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Log into Edulastic! Learn more about Formative Assessment. United States history is not nearly as broad, but you need to know specific details. The big concepts to know for U. Moving forward in history, you need to know about the political system in the U. Constitution and the Bill of Rights see article above , the major principles of the U.
Once you understand the political ideology of the new republic, look at U. As the U.
Eventually, this would lead to the Civil War and subsequent Reconstruction. While specific Civil War battles are unlikely to be on the Multiple Subjects: Subtest I, you should know about the implications of Reconstruction on the South, such as the 13 th , 14 th , and 15 th Amendment, the role of Blacks and women in this time, and Jim Crow laws.
Reconstruction eases into the industrialization of America — the second Industrial Revolution — and the immigration it encouraged. So be familiar with the response of Nativism and the impact of industrialization on the U.
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Big Concept to Know: The ensured rights of the U. Constitution, specifically the separation of powers, federalism, and the concept of a Democratic Republic. Maybe you did…. California history focuses somewhat on Pre-Columbian civilization in California, so make sure you know the geography, economic activities, folklore, and religion of American Indians in California. Also, you should really understand the impact of Spanish exploration on California — such as the impact of the mission system. Make sure you know the impact of the gold discovery on the culture, politics, social fabrics, and economy of California.
You should know about migration to California during the Dust Bowl and in the s — and the cultural, social, political, and economic impact of migration. Who controlled California before the war, then after the war, how this timeline relates to the Gold rush and when California became a U. This includes economic concepts like scarcity, opportunity cost, supply and demand, the business cycle, and fiscal and monetary policy. For political science, this includes concepts like reading a map and a globe, geographic systems like the water cycle , and cultural diffusion.
This can also include concepts related to philosophy, anthropology or general concepts relating to human migration. The mathematics questions on the Multiple Subjects: Subtest II can be the most intimidating for many test-takers. Number sense questions focus on how well you understand the base 10 place value system, your understanding of the greatest common factor and prime factors which are really important , ordering real numbers integers, mixed numbers, and rational numbers on a number line, representing numbers in scientific notation, and performing operations with positive, negative, and fractional exponents.
The Algebra questions focus on how well you can identify numerical patterns — specifically using functions, tables, and graphs. That means you should be able to identify patterns and create an equation to mimic the pattern. Also, you should understand proportional reasoning — ratios, equivalent fractions, similar triangles, etc. The Algebra section also focuses on expressions for equalities and inequalities no, not the political inequalities you see in the news, mathematical inequalities. And finally, make sure you know what basic exponential equations look like on a graph.
Geometry questions focus on shapes and their symmetry, translations, rotations and reflections — as well as triangles I mean, it is geometry. Make sure you understand the basic definitions of shapes — how many sides each shape has and the sum of their interior angles.
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You should also know how shapes are reflected, translated, and rotated along a geometric plane. You need to be able to calculate the perimeter of two- and three-dimensional figures, as well as their surface area, and the volume of 3D figures. Also, you will be tested on proportional reasoning — or how a scale drawing translates to a full-sized object.
The probability and statistics questions focus on analyzing data for mean, median, mode, and range, expressing probabilities in a variety of ways, using ratios, proportions, decimals, and percentage, while assessing the probability of outcomes in terms of defined samples. To prepare for the probability and statistics questions, make sure you know how to gauge the probability of outcomes of a given situation.
Physical Science questions focus on the structure and properties of matter, as well as the principles of motion and energy. To really conquer the earth and space science section, you need to know the characteristics of different minerals — such as quartz, calcite, hornblende, mica, and other common ore materials. You should really be familiar with the three types of rocks — sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic.
What does that mean? Things like how erosion, especially from water, can shape rock formations and how weathering can affect environments. Finally, you really should know the water cycle and the fundamental impact it has on all life on Earth. These shifts are the primary cause of mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes. Be sure to brush up on plate tectonics for the science test. The life science questions focus on living organisms and life on Earth. So that means knowing things are made up of cells, and knowing how cells work.
All living things must have food, water, and shelter to survive. Knowledge of ecosystems and what impacts them is important — water supply, temperature, soil composition. Also, you should know about specific life cycles — like the butterfly, frog, or mouse, and the different ways animals reproduce sexual v.
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How cells reproduce mitosis and the different types of cells is another key concept you should grasp. Finally, undergirding the understanding of life is the theory of evolution and that living organisms evolve through natural selection. Among living things there is a hierarchy of plants, insects, small animals, and big animals. You should know what a primary producer is, what a consumer is, and what a decomposer is.
All this makes up an ecosystem — the plants, the consumer, and the decomposers. Generally write in sentences and paragraphs but switch to point form if you are running out of time. Discuss relationships between facts and concepts, rather than just listing facts.
Include one item of information concept, detail, or example for every mark the essay is worth. Organize the plan around a central thesis statement. Order your subtopics as logically as possible, making for easier transitions in the essay. To avoid going off topic, stick to the outline as you write.
Hand in the outline. Some professors or TAs may give marks for material written on it.
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Write the essay quickly, using clear, concise sentences. Maintain a clear essay structure to make it easier for the professor or TA to mark: A sentence introduction, including a clear thesis statement and a preview of the points. Include key words from the question in your thesis statement. Body paragraph each containing one main idea, with a topic sentence linking back to the thesis statement, and transition words e.