.

There have also been Israeli and Syrian air strikes. UNDOF was established as a Syria-based mission and how it operates, including the use of enhanced equipment or new technologies, is subject to the disengagement agreement. Any changes must be approved by both Syria and Israel and proposals to do so have been blocked in the past. In the past, there were serious clashes between armed opposition forces and pro-government forces in the Bravo side of the ceasefire line, an area that is the responsibility of Syria.

The possibility of being caught in the crossfire between Israel and armed groups, including Syrian forces, also remains a serious risk. While its observation role was thus limited, it continued to play a key role in liaising with the parties to prevent a flareup in the area. Irish troops are well equipped and trained for the mission. They have good armoured protection and mobility capabilities. The Irish government was correct to agree to send troops to the Golan and allow them to remain despite the deteriorating situation.

The immediate challenge of deploying in the area of operations previously evacuated for security reasons has been overcome. There was no option but to redeploy at the time due to legitimate concerns about extraction and protection. Russian intervention in Syria has been pivotal and this is reflected in the changed situation on the ground.

Although the overall situation is calm, it remains a volatile region. Assad has won the war in Syria, but the regime is still struggling to consolidate its control over much of the country. In the Golan, the threat from Iranian-backed Hezbollah and other fighters remains. Israel is determined to deny Iran a foothold in Syria, but is limited in its options to prevent this happening. The possibility of military action by Israel in areas supposedly under the control of Syria on the Golan remains a serious threat. This phenomenon is not a recent one. In the play, four youths - two Protestant and two Catholic - set off on a sponsored charity walk from Northern Ireland to Dublin.

When the boys reach the Republic they encounter antagonism in the person of Vonnie, a landowner on whose land they attempt to camp. No packs of savages blowing the brains out of each other". Ultimately Vonnie regrets calling him, telling him "we still have ones over you in this country". The trappings of an autocratic state apparatus are obvious from the start of the play; Creon and Haemon implement their rule by whatever means necessary. One step down the power structure, Chorus is obsequious towards Creon and Haemon but displays violent and sexist behaviour towards the female characters.

The end of act one is signalled by an increasingly audible reading of the Criminal Justice Bill, here again the focus of protest. A sense of great unease about potential and actual abuse of power by the state and her arms is evident in these plays and others of the period The audience are deliberately targeted throughout the performance: they witness a cover-up as a critic of the state is murdered and Antigone warns them that they are next. She is attacked by Chorus and the ensuing struggle is staged as if Antigone is choking for real.

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The play ends with the cast turning on the audience, telling them to disperse quietly, calling them voyeurs and peeping toms, and finally Creon orders them to go home as they can do nothing. Mathews stages the nightmare scenario of life in a totalitarian police state as lurid reality. The mood is satirical, the onstage world a parody of a state gone rogue. A sense of great unease about potential and actual abuse of power by the state and her arms is evident in these plays and others of the period.

Theatre can react with immediacy to societal issues and concerns, but the themes staged in these plays were controversial at the time. The legacy of this lack of accountability brought to bear on the forces of the state lingers on. The playwrights, it is clear, were right to be concerned. Heavily influenced by the Bible and other key early Christian texts, he composed a lively tale, the "Life of St Patrick", which presents Patrick as a conquering Christian hero. Elements of history that did not fit with this image were conveniently swept aside.

With God on his side, Patrick disposes of the first magician quickly and brutally, Lochru being miraculously hoisted into the air and dropped, smashing his skull against a stone. In this context, he is probably referring to the western coast of Ireland, which may not have been touched by the Palladian mission. For example, his depiction of Patrick as an Old Testament hero in the mould of Moses and of Tara as Babylon emphasise the influence of the Bible as a direct inspiration. Patrick is rightly famous in Ireland, but arguably for the wrong reasons.

While he was not the first to bring Christianity to Ireland, he did compose the earliest complete written sources that survive. Despite his fame, the exact location of the body of Patrick has been a bone of contention for over a millennium. He exhumed their bodies and translated the relics into a new tomb at Downpatrick. By this time, prominent Irish churches such as Armagh, which claimed to have been founded by Patrick in the fifth century, and Kildare, were vying for position as the leading Irish church. Armagh focused on establishing Patrick as the greatest saint in Ireland and the apostle of the Irish.

However, Armagh did not possess the actual body of Patrick. He explains that an angel appeared to Patrick before his death and instructed that two untamed oxen should be sent off carrying his dead body. The angel further stipulated that a cubit of earth should be placed over the body to prevent its exhumation. Demand for relics was so strong that trade in relics as commodities became big business.

Centenary Essays

For it was rugby union which historically identified itself as the most patriotic of British team games, both within its homeland and across the empire. Players were encouraged to volunteer and responded enthusiastically, often joining up with club-mates. Photo: A. Significantly, the hostilities did not put a complete stop to rugby matches, as the War Office encouraged representative games between military selections, which were designed to keep up morale both at home and within the forces.

Programme for the match between the Mother Country and New Zealand service teams in Photo: Public domain These British representatives would take on selections from the southern hemisphere dominions of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, together with Canada, which was included with a view to popularising the game there. The competition was organised on a league basis at venues spread across England, as well as in Edinburgh and Swansea.

Among the more striking aspects of this deciding match was the relative proportion of officers to other ranks in the two teams that took the field that day. While the victorious New Zealand side included one officer and 14 others, the "Mother Country" selection was made up of 14 officers and one other.

Moreover, French rugby had suffered similarly heavy losses during the conflict, with 24 internationals killed. Predictably, the men in black again prevailed , also going on to win a return match in Paris, although by a much-reduced margin of It is well known that the delays with this permission led Apple to drop this project. The time limits for doing so are relatively tight, but many individuals and non-governmental organisations get involved.

These procedural requirements are often criticised as leading to delay, and this has particularly been the case in the fall-out from the Apple data centre debacle. This was for the first phase of the development, including one data hall and preparatory works for an electricity substation. The full development was to include eight data halls, the electricity substation, and various ancillary and support buildings and take 15 years to build.

One of the main arguments advanced against the project was that the EIA should consider the long-term plan for the site, rather than the limited initial phase; this was rejected by the High Court. There is still a valid planning permission for the site, and it is possible that some other developer will build a data centre before it expires. The Irish planning process can be slow, particularly when legal challenges are taken.

The public may, therefore, be further excluded from the planning process. But if the process is slow, short-term reactive fixes are not a good solution. Irish planning law is full of them, and they make the system difficult to understand and hard for the public to engage with. A planning system that encourages and welcomes public engagement, and provides scope for discussions about the difficult choices that every society will have to make as we have to reconcile environmental protection and economic development, would be a valuable support for this.

Unfortunately, our political systems encourage short-term, local thinking and our elected representatives have shied away from tackling these questions. Individuals need to fall back on the courts when politics lets them down. It's estimated that at any one time up to 30 million people across the European Union may be suffering from one of the more than 6, rare diseases or disorders, which have been identified to date.

Some of these diseases may affect only a small number of people with others affecting thousands. What is a rare disease? Fortunately, developments in treatment methods have led to the availability of medications that may help people cope with the symptoms of these diseases. However, due to the underlying complexities and, in some situations, genetic mutations, none of these diseases listed have a cure.

The the first challenge many may face is being correctly diagnosed. Due to a lack of scientific knowledge and information, diagnosis can be delayed - and in some cases, patients can even be misdiagnosed. As the disease progresses, daily tasks may become more and more difficult to complete without assistance. Due to the variation in how sufferers will respond to treatments of their symptoms, and the fact that the same disease may progress at a different rate from person to person, uncertainty surrounds the future of all those involved.

This is then compounded by inequalities and difficulties in accessing treatment and care depending on which jurisdiction in Europe you reside. These factors can create huge financial burdens for rare disease families, both in the present and into the future.

What is happening to combat rare diseases? In , then Minister for Health, Dr. Despite the positive gains which have been made across Europe, Brexit will undoubtedly lead to major issues. Connecting experts, researchers and clinicians across borders and pooling the resources at their disposal can create the most conducive environment for advanced research. The existence of these collaborative networks across the EU has allowed for the creation of large patient databases and the running of multinational clinical trials.

To increase this number, it is crucial that the pharmaceutical industry plays a more active role in the development process. Increasing awareness about rare diseases Since its inception in , the movement has grown from 12 participating countries to over 90 countries and regions around the world. The growth of world rare disease day has highlighted the difficulties sufferers face in everyday life.

As awareness has continued to rise, policy changes have also been brought forward at both European and national levels. These changes have created an environment where advanced research can take place. As this research increases and awareness grows, it allows for developments which may make the future lives of people suffering from these diseases a little brighter.

The principal aim of RiskAquaSoil is to alert people to the fact that climatological disasters can and will happen during a lifetime. The project is inviting local communities to participate, adopt and apply the current solutions provided to address these issues. The project partners will combat the adverse effects of the impact of climate change, especially on agricultural lands. These techniques will provide accurate data that will result in a better early detection system in rural areas.

Diagnosis activity will be enlarged with climate change scenarios such as frequency of heatwaves, droughts and flash floods, including forecasts and the improvement of climate information services to farmers. The research finding also showed that the majority of farmers are willing to adapt compulsory measures to better adapt their farm to climate change 2 implementation and adaptation: developing several pilot actions in agricultural lands that will permit better soil and water management taking into account the risks associated with climate change, such as flood risk maps and soil erosion risk solutions.

It will also include pilot actions in maritime areas such as soil erosion management, small storm catchment and farm management practices. Previous research revealed that farmers did not proactively seek out information on climate change unless it was a regulatory requirement, a customer request or was going to have a potential economic benefit to the business.

The research finding also showed that the majority of farmers are willing to adapt compulsory measures to better adapt their farm to climate change. The proximity to the ocean is noticeable with an average minimum temperature of 5. The precipitation shown no tendency, with zones in Portugal with a The average thermal daily amplitude varies in summer from 5. The first is a water quality acid remediation trial reducing the high pH spikes, the second is a water quantity natural flood management trial buffering flows and the third is trailing a new low cost telemetric monitoring probe to assess water quality and quantity.

Watercourses monitoring after wildfires After the wildfires that affected Portugal in , a watercourses monitoring campaign was initiated in 10 sampling points chosen based on the size and percentage of burnt area of the watershed. These monthly campaigns will detect changes in water and sediment proprieties in a post-fire scenario and establish the persistence of these effects. This being Branagh and Shakespeare, the film stars some of the biggest heavyweights in modern Shakespearean theatre.

Branagh is perhaps one of the most renowned Shakespeareans of the modern age, if not the most renowned. Shakespeare is perhaps the most famous writer in the Western canon, but he is also a ubiquitous symbol of Englishness, and of English cultural hegemony and imperialism. Branagh has long been associated and subsumed within the apparatus of English Shakespeares. It was, he says now, "a dreadfully uneasy compromise about which I suffered inordinate guilt". So too are his comments about his time studying at RADA. Of course, this speaks to the assumption that Shakespeare can only be spoken in Received Pronunciation, particularly within the apparatus of British Shakespearean theatrical institutions.

Kenneth Branagh as William Shakespeare in All Is True: "one of the most well-known and established modern Shakespeareans just so happens to be an Irishman" What does it mean to speak Shakespeare with an Irish accent — whether from Belfast, Dublin, Galway, or elsewhere? And — this is a larger question — how does one signify Irishness, or should one feel as if they must signify it? After all, Irishness is not a uniform entity or experience across this island.

But in the case of speaking Shakespeare, anything less than an English accent also leads to commentary. Nonetheless, the fact remains that one of the most well-known and established modern Shakespeareans just so happens to be an Irishman - but an Irishman entrenched and enmeshed in the English theatrical tradition. Wound healing is a very complex process that is influenced by the health of the individual, the medications they take, the cause of the wound, the local blood supply and hundreds of cell types, clotting factors, cell signaling systems and much more.

It is like an orchestra that requires the perfect balance of instruments and people each playing the same piece of music at the same time and in the same place. It is not hard therefore to image how easily it can go wrong — imagine Handel's Messiah without the choir! But wounds do heal and only those that have gone deeper than the layers of the skin will leave a scar. The history of wound healing is like a history of science and research and is full of big blunders, great breakthroughs and improved patient outcomes. This theory lasted for hundreds of years and caused immeasurable suffering and tales of ingenuity to thousands of patients.

They believed that the production of pus was necessary to heal the wound and applied many potions and boiling oils to wounds to promote the formation of pus. Pare conducted an early clinical trial, albeit unintentionally, when he found soldiers' wounds treated with salves were less irritated and pain-free compared to wounds treated with boiling oils, which were painful and swollen. This was followed by the development of disinfectants in the prevention of infection, particularly relevant to surgical wounds.

The use of disinfectants and antiseptics was now becoming more widespread. French solders tending to an injured colleague in Chronic wounds, such as leg ulcers we now know, are most prevalent in the over 65 age group. But up to , the average life expectancy of Irish females was only 61 years so many people did not live long enough to get this type of wound. He demonstrated that the rate of new skin formation of wounds in a moist environment was faster than wounds exposed to air.

In conventional medicine, these improvements and advancements in knowledge, coupled with a transition to evidence-based clinical practice lead to the discontinuation of many empirical therapies. Kilkenny hurler Tommy Walsh gets stapled up What causes a leg ulcer? Think about the circulation as a plumbing system. Blood is pumped by the heart around the body through a series of arteries, the further away from the heart they go the smaller they get so that the tiniest of vessels are called capillaries and are only the width of a strand of hair.

This arterial blood, rich in nutrients and oxygen, feeds the cells of the body. Once this is used up by the cells, the blood is returned to the heart through the veins.

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This blood is depleted of oxygen and nutrients and is sometimes referred to as blue blood. To get back to the heart the veins have a series of valves in the centre to help prevent back flow of blood and these veins are usually positioned in the middle of muscle groups which help to pump the blood back to the heart to start the cycle again. The management of wounds up to the mid to late 19th century was primarily concentrated on acute wounds encountered through hunting, battles, poor working conditions and surgery These valves are very important and people who sustain a blood clot in their leg or get inflammation of the veins phlebitis can damage the valves.

All of this is important when trying to understand the causes of various leg ulcers.


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Venous leg ulcers are a debilitating chronic condition, occurring in the presence of venous hypertension. They effect one to two percent of the population globally, with women predominating in a ratio of It is widely believed that only older people get venous ulcers but almost half of all ulcers start before the age of 65 years. Historically, venous ulcers accounted for the majority 70 percent of all leg ulcers.

The number of people with a leg ulcer is expected to increase in line with an increase in the ageing population, worsening lifestyle choices, increased chronic illness and issues with accessing healthcare. A ship's nurse attending to a stowaway in Healing is often delayed, with ulcers persisting over 12 months in many cases and 50 percent will reoccur within three months of healing. They are usually shallow, painful ulcers around the ankle area, usually on the inside of the ankle.

They can produce high levels of exudate fluid and are caused by damage to the venous vein system. Thankfully treatment is now well advanced beyond the boiling oils of Galen to advanced wound care dressings and bandages. Treatment begins with a full assessment, usually be a nurse in a leg ulcer clinic and then the use of compression bandages and stockings.

If assessed and treated early the majority will heal within 12 weeks. The main difficulty is that support stockings must be worn once the ulcer has healed in order to prevent it from recurring. The reason being that the damage to the venous system has not changed and the person is always at risk. There are surgical options available which can help prevent recurrence and this should be discussed with the GP. The Vattienti of Verbicaro in Italy whose Easter ritual involves cork boards and glass. Photo: Getty Arterial ulcers are more challenging as they are caused by damage or disease of the arterial system.

They are more painful, usually small but deep and look more "punched out" in appearance. They occur around the foot. Because disease of the arterial system not only happens in the foot, the person with arterial ulcers will have other cardiovascular disease problems. The limb often looks shiny and hairless and the toe nails are dry and brittle. The solution to these lies in addressing the cardiovascular problem and may in cases require surgery to improve the blood flow. Bandages are not used but simple dressings can help manage any leakage and ease the pain.

Some new dressings and local treatments are quite effective to ease the pain. Diabetic foot ulcers occur in people with diabetes.