Numerous previous research show the robustness of EI as a predictor to job performance, 1 — 4 psychological well-being, customer satisfaction, and organization performance. Additionally, EI is found to be positively correlated with effective leadership, 6 , 7 self-efficacy, organizational commitment, 7 group performance, 8 , 9 team effectiveness, decision making, coping stress, interpersonal relationship, and general performance. Apart from the fact that mainstream EI theories are the product of research in the context of Western culture, most prior studies tend to neglect cultural differences in emotion, so that it is widely accepted that EI theories are universal.
Three cultural biases that often occur in most cross-cultural research are construct, methodology, and item bias.
Furthermore, 2 availability limitation of emotional response or overlapped emotional response is proven to be another source of construct bias. Methodology bias occurs when assessment procedure causes unwanted differences between groups. Generally, there are four sources of methodology biases, which are social desirability, distinct response style, variation in stimulus familiarity, and lack of availability of equal sample.
Indonesia, as a representation of developing Eastern countries, shows rather different features compared to Western values in regard to workplace situation. It leads to a conclusion that Indonesian leaders tend to keep their distance with their subordinates. It is also common in Indonesia that every level in the organization possesses a large distance with a strict and formal hierarchy.
With respect to collectivistic—individualistic category, Indonesia is categorized to possess a highly collectivistic culture, which implies that group-oriented or group-motivated tasks are more likeable than individual tasks. Culturally, it is less acceptable to claim a success due to the work of certain individuals.
Rather, an achievement is often seen as a shared achievement of all group members involved in the task completion.
On masculinity—femininity dimensions, Indonesians are in the middle of the scale, which means that Indonesians prefer to be a people-oriented worker than task-oriented worker. Socializing and maintaining relationship becomes a critical point and even is more important than impressing the supervisor. At last, on uncertainty avoidance dimension, Indonesians tend to embrace uncertainty, or to put it another way, they become more motivated when facing an unfamiliar situation.
To fulfill the need of availability of contextual EI test for recruitment and selection, this study concerned on providing a robust EI test for the Indonesian context. We set a goal of TKEA measurement that it is able to predict the ability of giving appropriate emotional responses based on cognitive appraisal of certain situation, recognizing emotional expression and regulating emotions into effective responses, particularly in the workplace situation.
With an assumption that the task is performed in a standardized situation, individuals are able to perform successfully on a certain type of task. TKEA consists of three subsets, which are emotional appraisal, emotional recognition, and emotional regulation. Emotional regulation refers to the appropriateness of adaptive responses to the relevant situation regulating emotional responses. Various IRMs can be constructed depending on their fundamental assumptions, for instance, a parameter logistic model 1PL , 2PL, or 3PL, those of which differ in their underlying assumptions.
Before constructing the IRT model, three assumptions must be checked, which are 1 unidimensionality; 2 local independence; and 3 monotonicity. Unidimensionality and local independence are closely intertwined, and particularly for the 2PL model, the presence of unidimensionality can affect local independence and vice versa. When unidimensionality assumption is fulfilled, it means that only one latent variable is being measured.
Local independence assumption checks whether item responses are independent. The goodness-of-fit in confirmatory factor analysis CFA can be a sufficient assumption check of unidimensionality. In the 2PL model, monotonicity assumption is fulfilled when ICC slope does not decrease if the curve moves to a higher level of latent construct. Estimating test score is more likely to be close to accurate when the IRT model is robust. The three parameters include the following. An item with a low discrimination level cannot distinguish participants based on their ability level, while a higher level of discrimination means an item performs splendidly in differentiating participants based on their ability level.
Each item has its own information function, and it is calculated based on item parameters. The higher the slope value, the more information that the item is able to provide.
To give a better and total picture of the function of a test as a whole, we can add all the item information function IIF to create a test information function TIF , which also works as a reliability test in IRT. TKEA is designed to measure three EI domains, which are emotional appraisal, emotional recognition, and emotional regulation.
Many empirical evidences demonstrate the centrality of cognitive evaluation in understanding emotional response, and cognitive evaluation of emotion may explain why individual responses to a certain situation can significantly differ. It also explains why cognitive appraisal theory of emotion is widely popular to be used as the theoretical basis of EI test development. An intercultural study of cognitive appraisal of emotion by Scherer, 24 which aimed to construct a theoretical prediction of emotional-inducing situation, resulted in several conclusions as follows.
At last, 6 shame and guilt are predicted to contain internal attribution and are inconsistent with internal standards, such as idealistic ego and self-esteem. Recognizing the subtle meaning of facial expression has been widely investigated as a basic premise of EI. Recognizing facially expressed emotions is defined as an ability to detect at the lowest level of a considerable hierarchical taxonomic model of performance-based EI.
Facially expressed emotion recognition is therefore essential in different types of occupation, such as politicians, teachers, medical doctors, and therapists. Interestingly, most emotional expression studies did not consider its emotional-eliciting context, although most participants reported that they did not extensively use contextual information when making emotional judgement.
Therefore, we chose multiple choice-style questions with one correct answer, so that they produce normative score. Carroll 18 explains that individual ability consists of three criteria: 1 representing performance or potential performance, where in certain conditions, ability can take shape as the maximum performance; 2 the existence of individual variation is mandatory; and c there should be a final result that needs to be achieved, for example, successfully delivering certain task, getting a high score, or answering questions correctly.
TKEA was developed by considering the finding of Mayer et al 31 that EI can fulfill its role as a form of intelligence if 1 EI can be operationalized as an ability; 2 EI is moderately correlated with the existing intelligence measurement; and 3 EI is proven to show a growth, where EI should gradually increase along with the increase in physical maturity and mental maturity.
TKEA uses paper-based test for its administration method. After verbally agreeing and giving their consent, participants were asked to read the instructions before proceeding to answer the questions. Low discrimination low factor loading items were removed so that overall reliability and construct validity of TKEA were significantly improved. Prior to conducting the research, we obtained ethical clearance from the Research Ethics Committee, Faculty of Psychology, Airlangga University.
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All participants were required to give verbal consent prior to participating, and the participants whose faces were used in the item sample Table 1 gave written consent for their images to be published. Item sample: A co-worker who you knew had a worst working performance got a better performance score than you. How did you feel in that situation? Overall TKEA comprises items that consist of 40 items for each subset. In the first step, we identified and collected several emotional workplace situations and provided descriptions of these situations, where emotions arose and were needed to be managed.
Furthermore, we developed fictional scenarios vignette , when those later became test items. Next, we asked a number of experts, including five professionals employed as lecturers in psychology and experienced in human resource practice in Indonesia, to assess test items. The items in the emotional recognition subset were developed using a number of facial figures of Indonesians as facial representations.
In understanding the process of emotional appraisal when constructing TKEA, we used cognitive appraisal theory as our guideline to determine the scoring system for the emotional appraisal subset subset 1.
To assess the correct answer in the emotional recognition subset subset 2 , we used the target scoring method. Target-based scoring means that we determined target stimulus on emotional recognition items. Target-based scoring is only suitable for the emotional identification test or emotional recognition test and inappropriate for higher ability of EI e. For selecting correct response for subset 3, we used the expert scoring method. Correct responses for items in subset 3 emotional regulation were determined by a number of EI experts, especially in the workplace context.
The board of experts consisted of 10 experts: two human resource and development managers of two well-known Indonesian companies Indomarco and Astra International , two human resource and development consultants, an industrial and organizational psychology lecturer from Universitas Indonesia, and five psychology lecturers from Airlangga University. We asked them to choose one correct answer based on their professional experience and expertise. Afterward, the response, which was mostly chosen by the board of expert, was the correct answer. If participants choose other than A, they will be scored 0 incorrect.
In this research, participants were involved. Research participants were jobseekers who were tested for job selection or promotion in a number of public or private institutions in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. More than half of participants Their age ranged from 23 to 56 years. Most of the participants were university leavers with an undergraduate degree We used robust maximum likelihood MLR as an estimation procedure that is robust to violations of non-normality, since TKEA produces categorical responses.
It leads to a conclusion that three subscales of TKEA are unidimensional with no local dependence, that is to say allowing us to carry out item analysis using IRT. As shown, the mean score for all subsets ranged from The emotional appraisal subset is normally distributed, while the rest of the subsets are skewed. Since obtained factor loadings were rather low, the emotional appraisal subset was modeled four times; first, 12 items were removed; second, 15 items were eliminated, and last, additional 18 items were removed.
Table 3 contains item parameters for the emotional appraisal subset. Subset 1 obtained 0. Most items in subset 1 show moderate discrimination values. The highest discrimination value is possessed by item A38 0. The highest level of difficulty is found in item A19 2. The slope estimation ranged from 0. Figure 1 displays ICCs for 22 items of subset 1. These items show how ICCs vary depending on the slope parameter as well as the location parameter.
The figure demonstrates that it fulfils the assumption of monotonicity, where no decrease is noticeable after the peak of higher level of latent construct. The IIF curve Figure 2 demonstrates how these variations affect measurement precision across the continuum. Item A38 reaches the highest slope and thus retains a maximum information level across all items in subset 1.
Meanwhile, item A19 provides the lowest information. Figure 3 shows TIF of subset 1, which is test information values for subset 1. TIF value for subset 1 is 3. Emotion recognition subset modeled once with all 40 items, and there was no item removed. Table 4 shows discrimination and difficulty parameters for each item in subset 2. In average, item discrimination of subset 2 is 0. Overall, all items in subset 2 have moderate item discrimination values. Item with the highest item discrimination value is item B15 1.
Item with higher values of discrimination are more useful for developing a measurement instrument since they are better at differentiating individuals into different ability levels. Figure 4 shows ICCs of 40 items in subset 2. These items showed how ICCs varied depending on the parameter slope, as well as the location parameter.
The curve confirms that it fulfils the assumption of monotonicity as the probability of a participant answering correctly increases consistently with no decrease detected after reaching the highest peak of higher level of latent construct. The IIF curve Figure 5 demonstrates how these variations affect measurement precision across the continuum.
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Item B15 is at the highest slope, thus reaches maximum information levels among the 40 items, while item B18 provides the lowest information. Here are the most comprehensive sources that allow you to search by topic. They provide basic information, such as test name, purpose, population, scoring system, validity, price, and publisher. The most useful tool for information about psychological tests, it includes reviews of all English-language standardized tests covering educational skills, personality, vocational aptitude, psychology, and related areas.
M Porter. Tests in print Tests in print II Tests in print III Tests in print IV Tests in print V Commissioned Reviews of Psychological Tests. Directory of Unpublished Experimental Mental Measures. Library has: to present. In paper only BF T43 Similar to Tests: A Comprehensive Reference, but provides much more detail. Test critiques compendium : reviews of major tests from the Test critiques series. Try related words. Pay attention to ALL clues you find regarding a test, even its author or publisher may be useful in locating it.
If you can find them, take note of the corporation or university where the author works including the name of the university and the academic department ; the names of EVERY author who was involved in the development of the test; and the names, dates, and differences between alternative versions of the test.
Instead, they provide important clues that will help you track it down. They sometimes give contact information for a company that distributes sells the test. Also, they may include a bibliography. In the bibliography, you might a book or journal article that includes a copy of the test or further clues about it. University researchers, nonprofit organizations, government agencies, consultants, and others sometimes develop their own instruments. If they have published a journal article, research paper, book, or web page about their research, a copy of the testing instrument might be included in the text or in an appendix.
PsycINFO is one of the primary databases for searching for articles based on psychological tests. For best results you can compose your search in the following manner. Put the name of the test in the first box with other abbreviations or alternative names in the same row. You should see a list of articles that feature the test that you are searching for. In some cases, there is a copy of the test that was used in the study attached to the article. TRELLIS will allow you to search for books on psychological assessment for the topic or population that interests you.
Development of a psychological test to measure ability-based emotional | PRBM
Contains references to more than 10, tests published in more than different books. This directory lists instruments printed in about 35 of the top Psychology journals. Look in the catalog of a library that has a large test collection. D This will tell you the self-reported strengths and weaknesses of other test collections in libraries throughout the United States, as well as whether the collections are open to the public. It has one of the largest libraries of testing instruments. Its online library catalog, TestLink lists more than 25, tests. It is searchable by author or title.
There is an option to purchase some copies of tests directly from ETS. If the test you are looking for was created recently, you may be able to locate the author by searching in Google for the person's name. Google Scholar. But, as the Sage Encyclopedia explains, validity not only depends on the instrument itself, but how you use the instrument. Even if a test is generally considered to be "valid," it might not be applicable to the particular group, behavior, or situation you are trying to study Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, , p. For one thing, some tests can only be purchased, administered, or interpreted by a licensed or certified professional.
Even if you are qualified to administer the test, there are a lot of other things you may need to do first. If the test was printed in a journal article or book, consider many university professors have faculty web pages, and many consultants and employees are listed on corporate web pages, and have posted resumes and other contact information on the Internet. Look for the e-mail address or institutional affiliation of the author often you can find it on the first or last page of a journal article, or on the jacket or back pages of a book.
If the test is distributed by a publisher, it can be difficult to find the current publisher, especially for older tests. Smaller publishing companies are constantly being bought out by larger corporations. Indexes published and unpublished sources on thousands of educational topics, with information from from RIE Resources in Education and CIJE Current Index to Journals in Education , and including materials focused on every aspect of educational testing.
You can find information about specific tests and measure and possibly the instrument itself in this database. Psychological, Health, and Educational Tests: Databases for Finding Info about Tests This Guide presents a selection of online and print resources related to test instruments in the fields of psychology, health, and education. About this Page This section provides a list of databases that index tests in some way. These databases can provide information about tests, including: Where a test appears or was used in a journal article or research study.
Review information for a given test, including reliability and validity of the test. Where to purchase a published test. Google Scholar Google Scholar is a time-saving, scholarly search interface accessible from within the Google interface. On the landing page, cick the arrow next to "Select Databases" just above the "Advanced Search" heading to reveal database options.
Need a demo? Steps and Tips for Searching To find only those articles that contain the actual instrument, limit by checking the "Primary Source" box.