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The story itself has been called admirable.

Catalog Record: Ava Guarani Ayvu | HathiTrust Digital Library

Fabio Fiallo. Fiallo was born in in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. He served as director of the weekly El Hogar The Hearth in and His various volumes of poetry, chiefly love lyrics, appeared between and Fiallo was jailed several times for anti-U. Braeunlich, New York. The volume as a whole glorified the feminine body as an artistic object. This is an example of the aristocratic in-group aspect of modernismo, at least among its most ethereal practitioners.

El beso is more of a sketch, allegory, or anecdote than a full-fledged short story in the current sense, but even in that way it is typical of much modernista writing. Horacio Quiroga. With Poe, Maupassant, Kipling, and Chekhov as his models, Quiroga devoted himself almost exclusively to the short-story form, and led the Spanish-American story toward its 20th-century heights, refining its technique and toughening its subject matter.

He has been called the cuentista par excellence, the father of criollismo and magic realism. Born in Salto, Uruguay, in , by the turn of the century he was a modernista bohemian in Montevideo. Enamored of that inhospitable territory, Quiroga eventually settled there, and used it as the backdrop for many of his best stories, in which human beings are powerless against hostile nature and blind chance though he was never a merely regional writer in the pejorative sense of that term.

The grimness of his own character was surely exacerbated by a grotesquely long string of suicides and other accidental or premature deaths among friends and family so many that they would strain belief if transferred to a work of fiction. He collected his stories into thematic volumes nine published between and each containing works written at different times; he also wrote important statements on the esthetics of the short story. Quiroga killed himself in after being diagnosed with cancer. A la deriva is one of his jungle stories that have been acclaimed for their simple, sure art, verbal economy, and vigorous storytelling.

Colombia has long enjoyed the reputation of making the most intimate and idiomatic use of Spanish of any American nation, and Carrasquilla is one of the supreme Spanish-language regionalists in the best sense of the word. Coming relatively late to literature he was 38 when he began publishing , he rejected modernismo while it was in its heyday, and opted for realism or a nonpreachy naturalism; some say, criollismo , transforming everyday folk speech into a personal style though his wealthy, aristocratic background kept him from identifying himself with commoners.

He was resolutely noncosmopolitan, and an anti-esthete. Born in in Santodomingo, in the department of Antioquia which he virtually never left , Carrasquilla found his study of law interrupted by the rebellion of , but eventually managed to become a judge. He published regional novels from to , and wrote a number of important short stories, as well as compiling folktales. A solitary eccentric, he suffered a bad fall in , went blind in , and died in The text, a dense tissue of witty expressions, is highly idiomatic, full of Colombianisms in general and Antioquia speech in particular, with many references to ecclesiastical practice and local customs.

The present translator may have been foolhardy to include this story, since the precise meaning of at least a dozen words and expressions has eluded him see footnotes indicating conjectures , but: 1 Carrasquilla is of great importance; 2 the story is extremely attractive; and 3 any Spanish-American anthology should include some regionalism Carrasquilla is not as difficult as some authors who introduce whole passages in local Indian languages, or whose pervasive use of rural dialect makes their text impenetrable for an outsider.

He was born in Guatemala City in and died in ; his life is substantially the record of his writings. From to he was director of the national library; after that, ambassador to the United States. A number of his stories are psychological fantasies without much action, if any: more specifically, they are psychozoological, the principal character often based on a real-life acquaintance being likened to a given animal, in a way that reminds many critics of the Mesoamerican Indian belief in animal guardian spirits nahuals.

Thus, in his story El trovador colombiano The Colombian Troubadour , there is a faithful, meek dog-man ; in his story La signatura de la esfinge The Classification of the Sphinx , the heroine clearly based on the Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral, an admirer of his work is like a lioness; other stories feature people who are like elephants, tigers, and monkeys. Amado Nervo. One of the foremost Mexican modernistas, especially celebrated for his poetry which changed from lushness to a nonrhetorical simplicity bordering on the prosaic as he developed , Nervo was born in in Tepic, state of Nayarit.

He studied law and theology before moving to Mexico City in , abandoning his plans to become a priest. He worked for the major newspaper El Imparcial and published a successful novel in In he was a cofounder of one of the most important Mexican literary journals, La Revista Moderna The Modern Review , which ran until In he began a diplomatic career.

His first collection of stories appeared in A number of his works are tinged with theosophy and spiritualism. Nervo died in El diamante de la inquietud, which is sometimes called a novella or a short novel, was published in in the series La Novela Corta The Short Novel , Year 2, No.

The suavest of all the stories included here, it is immeasurably rewarding. Born in Caracas in , Gallegos studied law there at the Central University of Venezuela, and taught mathematics and philosophy before entering politics as a progressive liberal. He spent a voluntary exile in Spain from to , and was elected president of Venezuela in His term of office, however, lasted only from February to November of , when the military found him too radical and ousted him.

New years of exile were spent in Mexico and Cuba until As a writer, he achieved fame with his first novel, about the plight of the poor, in , though he had been publishing since , and his first book, the story collection Los aventureros The Adventurers , had appeared in His fictional oeuvre, largely about common folk in many walks of life and in many regions of his homeland, comprises a sort of national epic.

A novel received the National Prize of Literature, and a prestigious Spanish-American literary prize, awarded every five years, is named for him the Premio Gallegos. The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded.

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Linked Data More info about Linked Data. It does seem, however, that the antipassive always comes immediately after the person cross-referencing prefixes. Imperative markers are suffixed, although some imperatives only require prefixal person marking. The different negations are generally circumfixal. The prefixal part comes at the left edge of the word.

The suffixal part comes after degree markers and volitive mood, but before aspectual markers. Krivoshein de Canese and Acosta Alcaraz give the very general phonological rule that all stressed suffixes occur closer to the base than all unstressed suffixes. Rather, I believe it is an argument to classify them as adverbs.

Accessed 25 January I present here some of the most common processes and the morphemes involved. I do not address the issue of the accuracy of the labels for each process, given the unsolved problem of the classification of Guarani word classes. Since it forms adjectives, it can also be used to form relative clauses see section 6. Unfortunately, most grammars dedicate very little or no space to descriptions of the syntax of Guarani, preferring to devote the bulk of the work to morphology.

In the conventional modern orthography, monosyllabic postpositions are written attached to the word to their left, whereas polysyllabic ones are written as separate words. Furthermore, they attach to the last member of a coordinate phrase, but take scope over both. When they appear, they can do so preverbally or postverbally.

Peru oguata. Peru o-guata Pedro 3. Kyju kiri-kiri ho'upa avei upe hogue… kyju kiri-kiri ho-'u-pa avei upe h-ogue… cricket chirp. PL young. Shain and Tonhauser further clarify this situation. They also show that marking is not categorical: human direct objects tend to be marked, especially if they are topical; inanimate direct objects tend to be unmarked but can be under somewhat unclear conditions ; finally, the evidence for non-human animate objects in inconclusive. Imemby oheja ha oho mombyry.

Guarani noun phrases are continuous, since there is no agreement across phrase components that would ensure interpretation of discontinuous parts as belonging to the same phrase as occurs for example in Classical Latin or in modern Australian aboriginal languages. When present, determiners precede the head noun, as do cardinal numerals and possessors; adjectives and other modifiers including ordinal numerals follow the noun. Any noun by its own can form a NP without needing determination, with definiteness and specificity inferred from the context.

Modern spoken Guarani, however, has reappropriated two of the Spanish definite articles as determiners. Aikhenvald 96 states that they have a topicalizing function.

Unfortunately, this statement is not accompanied by explanation, examples, or references. SG man and 3. This numeral, however, cannot be used as an indefinite plural article. After contact with Spanish, Spanish numerals began to be used from 5 on. The creation of a modern system of numerals is generally attributed to Decoud Larrosa see, e.

Despite these efforts at developing a numeral system based on Guarani roots, it is customary to use Spanish numerals in the modern language. For the conditions governing these and other forms of reduplication in Guarani, see Hamidzadeh For that reason, I consider them to be prefixes. To my knowledge, this is the only work to mention this difference. SG 1SG. This will be discussed below in section 5. Predicative sentences assign a property to a referent. In Guarani neither of these types of sentences needs a copula: the juxtaposition of two NPs suffices to establish a subject-predicate relation determined by word order, as in above.

These sentences admit, however, emphatic and evidential markers supporting the contention that these markers are not verbal modifiers as is sometimes claimed in traditional grammars. In non-verbal possessive sentences, the possessor is encoded with the inactive cross-referencing prefixes and the whole predicate accepts verbal morphology. Che chemembyse. Moreover, the possessive relation thus encoded is non-inherent and transient, making possession of kinship and body-part terms inalienable possession generally infelicitous in this construction.

This last suffix can also negate predicates in subordinate relative or adverbial clauses. It is also a derivational privative suffix that forms antonyms see section 4. NEG 2SG. Use of a dedicated question marker is the most common strategy cross-linguistically Dryer b. Neither intonation cross-linguistically common nor deviations from a canonical word order 66 cross-linguistically uncommon, but common in European languages are used in Guarani.

Rehose piko. More contemporary detailed studies of intonation, however, are still not available. This question might conceivably rely on intonation. Anecdotal evidence from this author and from a reviewer also suggests that interrogative intonation is used in Paraguayan Guarani. Content questions wh-questions contain an interrogative phrase, optionally together with one of the interrogative clitics. Moo reho. Mba'epa rejapo. It is unclear how productive or frequent these other question markers are in Modern Paraguayan Guarani.

Guarani has different means to express equatives, comparatives, superlatives, and elatives. Comparisons of equality establish equal degrees between the standard and the comparee NPs. This affix is not a dedicated degree comparative. SG child 3.

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I hesitate, however, to call this a comparative of inferiority suffix. First, synthetic inflectional comparatives of inferiority are so far unattested in large cross-linguistic samples Bobaljik Relative superlatives combine the absolute superlative suffix with the comparative suffix for either superiority or inferiority b. Kururu ivaiete. SG flower 3. There are no non-finite verb forms in Guarani that are used for subordinate clauses.

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Presumably due to the Spanish language influence brought on by the Jesuits, copulative and disjunctive connectors began to be used. Ipynandi ha'e ijao soro. Che aiko rei, nde katu remba'apo. Ana omba'apo, Irene katu opytu'u. Strictly, it does not belong to Guaraniete but rather to the Jopara variety of Guarani, as suggested by the amount of Spanish borrowings in the example below. SG ice. LOC because. Asyndetic subordination also occurs with verbs of volition The meaning is that of a permissive construction.

Emomarandu chupe tou. DAT bread. The predicates in these clauses do not have a special form e. Both types are identical. SG 2SG. Ja'upa yva nde regueru va'ekue. SG ring 3. Note that in section 4. However, their placement is rather restricted for a temporal adverb: they always appear after the predicate they modify, usually immediately after the predicate.

Hence, I prefer to continue glossing it as a combination of two suffixes. However, one must note that this combination is highly grammaticalized and therefore, synchronically, we are in the presence of a single past morpheme. They can occur after or before the main clause. Ahecha pe kuimba'e oike hague. SG man 3. I can think of at least five such areas. The first is a well-fundamented treatment of the bound vs. Considerations of syllabicity on which the recommended orthography is based are perhaps not as important as restrictions on placement, ability to bear stress independent of the stress of the phonological word, or paradigmatic relations with other particles.

Ideally, one would want the outcome of such an analysis to be reflected in improved recommendations for best orthographic practices. The issue of determining the word classes of Guarani internally, without reference to the system of Spanish or some other language, is clearly unresolved.

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Whereas the difference between nouns and verbs seems to be well-founded to some extent, the status of most other roots is unclear. The TAM system of Guarani is equally in need of careful study. Tense, aspect, and mood markers need to be clearly differentiated among themselves and also from voice and evidentiality markers.


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Adverbs if they exist as a category need to be differentiated from tense markers. Moreover, the use and productivity of Guarani grammatical categories and their associated markers must be examined. Grammatical categories identified for Guaraniete may be of little or no use in Modern Spoken Guarani, even when Guarani-only discourse and not Jopara is intended. Relatedly, there is a need for a more comprehensive structural examination of the different registers of Guarani and Jopara.

This is not to say that no important work has been done. Guarani is clearly in an advantageous position with respect to minority languages and many other indigenous languages: it is thriving and relatively well documented. Let us hope that this chapter and this volume more broadly can generate the sort of puzzlement, interest, and controversy that is needed to further our knowledge of this important South American language. Aikhenvald, A. Aissen, J. Differential object marking: Iconicity vs. Ayala de Michelagnoli, M. Bareiro Saguier, R. Bianchetti, J. Bickel, B.


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Exponence of selected inflectional formatives. Haspelmath Eds. Fusion of selected inflectional formatives. Inflectional synthesis of the verb.


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    Comrie, B. Relativization on subjects. Creissels, D. Remarks on split intransitivity and fluid intransitivity. Croft, W. Parts of speech as language universals and as language-particular categories. Comrie Eds. Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter. Diessel, H.