Walther, Ingo F. Athens, Georgia, Georgia Museum of Art, 11 de marzo - 26 de junio de Cincinnati, Ohio, Taft Museum of Art, 13 de julio - 28 de octubre de Jacksonville Florida, Cummer Museum of Art, 29 de enero - 3 de marzo de Tulsa, Oklahoma, Philbrook Art Museum, 10 de abril - 15 de junio de Baal-Teshuva, Jacob, Chagall. Abrams [s. Wrapped telephone Project for L. Ericsson , Collage Knoedler and Co. Erotique No. Grall, Alex dir. No obstante, su pintura de posguerra fue la de un hombre feliz. La dance au bord de la mer, La danza a la orilla del mar, Tinta china y plumilla sobre papel Leal, Brigitte, et al.
Warncke, Carsten-Peter, Pablo Picasso. Werke - , vol. Frank Perls Gallery, Beverly Hills, Billy Wilder, Beverly Hills. Richardson, John, Picasso. Richardson, John, A Life of Picasso. The Early Years, - , vol. Zervos, Christian, Pablo Picasso. Works from to , vol. Clair, Jane ed. Tired of the copying of embalmed birds and dried flowers practiced in this school, he gave up drawing and chose to take refuge in the poetry of the German Romantics. He continued his academic training at the Weimar Kunstschule from to , subsequently moving to Weggis on the shores of Lake Lucerne, Switzerland.
In he visited Munich, made friends with Kandinsky and was invited to exhibit together with the Der Blaue Reiter group. Three years later, with the start of the First World War, he moved to Paris to the well-known Bateau-Lavoir building in Montmarte, where numerous writers and artists had their studios, including Guillaume Apollinaire, Max Jacob, Pablo Picasso and Robert Delauney, among others. During his first years with this group — , he collaborated with Sophie Taeuber, creating abstract, deliberately impersonal objects, with a Constructivist orientation.
A year later, he was producing relief works in painted wood, following a procedure based on chance, and so entering the field of sculpture. In the post-war years he returned to Paris to set up a workshop with Sophie Taeuber in the outskirts of the city, and was active in the Dadaist movements which emerged in Cologne and Berlin. He also established friendships with Kurt Schwitters and Max Ernst, made contact with the Surrealists, and was invited to participate in the First Surrealist Exhibition which was held in the Galerie Pierre in Paris in As a result of the outbreak of the Second World War, he fled to the south of France, remaining in Grasse until He returned to Switzerland, and it was from this point that his work achieved international exposure: he was awarded the prize for Sculpture at the Sao Paolo Biennial in as well as at the Venice Biennial.
Personage Figure, n. Watercolor and carbon on paper From to he studied painting in Santiago with the painter Miguel Venegas Cifuentes. Initially he worked on portrait commissions, which gave him access to Spanish high society. In he held his first solo exhibition in Madrid, where he continued showing until the end of the 60s.
After a period in the Philippines, making portraits of important society and political figures, he moved to Tangier, Morocco in In the landscape and the people of this country he discovered a mysterious atmosphere which became the inspiration for his future work. During this period he painted objects and human figures in interiors, showing notable mastery of light, atmosphere and perspective.
In the mids he moved to New York, joining the list of artists represented by the prestigious Marlborough Gallery. He maintained the technical ability of his period in Morocco, but the ambiguity of his themes and the mystery of his settings have blurred the clarity of the figures and objects represented; as opposed to the photorealists, who tend to present images as visual evidence of reality, he has opted to incorporate narcissistic, random and temporally disconnected motifs in his work.
He now lives between southern Chile and Tangier. Madonna, Carbon and gouache on paper Inventory number: Provenance: Acquired directly from the artist. Private collection. Under the influence of his mother he enrolled in an art school in St. In his first solo exhibition was held in the Herwarth Walden der Sturm Gallery in Berlin; the same year he returned to Vitebsk but, taken by surprise by the outbreak of the First World War, he moved to St.
Petersburg at that time called Petrograd. In he returned to Vitebsk and was given the position of arts commissioner by the city council. From this point on he developed an intensely personal style, combining ideas from Jewish tradition with Western avant-garde forms. After a period in Moscow, where he was involved with the Jewish Theater, and in Berlin, learning printmaking techniques, he returned to Paris in to pursue book illustration. In he won the International Carnegie Prize, and moved to New York two years later, where he remained in a kind of exile until Returning to Europe, he won first prize for printmaking at the Venice Biennial in , was elected honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters of New York and received the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor, awarded by the President of France He was also commissioned to decorate numerous public buildings: the Assy baptistery , the cathedrals of Metz and Reims , the Synagogue of the Hadassah university hospital , the Opera theater in Paris , the Lincoln Center in New York and the First National City Bank in Chicago , among others.
Retrospective exhibitions of his work have been held at the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris and at the Royal Academy of Arts, London , among other locations. Abrams, , p. Chagall, Asppan, Kliczkowski Publisher, , p. Abrams, n. In he moved to Paris, where he made abstract paintings and his first wrappings of everyday objects bottles, chairs, magazines and public buildings. Close to the New Realism, he created installations in public spaces, like that blocking Visconti Street in protest against the Berlin Wall In he moved to New York, and from onwards started to produce large-scale projects together with Jeanne-Claude de Guillebon, joining the group known as Environmental Artists: Wrapped coast… Sydney, Australia, a rocky coast covered with a white cloth which unfolds and folds up with the tide ; Valley curtain… Rifle, Colorado, a valley cut in two with an orange curtain ; Running fence… California, a modified landscape ; Wrapped walk ways… Kansas City, paths in a park carpeted in saffron - ; Surrounded Islands, islands framed with pink corollas floating on the sea - ; The Pont Neuf wrapped… Paris, a wrapped bridge over the Seine ; y The umbrellas… Japan - USA, hundreds of parasols in the U.
Eriksson Model , Collage Over the following years he visited Paris and met Paul Eluard, Pablo Picasso and Tristan Tzara; he produced his first Surrealist publications and illustrations for writers and poets involved in this movement. From to he lived in the United States, working in theater productions, writing and illustrating books and painting.
Among other things, he published an autobiography , he opened a retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art de New York and he had a few individual exhibitions at the M. In he returned to Europe to settle down in Port Lligat, Spain. From that moment on, he painted several pieces with religious themes which would create controversy. Inventory number: Comparative Bibliography: Mundy, Jennifer ed. During this period, he met the respected artist Franz Courtens, an encounter which would be crucial for his career as a painter. It was Courtens who motivated and convinced his parents of his artistic talent.
In Paris in he contemplated for the first time the metaphysical work of Giorgio de Chirico, which impressed him deeply. Five years later, Delvaux found further inspiration at the Spitzner Museum of the Brussels Fair, where he was fascinated by the dramatic and morbid ambient. The son of an academic painter and museum curator, he began to paint and draw with great ability since his childhood. From to he stayed in Horta de Ebro, where he rested due to an illness, at the home of his friend Pallares. The following events were crucial for his artistic development: he left academia, he worked on smooth surfaces in the Japanese-style and the stretched the figures a la El Greco.
Between and , he made four trips to Paris, finally adopting that city as his home in , at the well-known building of Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre. From to , he worked on his compositions of sad and solitary figures, in blue tones Blue period. In he resumed already covered themes such as the circus and gypsies, including them in compositions of relative serenity in pink tones Pink period.
In he began to collaborate in ballet and theater productions, proposing then a civilized version of the Cubist audacities. He resumed an apparent classicism which unfolded until , alternating with a figuration of monumental tendencies. From to , he got involved with the Surrealists, starting on a period of compositions of unperturbed and twisted figures, painted in intensely aggressive colors. From on, he became particularly interested in sculpture, with important exhibitions being held at the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris and at the Kunsthaus of Zurich In addition, the first volume of the detailed catalogue of his work was published, notably increasing his fame.
In , deeply affected by the events in the Spanish Civil War, he mixed together the symbols of horror and death, with certain autobiographical allusions, creating one of his most prominent pictorial creations, Guernica. Nevertheless, his post-war paintings depicted a happy man. Towards the end of the s, he moved to the south of France. During this period he discovered ceramics, he returned to the classic drawing, to sculpture and engraving. He also carried out a rereading of past painters.
La danse au bord de la mer, Dance by the sea, Pen and India ink on paper Comparative Bibliography: Picasso and his Time. Private Collection, California.
Comparative Bibliography: Picasso. Procession in the town Oil on cloth Muy de vez en cuando, se juntaban todos en el patio. Eran muchos y diferentes. El cuerpo de los hombres era interesante de ver. Las espaldas musculosas y las piernas gruesas. Tomaban vino. Otros grupos jugaban a las cartas, alguien tomaba sol. Los abuelos de los distintos nietos se quedaban conversando sentados en sillas colocadas sobre el pasto. La felicidad toca el fondo de las cosas.
Cuando llovizna, todo el campo se cubre de agua, y la niebla baja. Humedece los pastos. El horror, llegado este punto, era completo. Y su posible supervivencia la espantaba. Como madre era buena. La vida propia adquiere de este modo su trascendencia. Todo eso pasa en la superficie, y por debajo, la fuga. Entonces se mantiene callada. Los medicamentos ayudan, tienen el efecto de atontar su cerebro para que deje de ver. Y ella quiere no ver.
Y hay otras visiones adentro. Son los dispositivos que sirven a los de adentro para llamarla. En un punto no lo sabe, pero se resiste a partir. Y tan sola. En esos momentos suele llorar, y las pastillas la calman. Hay fisuras verdaderas, y de transporte inmediato. Mientras tanto la lluvia cae y se inundan los campos. La llanura argentina es una tierra que da sus frutos. La hermana mayor no viene siempre con sus hijos. Ella pasa largas temporadas bien, en las que fluye con el todo.
A lo sumo tiene mareos, y por la noche se siente deprimida. Al llegar el marido del trabajo todo adquiere una luminosidad pastel que la tranquiliza y ella permanece del lado de la casa. Cuando ese temor aparece, pasa varias noches sin dormir, alerta. Y entonces todo se precipita. De adentro la llaman; los hijos la acechan.
Sabe que esa no es su familia. Los cambiaron. Se llevaron a los verdaderos hijos y al marido y la dejaron entre desconocidos. Si cambian a los hijos y al marido nada le queda. La madre es quien protege a los hijos verdaderos de los falsos. Dios no la ve. Dios es su instrumento y ella es instrumento de Dios. No se acerca porque tiene miedo. La hija menor lo secunda. Al parecer, ella los reconoce. Le estaban mostrando los cuadernos del colegio para que ella los revisara.
Los hijos de las hermanas no estaban. Pronto estaban riendo todas las hermanas, y recuperaban la confianza en ellas mismas y en la hermana enferma. Pobre madre. Los familiares comprenden por un instante, pero tratan de olvidarse para vivir sus vidas, pobladas de sucesos: trabajos, amores, viajes. Se realizan fiestas a las que acude la familia. Logra que todo eso se adecue al entorno y encuentre su lugar en el todo, como dentro de un lenguaje.
Por fortuna, los hijos lograron tender lazos fuera de la casa familiar. A ella se le dio por cantar en ese momento y lo hizo, abrazada al cuerpo de los hijos. Ellos cantaban con tristeza en su pecho. Los hombres charlan junto a la parrilla.
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Los otros comen o hacen deporte, poniendo en actividad el cuerpo para que la mente descanse. Alguien trae una guitarra y se pone a tocar. Circula el amor. Es su forma oscura. Sirve a otras combinaciones. Y ellos llegaban de a decenas al mundo, nacidos de un mismo padre y de madres diferentes. Sobre una piedra acomoda su remera, y sus pantalones, y pone los zapatos y las medias sobre la tierra. Se pone en cuclillas y se sostiene con las manos aferradas a las ramas altas. Luego se quita el short y se queda desnudo. Este episodio se repite con frecuencia.
Se recuesta sobre la hierba boca arriba y se muestra. Si hay elementos corrosivos en el sistema, el resto se resquebraja. A veces van sobre las piernas extendidas de los primos. Las noticias tocan los temas importantes de la realidad. El sentido se construye. La familia adquiere las estructuras dadas y las incorpora al fluir de la vida como si fueran realidad no construida. En la frontera los gendarmes lo pararon y fue olido por perros antinarco. Estaba en un pueblito de la frontera con Paraguay, desesperado y solo. El abuelo trata de no hablar mucho de ello pero el episodio reside muy profundo en los antecedentes familiares.
La hija chiquita la mira desde la puerta. Lo que sabe es que tiene que proteger a sus hijos del peligro de los de adentro. Cuando se da vuelta, ve a la hija asomada a la puerta. La hija la observa alarmada. Se acerca a ella y la abraza sonriente, con el cuchillo en la mano. La verdadera.
Tiene los ojos abiertos. Pobrecitas, no se encuentran.
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A pesar de estar abrazadas, una y otra se temen. Lo hace lentamente, como siempre. Antes, se quita la camisa y extiende los brazos. Todo lo fue colocando sobre la piedra. El resto es logos informe, debe ser interpretado y organizado para construir realidad. Se dio vuelta y muestra su torso amplio y liso. Los brazos son fuertes y se ven las venas que empujan la piel y la tensan. El viento corre a una velocidad variable. La familia no lo ve. Parece disfrutar del contacto directo con las hojas secas, y con la tierra. Si se inclina hacia adelante, toda la espalda se estira. Apenas entra en contacto con la familia, se van creando zonas oscuras en distintas partes de su ser.
Caminan los tres sobre el pasto, descalzos, hacia la casa iluminada. Discuten, se interrelacionan. Hay odios y amores cruzados o circulares. Translation - English The Root The middle sister was crazy. Every night, she put her children to bed singing them a lullaby from her childhood. Her husband had gone on a trip to Washington, and her youngest daughter hugged her to cushion her sorrow. But more than sorrow, this was more like existential angst, hard to lessen. The result, on the other hand, was the immediate genesis of a new angst in a different — smaller and more unaware — being.
While the children played, she would go round the house in fear that they would die. Sometimes, the children from her other eight sisters would come to visit. Every so often, they would get together in the patio. Each child was at least 10 years old. There were many, and they were all different. There were five babies, and the rest were toddlers. One crawled from the door to his mum, and so he would come and god.
It is uncommon to see a party without alcohol. Alcoholic beverages — beer, rice wine, liquor, and other intoxicants — are consumed during traditional festivals such as the Lunar New Year; they also mark rites of passage such as weddings, housewarmings, funerals, and death anniversaries. The purposes of drinking are diverse.
People drink to celebrate, to condole, to socialize, to brag, to do business, or to get drunk. Not drinking at a party is a sign of disrespect and lack of hospitality. People have such a strong appetite for alcohol that they are willing to sacrifice their health and much else for the sake of continued heavy drinking. As a result, the goal of every drinker is to get the others intoxicated.
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Peer pressure plays as the major psychologic factor pulling young people to alcohol consumption. Although the legal drinking age is 18, it is socially acceptable for kids to drink at age By the age of 25, there is no longer need for peer pressure, drinking has become a habit. Even worse, non-drinker faces the risk of social exclusion as drinking is one of the very few ways to socialize among young people. Figure 1: Sales of Alcoholic Drinks from — in million litres Euromonitor, The Vietnamese are among the heaviest drinkers in Southeast Asia.
A WHO study, in , found average per capita consumption for adults almost doubled from — to — , increasing from 3. This rate is higher than the global rate of 6. Euromonitor reported that beer demand has increased by more than percent since You could get drunk with less than a euro.
These rates have been marginally increased in the past few years. Unfortunately, regulations without effective enforcement created loophole for opportunistic merchants. To evade taxes, smugglers create black market filled by illegally imported branded spirits from neighboring countries that have lower alcohol taxes. High import tax and special consumption tax will continue to worsen this situation. When Vietnam officially joined the WTO in January , the Vietnamese government committed to cutting the tax levy on imported beer, wine and spirit by half in Euromonitor, Worse, under the TPP Agreement with 12 other members, import taxes imposed on alcoholic drinks will be eliminated in and Ultimately, this is the cost for being a developing country in a globalized market.
Firstly, local brewed alcohol is easy to obtain due to fewer restrictions on where or when it can be purchased. Secondly, Vietnamese prefer to drink traditional beverage. As this segment of the alcohol market is largely unregulated, control measures like pricing, taxation, and restrictions on the availability of recorded alcohol beverages are of little use because they do not affect the production, sale, or consumption of unrecorded alcohol.
Figure 2 illustrate the gigantic market share of unrecorded alcohol compare to recorded alcohol. Alcohol consumption can have both health and social consequences for the drinker. The harmful use of alcohol can also result in harm to other individuals, such as family members, friends, co-workers and strangers. Moreover, the harmful use of alcohol results in a significant health, social and economic burden on society at large.
Another research shows that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial, costs attributable to alcohol represent from 1. Alcohol is typically a valued commodity, which means that drinking usually uses resources which would otherwise be available for other purposes. The lower one income, the larger proportion of that income being spent on alcohol, and the longer one trap in the poverty cycle.
A report from WHO highlights that individual drinkers will incur socioeconomic problems such as loss of earnings, lower productivity, unemployment, family problems, and especially increased healthcare costs. Alcohol accounted for 5. These figures translate into 3.
The most common mean of transportation in Vietnam is motorbike. Motorbike accidents are much deadlier than car accidents as riders are fully exposed to the surrounding environment. Under the influence of alcohol, drinkers are prone to rule breaking behaviours such as speeding, not wearing helmet and reckless driving behaviours. A report from the medical council of Vietnam revealed.
Worse, this estimation has not account for unrecorded traffic accidents in rural areas, which are more prone to excessive alcohol consumption. When private consumption generates more external costs than private costs, negative externality arises. In term of alcohol use, particularly excessive use, negative externalities include traumatic injury and property damage from accidents, increased utilization of health care, lowered productivity in the labor market, criminal victimization, domestic violence, unwanted sexual encounters and venereal diseases, and hangover.
Under the influence of alcohol, a parent may be provoked to strike an irritating child; soccer fans may riot in response to an unsatisfactory outcome; a college student may forcefully insist on having sex with his date; friends may escalate an argument into a bloody fight; a robbery victim may foolishly attempt resistance in the face of a loaded gun.
A distinctive characteristic of negative externality is that the private party who enjoys the benefit does not bear the full societal costs. In the case of alcohol-related traffic motor vehicle accidents, the outcome for which the costs to society are particularly high, yet much costs created by intoxicated drivers are borne by victims.
He pays the price of purchasing the alcohol, and any injuries and resulting lost work that he sustains. In Vietnam, a country held back by bureaucratic inefficiency and political apathy, injustice fuels the magnitude of negative externalities. While private costs and public costs could be calculated and estimated, a third category, which is poorly measured and for which the practice of adding estimates is disputable, is intangible costs.
Intangible costs are the costs assigned to pain and suffering, and more generally to a diminished quality of life. Such intangible costs are borne by the drinkers, as well as their families and potentially by other individuals linked to the drinker Anderson et al. Intoxication, dependence or alcohol withdrawal states can result in poor performance in major social roles — in functioning at work, in parenting, in relationship and friendship roles.
One strategy to reduce negative externalities is to increase the cost of drinking. The law of demand tells us that when the price of a good increases, individuals will consume less of this good. Indeed, several research have concluded the negative correlation of monetary price of alcohol and alcohol consumption. Drinkers with high price sensitivity such as student react the most when faced higher drinking costs.
Alcohol is a commodity with inelastic demand, thus a change in price will lead to a smaller change in demand Selvanathan, Therefore, from an economic point of view, government should impose higher tax on alcohol. Even though demand for alcohol will fall at a lesser rate than the increase in price, the increase in government tax revenues could be allocated for other alcohol cutback programs.
Product with inelastic demand indicates that price will not matter much to those who have become addicted. In response to a general price increase for alcoholic beverages, alcoholics without much income could preserve their habit by seeking cheaper sources of ethanol: drinking off premises rather than in bars, or buying fortified wine instead of table wine. In the case of Vietnam, majority of heavy drinkers are low income earners in rural areas, thus higher costs of alcoholic beverage might lead to the expansion of unregulated alcohol market.
Further government intervention may be warranted to protect low income earners and avoid expansion of unregulated market. In order to determine the appropriate level of taxation placed on each alcoholic beverage, the demand elasticities are used as key inputs. Consequently, obtaining estimates of demand elasticities is of crucial importance for taxation purposes at the micro and macro level of the economy. Additionally, it is only fair that drinkers should compensate the public for the external costs of their choices. If alcohol prices do not reflect the full social costs of consumption, including the external costs, then consumers will drink too much, in the technical sense that at the margin their drinks will be worth less to them than they cost Cook and Moore, In other words, alcohol tax should eradicate the spillover cost to society created by private party.
Much of the drinking that leads to drunk driving occurs on-premises, at bars, clubs, and restaurants. Ontrade outlets are banned from operating between Only bars in tourist accommodation rated three stars or higher are permitted to operate after However, reality is far from policy. Any restaurant serving alcohol enjoys high profit margin, and thus afford to lobby the regulators. Restaurants in big cities would typically open until hrs on a busy day.
After the police check at hrs, business would roll on as normal Appendix 1 shows the crowded atmosphere at Hanoi drinking hub. There need to be firm and consistent policy enforcement campaigns to temper the supply side of alcohol. Trade outlet owners are especially sensitive to regulatory fines that would cut profit margin. Another strategy is the enforcement of responsible service training and policies denying alcohol service to those who are already intoxicated or underage.
Assessments have generally shown that training in itself has little effect on behaviour of servers. However, clear positive effects have been noted on indicators such as rates of customer intoxication when server training and policies are backed up by active enforcement, including evidence of reduced drink-driving casualties and violence.
A related strategy with promising results is to combine server training with training of pub staff as a means of reducing violence in and around the premises Room, Babor and Rehm, In parallel, government should regulate opening hours of off-trade outlets, where consumer purchases alcohol to consume in-house. The risk of alcoholic intoxication is typically higher for in-house consumption.
Therefore, alcohol sale should be halted at hrs. Additionally, it should be restricted to supply beverages with alcoholic contents to underage consumers or consumers with signs of intoxication. It is important to note that alcohol consumption after hrs often results in low rationality and risky behaviours.
To protect society benefits, it is equally important to tackle alcohol market from both demand side and supply side. Since peer pressure has an important implication on alcohol consumption, social norms campaigns that aim to alter attitude and perceptions of drinkers could be a promising strategy reduce alcohol consumption among young people. Social norms campaigns should highlight not only how much students actually drink but also how much their fellow students disapprove of alcohol abuse.
A research from Paek and Hove showed that social norms campaign is more effective than educational programs in tackling excessive alcohol consumption among students. The most effective way to deter underage students from drinking would be to combine efforts to counter various types of alcohol promotions with a variety of policy approaches, such as strict campus alcohol control policies, consistent community enforcement of proof-of-age identification, and consistent police enforcement of underage drinking laws.
Good enforcement of minimum legal drinking will increase the difficulty with which underage drinkers face when attempting to purchase alcohol. They must spend time to find someone of age to purchase the alcohol or acquiring a fake ID. Empirical evidence have shown mixed effects of increase in alcohol taxes. During World War 1, Russia and Great Britain were greatly concerned about alcohol consumption, as they feared that drunkenness may hamper the war efforts.
For example, Russia outlawed the sale of vodka and the British government restricted the availability of alcohol by imposing restrictions on the Public Houses opening times and increased alcohol, which increased to five times what it was before the war. Due to these restrictions in the UK from to , total alcohol consumption fell from 89 million gallons to 37 million gallons and the number of convictions of being drunk in London fell from 67, in to 16, persons in Selvanathan, Successful interventions are those that include bringing the production and sale of traditional beverages into the regulatory environment, involving communities where unrecorded consumption is most prevalent, and changing social norms around its role in society.
Additionally, there need to be strict border control to temper the inflow of contraband alcohols. Regulators should do frequent check of outlets that offer spirits to provide prove of source and impose high fines on distributer of contraband spirits. According to the Institute of Strategic and Health Policies, alcohol ranks fourth of eight factors which carry the highest health risk in Vietnam, and is also the main cause of domestic violence and traffic accidents.
Meanwhile, there is still no ban on beer advertisements.
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Unfortunately, the law is not strictly implemented. Players in spirits and wine advertise their products through on-trade establishments such as bars and restaurants. Commercial posters and promotional girls are common practices used to attract consumers in restaurants. Meanwhile, wine traders take advantage of advertising posters in retail outlets, as well as wine-tasting events. Euromonitor, Advertisement plays as an dangerous incentive to alcohol consumption because it is relatively easier to promote rewarding and hedonic behaviors than to influence people to abandon them.
It is recommended that advertising is prohibited for all beverages with alcohol consumptions to temper the accelerated increase in alcohol supply. Rigorous fines should be given to business that fail to comply with the regulations. Along with strict policy, the government need to actively control the enforcement strategy, thus maintaining the momentum of the campaign. It is essential to educate alcohol suppliers the rationale of the policy as to protect the wellbeing of the society.
A vital economic concept that alcohol drinkers need to grasp is diminishing marginal utility. The first drink will typically generate the highest marginal benefits in term of satisfaction, thirst relieve, and enjoyment. However, as the number of drinks consumed increases, the marginal benefit from each additional drink decreases. Drinker will not enjoy similar satisfaction level as the first drink. This concept is important as drinkers will generate negative externalities to society when their consumption level reach to the level of negative marginal returns. As a society, we have to come to a realization that excessive alcohol consumption diminish the quality of our life and the lives of others.
We have to acknowledge that imprudent cultural norms and social pressures are among the key drivers of alcohol consumption. From these realizations, every one of us need to question our belief of what is right and wrong, and act in consistent with what we believe is optimal for the wellbeing of the society.
For shop owners and direct suppliers of alcoholic beverages, obsession with short term gains cloud them from the long term sustainable development. As responsible business owners, it is important for us to understanding and comply with government regulations on alcohol restriction. These policies do not aim to eradicate alcohol from the market but to restrict excessive alcohol consumption, which are extremely costly to society. There need to be cooperative actions from both demand side and supply side to uplift this intoxicated society. How remarkable is it for a small country suffered thousand years of warfare and colonization to be among the fastest growing economy?
Drinkers suffered from private cost of rising health expenses and financial burden, while society suffered from spillover costs of traffic accidents, low productivity, violence behaviours and rising public expenses. To eradicate the issue, strict regulations and active enforcement campaign are recommended. Specifically, tax increase should be accompanied by other alcohol control policies such as restricting youth access, refusing sales to intoxicated persons, restricting advertising, and targeting drinkdriving, making it difficult to disaggregate the effect of each policy.
Actions from the authority alone would not solve the problem, every consumer and supplier of alcohol need act responsibly in respect to the wellbeing of oneself and of the surrounding community. This country was built with blood and tears, let us not drown our future under alcohol. As such, with international conflict currently plateauing at historically low levels, one of the most effective weapons that a given state has to increase its global power and relevance is that of its soft power.
If one were to suggest that declarations of war were a thing of the past, supporters of my Soft War notion might be inclined to disagree by referring to the statement made by the Former President of China Hu Jintao, who in oversaw the first usage of the phrase Soft Power in official Chinese policy. Despite being less damning and direct than the likes of Roosevelt and co.
In turn, the world was captivated by the mesmerising Opening Ceremony, with viewers watching on in awe as traditional Chinese dance and dress were combined with the most technologically advanced light and sound display that one was likely to see at the time. One of the major sources of this expenditure are the infamous Confucius Institutes, a state-run educational organisation that seeks to promote Chinese culture, philosophy and language. Such is the widespread nature of the setup, there are over Confucius Institutes, across different countries. Significantly, the institute is named after a Chinese philosopher whose work focussed on the globally appreciated concepts of morality, justice and benevolence.
As such, measuring Soft Power is a rather ambiguous task. In , the Chinese Film Industry failed to draw the significant global audiences it had hoped for, continuing its spell of reduced global supply and low success rate. With this in mind, China has failed to gain significant global soft power on the basis that if their culture, language and philosophy had greater global understanding and appreciation, it would result in higher international demand for the Chinese Film Industry.
In considering the enormous amount of investment China has invested into the development of its soft power, a rank of 25 th is sure to be a disappointing one for President Xi. In overviewing the situation as a whole, I arrive at the well-known social science theory of falsifiability. My belief, with direct regard to this theory, is that China must be willing to honestly accept its own limitations and weaknesses as a country, or more specifically, publically address and falsify their public diplomacy measures, so to win the respect and greater acceptance from the international community.
Ironically, these efforts often lead to domestic doubts in the Chinese regime, rather than reinforcing the local soft power, which is symbolised through the high level of local demand for such aspirational Western staples as a Starbucks coffee or a non-counterfeit pair of Nike shoes. On the note of domestic issues, it is vital for China to address their extensive problems with pollution, food-safety, and battles against corruption if they are to ever be truly admired at a global level.
Undoubtedly, these issues have been and are continually in the process of being addressed by President Xi. In a world that for the most part values democracy, the connotation of an Authoritarian regime is very much negative, and not a political structure that a country seeking an increase in global soft power should implement.
Good design starts with an understanding of psychology and technology. In ethics, libertarian paternalism assumes that we as humans are imperfect beings and prone to ill judgement, over optimism and ignorance on certain topics. Thus, we need external parties to help guide us in the right direction without taking away our freedom of choice.
It is easier to apply the concept to a system like the welfare state, since its function is to look after the interests of its people. However, applying libertarian paternalism to traditional business, whose objectives focus not on the welfare of the customer but instead on optimising financial performance, appears more complex. This essay will reflect on the ethics of designing customer experience CX in business, as well as how it affects us as CX professionals.
Today consumers want experiences as opposed to merely service offerings. In response, businesses are shifting towards an experience economy, whereby they:. Intentionally use services as the stage, and goods as props, to engage individual customers in a way that creates a memorable event. Nespresso Boutiques are a prime example of experience design at work. The company took the sale of coffee capsules from being transactional to experiential by modelling their stores on coffee shops.
Customers enter and can enjoy a cup of coffee at the well-designed Nespresso Boutique, engaging in a memorable event while also conducting their purchase. Speaking about the shift towards an experience economy, Pine and Gilmore warn that. Unless companies want to be in a commoditized business…they will be compelled to upgrade their offerings to the next stage of economic value.
Companies have access to one-of-a-kind datasets, specific settings with which to test interventions, and access to large populations of people working toward the same goal. CX professionals working in business have an array of tools at their disposal, those mentioned above account for just a few.
With industry experts predicting and promoting the use of machine learning, we become yet another step closer to understanding exactly how to affect the customer based on their personality, context and timing. On reflection of the tools and power CX professionals have at their disposal, we might easily confuse our modern world for an Orwellian dystopia. With such tools and capabilities at our disposal, we must consciously consider how we intend on using them.
On one hand, the value created by a great experience could benefit both the customer and business equally; in the sense that business objectives would be met while the customer fulfilled their needs in an enjoyable and transparent way. On the other hand, companies could exploit its resources and manipulate the behaviour of the customer into buying something that they later realise is useless, or perhaps even dangerous. In relation to the design of interactive systems, Benyon, Turner and Turner argue that:.
Fundamentally, ethical design is needed because the systems that are produced should be easy and enjoyable to use, as they affect the quality of people's lives. Before discussing challenges and approaches to ethical experience design, there is something that we must acknowledge. Every CX professional is ultimately an individual with his or her own inclinations and preferences, and is also prone to bad judgement. Although we have the knowledge and understanding of ethics, we may still fail to use our tools for the better.
However, lets assume that as CX professionals we will use our resources and skills for the better, and perhaps even adopt a paternalistic approach in business. One of our fundamental objectives might be to ensure that shared value is created between the customer and business; that is, generating economic value in a way that also produces value for society by addressing its challenges. This can be achieved in a number of ways, but particularly through designing experiences transparently, and challenging tradition.
Being human-centred also ensure s that designers are truthful and open in their design practice. Now that it is so easy to collect data surreptitiously and to use that data for purpose other than what it was intended for, designers need to be ever more vigilant. Our duty as ethically minded CX professionals is to bring a human element to business.
The company targeted the crisis of overconsumption by creating a disruptive campaign during one of the busiest shopping days of the year. The campaign discussed the effects of overconsumption and waste, as well as providing information about the quantity of resources required to produce the featured jacket. By doing so they engaged the rational minds of their customers, prompting them to consider the effect the Black Friday shopping experience has on the planet.
Traditional companies might equate ethics to regulation or compliance. However, one of our duties is to challenge this misconception and bring pure ethics to the discussion. As CX professionals, we might tailor this approach by using storytelling techniques. Story is less direct, more gracious, and prompts less resistance.
A roomful of stubborn executives locked in an impasse can be a dangerous place for a truth teller - unless you know how to tell a good story. Consider a company that wants to hyper-personalise the supermarket experience, but confronts GDPR obstacles. The traditionally minded CEO encourages her staff to find regulatory loopholes, because hyperpersonalisation will lead to a better experience, higher footfall and inevitably more revenue.
The experience design proposal then turns from being an awkward regulatory issue to an ethical issue affecting someone we hold dearly. What we have done is harness our intrinsic CX skills to present Betty, as opposed to the number, and thus nudge the CEO towards rethinking her brief. Innovation is flourishing, new industries are being created overnight, and we can now acquire vast amounts of data and resources in a matter of clicks. With these rapid movements, ethics can become an after-thought. A case in point is the GDPR, which has taken two years to develop and will only come into effect from , after countless data-protection scandals.
From this we can conclude that many companies race to get ahead in the market, only adjusting their approach when regulation forces them to do so. However, a new generation of CX professionals marks a great opportunity for change. Equipped with an understanding not only of human behaviour but also of ethics, we have the opportunity to incorporate good-practice from the very first moment of experience design. If this approach is adopted at scale, we could create a society that not only demands shared value, but also fosters a paternalistic approach towards the world as a whole.
Latest Winners. Vete a la mierda. Navegaron lentamente sorteando otras barcas y boyas. Siempre borracho. Lleva todas las fiestas durmiendo en la playa. Eres un impresentable. No tengo ni idea. Se estaban separando. Se acercaron lo suficiente para saltar sobre la escalera de proa. De cuerpos esbeltos y sanos, los hombres con sus figuras de esgrimistas— siento nostalgia al mirar esta foto. Again your heart thrown into the depth of the pool, prisoner once more among the waves closing a dream.
Lie down as I do in this miserable eternity of one day. De estas aguas no beben las bestias del olvido. What remains of my childhood are the fragmentary visions of large patios extending like an oceanic green mist over the afternoon. Then, crickets would forge in the wind their deep music of centuries and the purple fragrances of Grandmother always would receive without questions our return home. The hammock shivering in the breeze like the trembling voice of light at dusk, the unforeseeable future that would never exist without Mother, the Tall tales that filled with their most engaging lunar weight our days —all those unchangeable things— were the morning constellations that we would recognize daily without sadness.
In the tropical days we had no intuition of the winter nor of autumn, that often returns with pain in the shadows of this new territory —like the cold moving through our shivering hands— that I have learned to accept in the same way you welcome the uncertainty of a false and cordial smile. Those were the days of the solstice when the wind pushed the smoke from the clay ovens through the zinc kitchens and the ancient stone stoves clearly spoke of the secrets of our barefooted and wise Indian ancestors.
The beautiful, unformed rocks in our hands that served as detailed toys seemed to give us the illusion of fantastic events that invaded our joyful chants with infinite color. It was a life without seasonal pains, a life without unredeemable time a life without the somber dark shadows that have intently translated my life that slowly move today through my soul. But it ended. I was told not to act Like it was some big dramatic moment.
She swiveled on her heels like she twirled just The other day on a bar stool, the joy Gone out of it now. Then she walked away. I called out to her once. She slightly turned. I called out again. Today I picked up seven stones resembling birds and orphans in the dead sand. I looked at them as if they were offerings of uncommon times, as if they were seven endangered travelers.
I wanted to be seven stones inside my skin, to be, for an instant, very round and smooth so somebody would pick me up and make clefts in my sides with the damp voice of the wind. I wanted you to pick me up, to kiss me, so I could be a river stone in your estuary mouth. I keep the seven stones in my pocket. They make a mound in my hand and in my stories of absences, a mossy sound.
To say goodbye means so little. We said goodbye to childhood and it came after us like a dog tracking our steps. To say goodbye: to shut that obstinate door that refuses to remain closed, the persistent scar that oozes memory. To say goodbye: to say no; who achieves it? Whoever found the magic key? Whoever found the point that slides us toward oblivion, the land that will extirpate the roots without remaining forever closed over them?
Who knows the way that does not die in the well-traveled shortcut. Numbers trouble her, leave her stuck on ground zero. Already she knows a little Spanish, and you can teach her more of that. She lives for story time. In the beginning there was nothing. Then the green of quetzal wings.
Sometimes earthly villages pass, hoarse trains make camp, a couple piles marvelous oranges at the edge of the sea, a single relic is spread through all space. My places would look like broken mirages, clippings of photographs torn from an album to orient nostalgia, but they have roots deeper than this sinking ground, these fleeing doors, these vanishing walls.
Who cleans the windowpane with her breath and stirs the fire of the afternoon in those rooms where the table was an altar of idolatry, each chair, a landscape folded up after every trip, and the bed, a stormy short cut to the other shore of dreams, rooms deep as nets hung from the sky, like endless embraces I slid down till I brushed the feathers of death, until I overturned the laws of knowledge and the fall of man? Who goes into the parks with the golden breath of each Christmas and washes the foliage with a little gray rag that was the handkerchief for waving goodbye, and reweaves the garlands with a thread of tears, repeating a fantastic ritual among smashed wine glasses and guests lost in thought, while she savors the twelve green grapes of redemption— one for each month, one for each year, one for each century of empty indulgence— a taste acid but not as sharp as the bread of forgetfulness?
Because who but I changes the water for all the memories? Who inserts the present like a slash into the dreams of the past? Who switches my ancient lamps for new ones? My most beautiful hiding places are solitary sites where no one goes, and where there are shadows that only come to life when I am the magician. It is a July night scented with gardenias. The moon and stars shine hiding the essence of the night.
As darkness fell —with its deepening onyx shadows and the golden brilliance of the stars— my mother put the garden, her house, the kitchen, in order. Now, as she sleeps, I walk in her garden immersed in the solitude of the moment.