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The digital medium, however, has provided the basis for multimediality: it is such a flexible medium that it can be used, with the appropriate hardware and interfaces, to contain, manipulate and combine in increasingly elaborate and user-friendly ways all previous media: voice, text, images and video, together with all the semiotic sub-systems which may be codified and represented by these such as cultural subsystems of gestures, languages, fashions, etc.

Every day we learn of some novelty in the treatment and manipulation of digital information: blogs, tags, TIVo, the video iPod, the special-purpose interface configurations known as widgets, web search on cell phones, etc. Now media have never been static. But the present-day explosive rate in the development of cybermedia since the advent of the computer, and especially of the personal computer and the cell phone clearly has no equivalent in ealier centuries as to its rate of personal usability, and of invention and obsolescence.

If novelties create a peculiar double time in which the old and the new coexist, a flood of novelties creates a peculiar no-time, or postmodern time, in which all historical periods seem to be superposed chaotically one next to the other in a jumble, or a jumble sale of cultural modes. The increasing ability to travel and the recent influx of migrant population in Spain also contributes to this sense of a time out of joint, in which the old is partly displaced by the new, but still remains in the new times, albeit somewhat disoriented as to its proper place and function.

From "Linkterature" The paper is written in Spanish. Hasta ahora no ha habido manera de que se trate el tema, como si fuese una nimiedad, o no fuese con nosotros, y claro, ahora vienen las prisas. El Departamento tiene dos programas. OK: Pero, problemilla Hay que actualizarse. Ponte un blog, Morelli. Casi me atropella un coche. El intertexto interno. Estamos hechos de retazos. Esto es un libro total, un libro extremo, poem unlimited. Me ha tenido que influir. Estoy hecho de esto, sin duda.

Pero no me acuerdo. No me acuerdo porque lo soy. Por una oreja me entra y por la otra me sale. Ha relativizado nuestra perspectiva sobre el mundo todos somos Hamlet ahora. Nos vemos todos desde la calle haciendo piruetas en lo alto. Ese instante. It is not by chance that the word "cyberspace" was coined by Gibson in this novel. It still has no parallel as an imaginative exploration of the web and of the oscillations it creates between the real and virtual dimensions of experience.

As the characters confusedly surf channels between their fleshly existence and their cybernetic avatars, the reader has to do cognitive acrobatics to interpret each word-processor generated phrase and its peculiar blend of "solid" fictional world and interface en abyme. Who has not had computer dreams after some hours of web surfing?

We are in for more and more computer dreams, and those dreams are going to spill out into what used to be called reality. Ecce abstract: The lecture will offer a perspective on the Internet and literature interface, with a special focus on the issue of intertextuality, in an attempt to delimit those issues specific to networked literature, as against digital or hypertextual literature. I will focus on literature as a family of medium-conditioned discursive practices, and examine the consequences of digital networks for a redefinition of these practices.

These consequences will be approached from four viewpoints: a perspective on the Internet as literature, and of literature as an Internet: together with an examination of literature in the Internet, and of the Internet in literature. Among the topics addressed will be issues of interactivity, the blogosphere, postmodernist fiction, and the cyborganization of social communication.

Etiquetas: Posicionamiento , ResearchGate , Repositorios. From the Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble. He was called to the bar in Sensitive and hypochondriac by nature as a child, he began to suffer from severe depression, and when called for examination for a disputed clerkship in the House of Lords he broke down completely and attempted suicide; his illness may have been aggravated by the failure of his hope of marrying his cousin Theodora Cowper.

From this time he was subject to periods of acute melancholia which took a religious form; he felt himself cast out of God's mercy, and wrote later in his moving autobiographical Memoir c. In he became a boarderr in his own words, 'a sort of adopted son' in the home of the Revd Morley Unwin at Huntingdon, and on Morley's death moved with Mary, his widow, to Olney. There he came under the influence of J. He became engaged to Mrs Unwin, but suffered another period of severe depression and made another suicide attempt; he spent a year with the Newtons before returning to Mrs Unwin's home. The volume in which these appeared also contained 'Tirocinium', a vigorous attack on public schools.

From Mrs Unwin suffered a series of paralytic strokes; she died in, leaving Cowper in severe depression from which he never fully recovered. He wrote 'The Castaway' shortly before his death; like many of his poems it deals with man's isolation and helplessness. Storms and shipwrecks recur in his work as images of the mysterious ways of God, and Cowper's search for a retired and quiet life of simple domestic and rural pleasures gave him little sense of permanent security. Yet his poems and his much admired letters published posthumously have been highly valued for their intimate portrait of tranquillity and for their playful and delicate wit.

A life by his friend W. Quinlan King and C. Ryskamp, appeared in 3 vols, The Task, a poem in six books by Cowper, published When Cowper's frien Lady Austen whom he met in suggested to him the sofa in his room as the subject of a poem in blank verse, the poet set about 'the task'. Cowper opens with a mock-heroic account of the evolution of the sofa 'I sing the sofa' and thence digresses to description, reflection, and opinion. The poem stresses the delights of a retired life 'God made the country, and man made the town' , Bk I, ; describes the poet's own search for peace 'I was a stricken deer, that left the herd', Bk III, , and evokes the pleasures of gardening, winter evenings by the fire, etc.

The moral passages condemn blood sports, cards, and other diversions; the poet manifests tenderness not only for his pet harebut even for worms and snails. Cowper depicts with tragic power the suffering of a seaman swept overboard and awaiting death by drowning. Mr Ramsay in V. Etiquetas: Literatura , inglesa , Poetas , Cowper. OSBORNE, John James , playwright, born in Fulham, London, the son of a commercial artist who died in ; the first volume of his autobiography, A Better Class of Person , describes his childhood in suburbia, his brief spell as a journalist, and his years as an actor in provincial repertory, during which he began to write plays, the first of which was performed in He made his name with Look Back in Anger , pub.

Iconoclastic, energetic, and impassioned, Osborne's works at their most positive praise the qualities of loyalty, tolerance, and friendship, but his later works which include West of Suez, ; A Sense of Detachment, ; Watch It Come Down , , became increasingly vituperative in tone, and the objects of his invective apparently more arbitrary. His outbursts of rage against contemporary society are frequently exhilarating, for the anger that made him known as an 'Angry Young Man' remained one of his strongest theatrical weapons, but he also expressed from time to time an ambivalent nostalgia for the past that his own work did so mucho to alter.

Almost a Gentleman was a second volume of autobiography; Damn You, England a miscellany of reviews and letters to the press. Look Back in Anger, a play by J. The action takes place in a Midlands town, in the one-room flat of Jimmy and Alison Porter, and centres on their marital conflicts, which appear to arise largely from Jimmy's sense of their social incompatibility: he is a jazz-playing ex-student from a 'white tile' university, working in a market sweet satall, she is a colonel's daughter. He is by turns violent, sentimental, maudlin, self-pitying, and sadistic, and has a fine line in rhetoric.

The first act opens as Alison stands ironing the clothes of Jimmy and thir lodger Cliff, as Jimmy reads the Sunday papers and abuses her and the 'Edwardian brigade' which her parents represent. In the sencond act the battle intensifies, as Alison's friend Helena attempts to rescue her from her disastrous marriage; Alison departs with her father, and Helena falls into Jimmy's arms. The third act opens with Helena at the ironing board; Alison returns, having lost the baby she was expecting, and she an Jimmy finda a manner of reconciliation through humiliation and games-playing fantasy.

In its use of social milieu, its iconoclastic social attitudes, and its exploration of sadomasochistic relationships, the play was highly influential. Eliot and C. Longford, or perhaps at Elphin, Roscommon. He spent much of his childhood at Lissoy, and is thought to have drawn on his memories of it when writing The Deserted Village. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and graduated after some upheavals in ; he then presented himself for ordination, was rejected, and went to Edinburgh, where he studied medicine but took no degree. He studied in Leiden, and during wandered about France, Switzerland, and Italy, reaching London destitute in , where he supported himself with difficulty as a physician in Southwark and as an usher in Peckham; he may at this period have received a medical degree from Trinity, though this remains unclear.

He applied for a medical post in India, but failed to obtain it; meanwhile he had embarked on a literary career as reviewer and hack-writer for Griffith's Monthly Review, one of his early pieces being a favourable review of Burker's Philosophical Enquiry. In he met Dr. Johnson remained his friend and champion, and in sold for him the possibly unfinished manuscript of The Vicar of Wakefield to Newbery, thereby saving him from arrest for debt.

The Vicar of Wakefield , who was to become one of the most popular works of fiction in the language, was slower to find its audience, possibly because it was, as the Monthly Review commented, 'difficult to characterise'. His best-known poem, The Deserted Village, was published in ; his lighter verses include Retaliation and the posthumously published The Haunch of Venison , written to thank Lord Clare for a gift of game from his estate. He was regarded with much affection; Johnson, in his Latin epitaph, stated that he adorned whatever he touched. He never married, and his relationship with Mary Horneck, his 'Jessamy bride', remains mysterious.

She long outlived him, and provided material for J. Prior's life ; another biographer, W. The Miscellaneous Works contain Percy's memoir, and there are other lives by J. Forster and Ralph M Wardle The Collected Works 5 vols, were edited by A. Friedman, and the correspondence by K.

Balderston The father, desiring his sons to be citizens of the world, believed that they should avoid forming definite habits of living or of intellect, until prepared to make wise choices of their own. Accordingly, Henry was privately educated by tutors until , when the family went to Europe for a three-year stay. He also lived for a time in Newport , before he entered Harvard Law School After , although he lived mostly in Europe, his American home was at Cambridge.

His conception of himself as a detached spectator of life was maturing, as was his idea that the American scene was hostile toward creative talent and offered no adequate subject matter. For the time being, however, he divided his interest between European and American materials. During the late s, encouraged by Howells, C. Norton, and others, he wrote critical articles and reviews, exhibiting admiration for the technique of George Eliot , and also produced short stories, frequently showing the influence of Hawthorne, one of his masters; a realistic novelette, "Watch and Ward" Atlantic Monthly, ; in book form, , concerned with a guardian who loves and marries his ward; and a farce, "Pyramus and Thisbe" His first important fiction was "A Passionate Pilgrim" , in which he deals with the first of his great themes, the reactions of an eager American "pilgrim" when confronted with the fascinations of the complex European world of art and affairs.

The author himself during this period was often a pilgrim to the transatlantic world, which he came to regard as his spiritual fatherland, moving there permanently in During a year in Paris he associated with such masters of his art as Turgenev and Flaubert, but after he made his home mainly in London, with which much of his writing is concerned. His first novel, following A Passionate Pilgrim and Other Tales and Transatlantic Sketches , mainly treating his views of England and Italy, was Roderick Hudson , concerned with the failure of an American sculptor in Rome, resulting from a lack of inner discipline.

Other novels and tales of this early London period, when James's course of life was still for him a matter of doubt and self-questioning, include The American , contrasting French and American standards of conduct; The Europeans , reversing the situation by bringing Europeans into a New England background; Daisy Miller , whose wide popularity is probably owing to its portrayal of a charming, ingenuous American girl; An International Episode , a novelette showing the reactions of Englishmen to the American scene and of an American heiress to aristocratic Britain; The Madonna of the Future and Other Tales ; and Confidence , a romantic, melodramatic novelette about a group of expatriated Americans.

In Washington Square , James again revealed American character, this time in its native environment, but after The Bostonians , a satirical novel of New England reformers and philanthropists, he devoted himself to British and continental themes. The Portrait of a Lady , the first of his mature masterpieces, is a triumph of his method of psychological realism, analyzing the relations of a young American woman with a group of European and expatriated Americans, who objectify her conscientious moral attitude, her sensitive appreciation, and her endurance under suffering.

In nearly all of James's fiction, the environment is one of affluence and leisure, in which the preoccupations are with manners and the appreciation of character and the arts, including that of conversation. He treats this society with an infinite refinement of particulars, and in a prose style considered to be unapproached in English for subtlety of phrase and rhythm. Following The Portrait of a Lady, James temporarily turned from the writing of novels.

He collected his fiction 14 vols. At this time he also wrote four comedies, collected in Theatricals 2 vols. He edited a second collection of his novels and tales , which included the valuable critical prefaces, and other writings of the last decade include William Wetmore Story and His Friends 2 vols. He also returned to playwriting, but of three plays only The High Bid was produced These last years were troubled ones, saddened by deaths, including that of his brother William, and at the outbreak of World War I he was particularly agitated.

To show allegiance to the Allied cause, he became a British subject in Always strongly conscious of the formal and thoretical phases of his work, he kept Notebooks published and wrote criticism of his own practice and that of other masters of fiction. Even his Letters 3 vols, , , , edited by Leon Edel, display his creative and critical turn of mind.

Thus he fulfilled his cosmopolitan destiny, detached even from the art that absorbed him, for his self-judgements are as subtle and well formed as is the substance of his fiction. His artistry was conscious at every point, but his intellectual perceptivity in later life seemed to make him a rarefied observer, apparently largely out of touch with many of the more commonplace realities of his times.

His eminence in the realm of his choice, however, is unquestioned, as is his influence in the history of the novel, in which he was a pioneer of psychological realism and formal architectonics, and the master of a rich, highly complex prose style and an extremely sensitive appreciation of values of character.

Etiquetas: James , Literatura , inglesa. Etiquetas: Teatro , Literatura , norteamericana. Pero el verso tercero sigue siendo imperfecto. Un astro de libertad, libre del hispano suelo, que ahora brilla en el cielo. Pace la RAE. Etiquetas: Series , Fielding , Literatura , inglesa. Etiquetas: Conferencias , Literatura , inglesa , Samuel , Johnson. More specifically, Wilde's reading of the riddle of the Sphinx in a passage of this work both theorizes and dramatizes the paradoxical relationship between blindness and insight, in the shape of an ironic prophecy which can be read as Wilde's announcement of his own tragic downfall - in which there is an element of compulsive acting out that has been noted by a number of previous critics.

That is, Wilde's Sphinx is used as the vehicle of a riddle about Wilde himself, and is an emblem of his own ambivalent attitude toward the public revelation of his homosexuality. Herman Melville was born in New York City, a descendant of English and Dutch colonial families in whom he took great pride. His father, a cultivated gentleman, underwent financial reverses, entered bankruptcy and died when Herman was 12 years old.

The boy's mother, left virtually destitute with seven other children, seems from the portrait of Mrs. Glendinning in Pierre to have been an imperious, unsympathetic woman. His schooling ended when he was 15, and, after clerking in a New York bank, working in his brother's fur and cap store, farming, and teaching, he shipped as a cabin boy to Liverpool This voyage, described in Redburn, was both romantic and harrowing, and ingrained in him a love for the sea. Upon his return, he again taught school in upstate New York, until he sailed on the whaler Acushnet for the South Seas Jan.

The month voyage provided a factual basis for his later novel Moby-Dick. When he tired of whaling, he jumped ship at the Marquesas July with a companion, Richard Tobias Greene, and lived for a month in the islands, as he later described in Typee and Mardi. He escaped from the savages who were holding him captive in the valley of Typee on an Australian trader, from which he deserted at Papeete Sept. In Tahiti he worked for a time as a field laborer, studying the island life that he later depicted in Omoo.

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He left Tahiti on a whaler, and at Honolulu enlisted as an ordinary seaman on the frigate United States Aug. His life aboard the man-of-war until his discharge at Boston Oct. Having completed his education in what he later termed the only Harvard and Yale that were open to him, he returned home to begin fashioning novels from his experiences, and to enter literary society in New York and Boston. His first five books, Typee , Omoo , Mardi , Redburn , and White-Jacket , won him fame and a wide following. He became a member of the literary circle of the Duyckinck brothers, who opened a new world of literature to him through their great libraries.

In he made a trip to England to arrange for foreign publication, and visited Paris. The following year, with his wife, whom he had married in , he moved to the Massachusetts farm that was his home for the next 13 years. Here he formed a friendship with his neighbor Hawthorne, who became his confidant after he outgrew the Duyckinck set of New York literati.

His greatest work, Moby-Dick , was dedicated to Hawthorne, and it is worth noting that the tortured novel Pierre was published at the same time as Hawthorne's Blithedale Romance, since both deal with idealists who are crushed in their attempts to pursue the ways of heaven upon earth. Melville's popularity, which began to wane with the publication of Moby-Dick, was entirely lost through the confused metaphysics and iconoclasm of Pierre, for the public's preference was always for his early exotic romances.

Opportunity for revaluation was lost when a fire at his publishers destroyed the plates of his books and most of the unsold copies.


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Hawthorne's removal to Concord deprived him of his last great stimulus, and from this time he drew farther within himself in his tireless search for a key to the universal mystery. Israel Potter , the story of the Revolutionary soldier, was a weak historical romance, but it was followed by Melville's finest achievements in short fiction, The Piazza Tales , which includes "Bartleby the Scrivener," "Benito Cereno," and "The Encantadas.

Clarel , a long, involved poem concerned with his search for religious faith, grew out of a tour to the Holy Land His diary of the trip was published as Journal Up the Straits Clarel, John Marr, and Timoleon were privately financed and published in small editions. About 80 short uncollected poems were first printed in the collected edition of his works Melville's great creative period having perished from public neglect and his own inanition, he attempted to eke out a living by lecturing.

Failing to receive a desired consulship, after a trip to San Francisco on a clipper ship commanded by his brother, he moved to New York City and three years later received a mean appointment as an outdoor customs inspector, in which position he continued for 19 years. His last years were spent in complete obscurity, and his death passed virtually unnoticed.

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It was not until that he was rediscovered by literary scholars, and in subsequent years the previous neglect was atoned for by a general enthusiasm. An elaborate collected edition appeared 12 vols. Other books published for the first time included Journal of a Visit to London and the Continent , Journal of a Visit to Europe and the Levant and Letters , including all then known.

Publication of a scholarly edition of his Writings was begun in by Newberry Library and Northwestern University Press, and by the 15th volume had reached the Journals He has come to be considered not only an outstanding writer of the sea and a great stylist who mastered both realistic narrative and a rich, rhythmical prose, but also a shrewd social critic and philosopher in his fiction. Within this realistic account of a whaling voyage is set a symbolic account of conflict between man and his fate.

Captain Ahab declares, "All visible objects are but as pasteboard masks," and Melville, holding this thesis, strikes through the surface of his adventurous narrative to formulate concepts of good and evil imbedded as allegory in its events. The outcast youth Ishmael, feeling "a damp, drizzly November" in his soul, goes to New Bedford, planning to ship on a whaler. There he draws as a roommate Queequeg, a Polynesian prince, and the two become comrades. The captain, Ahab, is a monomaniac whose one purpose is to capture the fierce, cunning white whale, Moby-Dick, who had torn away his leg during their last encounter.

He keeps below deck for some time, but finally declares his purpose and posts a doubloon on the mast as a reward for the man who first sights the white whale. The characters of the sailors are revealed by their reactions. The chief mate, Starbuck, earnest, prudent, and fretful, dislikes it. Stubb, the second mate, is happy-go-lucky and takes perils as they come. Flask, the third mate, is incapable of deep thought and for him killing whales is just an occupation.

Others in the crew include Fedallah and his mysterious Asiatics; the American Indian harpooner, Tashtego, the African, Daggoo; and the black cabin boy, Pip. Through the plot of the voyage, which carries the Pequod nearly around the world, runs a comprehensive discussion of the nature of the whale, the history of science and art relating to the animal, and the facts of the whaling industry. Whales are captured during the pursuit, but circumstances seem to conspire against Ahab: storms, lightning, loss of the compass, the drowning of a man, and the insanity of Ahab's favorite, Pip.

The white whale is finally sighted, and in the first day's chase he smashes a whaleboat. The second day, another boat is swamped, and the captain's ivory leg is snapped off.

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On the third day the whale is harpooned, but Ahab, fouled in the line, is pinioned to Moby-Dick, who bears down on the Pequod. The ship is sunk and, as the final spars settle in the water, one of the men nails to the mast a sky hawk that pecks at the flag he is placing as a signal. The ship, "like Satan, would not sink to hell till she had dragged a living part of heaven along with her, and helmeted herself with it. Pierre; or, The Ambiguities, novel by Melville, published in It is considered to be semi-autobiographical. Pierre Glendinning, only son of an affluent and haughty widow, is engaged to Lucy Tartan, daughter of another prominent family in upstate New York.

He accidentally meets Isabel, discovers that she is his illegitimate half-sister, and feels that it its his duty to protect her in opposition to his proud mother. To acknowledge Isabel as a sister would disgrace his father's memory, so Pierre pretends to marry her. They seek refuge in New York, and Pierre, poor and without friends, turns to writing a book that no publisher will issue.

Lucy, still in love with Pierre, follows him to New York. Threatened by her brother and his own cousin, Pierre kills the latter. Both Lucy and Mrs. Glendinning die of grief, and Pierre and Isabel, now in love with each other, commit suicide in his prison cell. In grappling with the ambiguities of good and evil, Pierre has followed the "chronometrical" standards of ideal Christian conduct, instead of the "horological" standards of contemporary society.

He is accordingly undone by his ideals, and becomes "the fool of Truth, the fool of Virtue, the fool of Fate. Its source is a chapter in Amasa Delano's Voyages and Travels Robert Lowell adapted Melville's story in a one-act verse play of the same title in The Old Glory In Captain Delano puts in for water at an uninhabited island off Chile, where he encounters a Spanish merchantsman in ruinous condition, commanded by Benito Cereno, a sensitive young Spaniard now gravely ill and enabled to pursue his duties only with the solicitous care of his black servant Babo.

Cereno tells the American that he sailed from Buenos Aires for Lima, with a crew of 50 and a cargo including Negroes owned by Alexandro Aranda. Off Cape Horn, he says, many of the crew were lost in a storm, and disease destroyed most of the other whites and blacks. Delano offers aid, but is uneasy at the insubordination of the slaves and the careless seamanship and seeming ingratitude of Cereno.

He is about to return to his ship when Cereno jumps into his boat, precipitating an attack by the Negroes from which they barely escape. Cereno explains that the blacks had mutinied, led by Babo, and wanted to be carried to Africa. Delano seizes the slave ship, and takes it with his own to Lima, where Babo is executed. Cereno enters a monastery, but soon dies. One view is that it reflects Melville's futility at the neglect of his novels "Dead Letters" and his uncertainty about how to relate to society.

A Wall Street lawyer hires Bartleby, a curious, wraith-like figure, as a copyist. Barleby refuses to mingle with the other employees, and, when asked to do anything besides copying documents, invariably says "I would prefer not to. The lawyer moves to another building, and the new tenant has Bartleby arrested. Visited in prison by the lawyer, he is silent and refuses favors. Soon he dies, and the lawyer hears a rumor that Bartleby was formerly a clerk in the Dead Letter Office, whose strange atmosphere affected his attitude toward life to the end.

This last novel printed during the author's life shows a pessimistic view best described by the title of a handbill that figures in the story: "Ode on the Intimations of Distrust in Man, Unwillingly Inferred from Repeated Repulses, in Disinterested Endeavors to Procure His Confidence. Louis to New Orleans, and displays to the passengers a slate on which he writes: "Charity thinketh no evil; suffereth long, and is kind; endureth all things; believeth all things; and never faileth. Optimistic, faith-seeking mankind then appears in a variety of other disguises, as the "Masquerade" continues, and distrust replaces confidence in the course of each episode.

Billy Budd, a novelette by Melville, was written during the five years before his death and pubnlished in The much revised manuscript, left without definitive form, was reissued in a very careful edition in A dramatization was made by Louis O. Coxe and Robert H. Chapman as Uniform of Flesh , revised as Billy Budd Billy Budd is the typical Handsome Sailor of 18th-century balladry, and because of his innocence and beauty is hated by Claggart, a dark, demon-haunted petty officer.

In his simplicity, Billy cannot understand why Claggart hates him, why evil should desire to destroy good. Claggart concocts a fantastic story of mutiny, supposedly plotted by Billy, whom he accuses to the captain. Billy, unable to speak, in his only act of rebellion strikes Claggart a fatal blow. Captain Vere, who sympathizes with Billy and recognizes his essential innocence, is nevertheless forced to condemn him, and though Billy is hanged he lives on as a legend among sailors. Etiquetas: Literatura , Melville , norteamericana.

Etiquetas: Poe , Literatura , Documentales , norteamericana. Etiquetas: Periodismo , Conferencias. Bulwer-Lytton also developed many other genres of fiction. Paul Clifford , for example, is a 'novel with a purpose' in which the author campaigned against 'a vicious prison-discipline, and a sanguinary penal code'. His resurrection of the eighteenth-century 'Newgate novel' was to influence the Dickens of Oliver Twist , while occult fantasies such as Zanoni , ghost stories such as 'The Haunted and the Haunters' and works of science fiction furthered Bulwer-Lytton's popularity.

So did The Caxtons , a gentle saga of domestic family life, and one of a trilogy of pleasantly reassuring works which include My Novel and What Will He Do with It? Compromise and good humour are the essence of these works. Two contemporary exponents of comic fiction were Charles Lever and R. Surtees Lever's works were principally concerned with Ireland and the Irish, and range from picaresque military adventure through to Lord Kilgobbin , a more sombre reflection on the life of the Irish aristocracy. The picaresque was also to be favoured by Surtees in Jorrocks's Jaunts and Jollities , his sporting sketches of a rumbustious 'Fox 'unting' grocer whose Sancho-Panza-like servant Pigg is introduced in Handley Cross With such novels as these, the enormous range of Victorian prose fiction had begun to be explored.

Social and political theory, protest, and historical and domestic works had all been essayed, but it is with the comic possibilities opened up by social reportage that we come to the early career of one of the supreme figures of nineteenth-century English literature: Charles Dickens Dickens began his career as a freelance journalist, reporting legal and parliamentary affairs with an accuracy that was to win him a high reputation.

An increasingly informed and passionate response to Victorian social conditions sustained the great achievements of his maturity, while the exuberance apparent in his early pieces led to the writing of anecdotal sketches, character studies and tales. Derived in part from the essays of Leigh Hunt and the young Dickens's extensive reading in the novels and journalism of the eighteenth century, these very successful essays were issued in volume form and under Dickens's pseudonym as Sketches by Boz The publishers Chapman and hall were aware of this early work, and when the failing artist Robert Seymour approached them with some sporting illustrations of cockneys in the countryside, they asked the newly contracted Boz for linking passages of narrative prose.

Confident now of his imaginative power, Dickens insisted that the illustrations serve the narrative rather than the other way around. The publishers agreed, and at the close of March they began the monthly serial publication of one of the great comic works in the language, Pickwick Papers. As the novel developed along its haphazard route and the plump and prosperous hero acquired his worldly wise servant Sam Weller—a figure who shows Dickens's remarkable powers of characterization through speech—so this genial comedy of middle-class life slowly became a publishing phenomenon.

The eighteenth-century picaresque novel had been given fresh life, and the newly married author of twenty-four eventually found his work circulated in print runs of 40, a month. The commercial success of this experiment in serial publication was to have an immense influence on subsequent Victorian fiction. Authors and publishers were now often to issue their works in parts before republication in a 'three-decker' or later as a single volume. The demands and conventions of issuing a novel in what was often as many as twenty monthly parts of three or four chapters, with a concluding double issue, challenged authors to organize their themes, plots and character developments within a regular framework of climaxes.

In addition, writers learned how to bind their material together through parallelism and imagery. The enormous length of such publications encouraged the depiction of a comprehensive social range, while the relatively low cost of serial publication—a shilling an issue compared to the guinea and a half charged for a bound novel—greatly enlarged the market.

In Pickwick Papers itself, many of the technical possibilities offered by serial form are still unexplored. However, with Jingle as the none-too-serious villain of the work and the humorously contrived misunderstanding whereby the innocent Pickwick is mistakenly supposed to have offered marriage to his landlady Mrs Bardell, the work develops via such hilrious scenes as Bob Sawyer's bachelor party later one of Dickens's favourite recital episodes towards the high comedy of the trial of Bardell v.

Pickwick's refusal to pay damages and his consequent stay in the debtors' prison gave Dickens the chance to confront boyish innocence and the charitable high spirits of Dingley Dell with a suggestion of the claustrophobic horror that characterizes the world of his maturity. Against this he then set the hero's magnanimity—the essential Pickwickian benevolence—by which Pickwick himself contrives to relieve the wretchedness of his fellow prisoners.

The rich man who intervenes to alleviate suffering was to remain a standard figure in Dickens's fiction. With Pickwick gaining ever-greater popularity, Dickens began a work whose characters were to obsess his imagination and whose incidents began to probe the painful worlds of abused childhood and official incompetence in a manner that reveals the great social critic. The sentiment and high melodrama of Oliver Twist derive from the popularity of the Newgate novel, while the somewhat clumsily handled conventions of the wronged woman, the dispossessed heir and the death-bed secret explore the social horrors of Victorian England with considerable power.

Oliver in the Malthusian hell of the workhouse is an image of eternal innocence caught in Victorian corruption, in particular the evils of the Poor Laws and the blighted imagination and sheer ineptitude of Bumble the beadle. The institutionalized physical hunger of the workhouse is at one with the emotional starvation, and both lead to legendary pathos: 'The gruel disappeared; the boys whispered each other, and winked at Oliver; while his next neighbours nudged him. Child as he was, he was desperate with hunger, and reckless with misery.

He rose from the tabl; and advancing to the master, basin and spoon in hand, said: somewhat alarmed at his own temerity: "Please, Sir, I want some more. Dickens's loathing of the mechanical inhumanity of systems places him firmly in the line of the great Victorian sages. Where supposedly respectable adults have abused their trust the Devil steps in, here as Fagin the red-bearded master of the underworld frying sausages with a toasting fork and ironically encouraging the cockney resilience of the Artful Dodger and his school of thieves in the Victorian values of hard work, family loyalty and useful education.

If official charity is heartless, the criminal world at first appears warm. The irony is scathing, but it leads to the nightmare of the Devil trying to reclaim his own, of nancy mnenaced by Fagin and Sikes, and Dickens's portrayal of the wicked pusued by justice after the brutal murder of Nancy herself. Perhaps no moment in Dickens more surely raises melodrama to high art than this last—the strands of Nancy's hair crackling in the fire as Sikes burns his murderous club echo forever in the mind—and it is the sheer imaginative force of Dickens's underworld that remains with the reader long after the machinery that leads to Oliver's security in the middle-class world of Mr Brownlow has been forgotten.

A simplistic faith in acceptable Victorian values pales when confronted by the anarchic forces that underlay them and suggests that the artist and the moralist were not yet at one. Such problems of focus are also evident in Nicholas Nickleby and The Old Curiosity Shop , where they partly derive from both being novels of the road.

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However, where the first is comic and resilient, the second is often sentimental to a maudlin degree. In his previous novels, Dickens's heroes had been a portly old gentleman and a child. In Nicholas Nickleby, he took what he described as 'a young man of impetuous temper and of little or no experience' and placed him in a plot that is too often dependent on eavesdropping and coincidence.

It is also uncomfortably suspended between the stage villainy of Uncle Ralph and the sickly benevolence of the Cheeryble brothers. Such effects suggest the world of Victorian melodrama, and Dickens's love of the theatre is evident throughout. Popular culture, indeed, was one of the mainstays of his art. If the stage villainy of Ralph, the pathos of the mentally defective Smike and the often rather priggish virtue of the hero strain credibility, what gives the novel its continuous fascination is Dickens's portrayal of a cast of grotesques acting out their roles with conscious hypocrisy like Ralph or the superabundant dottiness of Mrs Nickleby.

The success and limitations of such a proceeding can be seen in the book's most famous character: Mr Squeers, the sadistic and rapacious principal of a nightmare school for the unwanted sons of the gentry. Evil is here tempered by broad comedy indignation Squeers certainly rouses but also laughter, and in the end it is sufficient that he is flogged by Nicholas who then absconds with his chief victim, Smike.

In contrast to Squeers are the Crummlees, that marvellous theatrical family who become ever more vivid as their plays become ever more absurd. Crummles's memory of falling in love with his consort as she stood 'on the butt-end of a spear surrounded with blazing fireworks' has a bizarre yet heart-warming innocence, a richly imaginative psychological verisimilitude.

Such invention suggests that uniquely Dickensian gallery of snobs, fools and minor villains, obsessives who are often the life of his work. Among such figures here are Mrs Nickleby herself whose mental flutterings rise to the greatness of Mistress Quickly as she hears of the death of Smike:. In The Old Curiosity Shop, a novel developed out of a story in Dickens's unsuccessful periodical Master Humphrey's Clock , the death of Little Nell is a transfiguration of innocence in a corrupt world, the world of London and the industiral cities of the Midlands, of darkness, vain hope and the evil Quip.

In a world built on contrasts of light and dark, Quilp is the deformed embodiment of evil, the Rumpelstiltskin in the fiairy-tale elements of the plot. As a grotesque, he is a masterly creation. Compelling as he is and revolting as the sexual and financial plots he hatches are, Quilp is unable fully to embody Dickens's loathing for 'the mountain heap of misery' in the novel. He is a figure of fear rather than a means of analysis.

He belongs to fairy-tale, and the lurid hellisness of his death is too obviously his creator's revenge on horrors not yet fully understood. By contrast, the plangently sentimental death of Little Nell, exhausted after forced wanderings with her grandfather, is too obviously an attempt by Dickens to come to terms with his own very personal feelings about the deaths of girls whose lives were too good for the world. Nell and her grandfather's flight from the city to the supposed innocence of the countryside is essentially a pursuit of sentiment and a place 'where sin and sorrow never came.

Only here, Dickens seems to suggest, silent under a moonlit tomb, can innocence finally be left in peace with God. Meanwhile, the world goes on in the life of the stalwart Kit one of Dickens's most delightful heroes while the dead and the houses in which they lived pass away 'like a tale that is told'. One of the most alarming horrors faced by Little Nell was violent industrial unrest in the Midlands. With Barnaby Rudge , Dickens's historical novel on the Gordon Riots of , the mob surges to the centre of attention.

While the Scott of The Heart of Midlothian was an important influence here, the range of Dickens's social analysis had now been deepened by his contact with Carlyle, and in Barnaby Rudge itself a number of important elements from Carlyle's thought are clearly present. In the opening chapter, for example, we are shown the sins of the fathers that are to be visited on the sons.

Sir John Chester—'soft-spoken, delicately made, precise and elegant'—personifies Carlyle and Dickens's loathing of the eighteenth-century 'Dandiacal Body', of feckless patrician government and of the paternal irresponsibility by which Chester himself casts off his son Edward while also causing the bestial Hugh, his 'natural' or illegitimate child, to join in the destruction of the Maypole inn and the traditional values suggested by the nearby great house.

Hugh is the personification of the corrupt old order, 'that black tree of which I am the ripened fruit'. In this, he forms the perfect complement to the simple-minded Barnaby Rudge, the 'natural' or idiot son of a murderous servant. Together, Hugh and Barnaby suggest the brutality and idiocy which will lead a rebellion in society against the values their parents have betrayed. The forces of the Terror as presented by Carlyle made a deep impression on Dickens, and the wanton destructiveness of the mob roars throughout his novel with a power that is as ruthlessly conceived as his master's.

The mob gives frightening expression to contemporary fears of a Chartist uprising, and its mindless fury is exactly caught when Dickens describes the sacking of Lord Mansfield's house. To ravage the work of the father of the common law is to bring about a society where all coherence has gone. In the end, the heroes of the novel—Varden, Joe, Edward Chester—are obliged to align themselves with the older forces whose weakness they all too painfully know. For Dickens, society must redeem itself through traditional resources, however corrupt these may have become. Between the completion of Barnaby Rudge and starting on Martin Chuzzlewit , Dickens made the journey described in his American Notes , much of which had in fact been toned down from the private letters on which his book was based.

In Martin Chuzzlewit —and partly as a response to criticism levelled at American Notes— Dickens painted an even harsher picture of the United States. It becomes a morass where the 'cash nexus' had reached such appalling dimensions that 'men were weighed by their dollars, measures gauged by their dollars; life was auctioned, appraised, put up, and knocked down for its dollars'. Dickens's powerful symbol of this thin self-destructive greed is the putrid swamp which his hero is tricked into investing in and which goes by the name of Eden.

The American scenes in Martin Chuzzlewit, excellent though their satire is, are nonetheless too loosely connected to a novel which is itself messily constructed. Martin is sent to the States partly, it has been suggested, to boost the book's poor sales after falling in love with his grandfather's ward and becoming a victim of the machinations of that ogre of hypocrisy, Mr Pecksniff.

And it is with figures like Pecksniff and Sarah Gamp that Dickens's genius for moral caricature is seen at its most developed. The energy with which these figures have been created takes over the book, while their actions and speech lead in the case of Pecksniff especially to a portrait of hypocritical duplicity and self-seeking that was without parallel in Dickens's work so far. Pecksniff is financially ruined by the trickster Montague Tigg, a character who again took Dickens's imagination into areas that had never been so powerfully explored, a world not just of financial chicanery, but of claustrophobic criminal psychology, nightmare and murder.

The life of this boy is not strange; I can almost diagnose his condition because I am an expert in brain development studies. However, there is one thing that confounds me and when I'm finally convinced after having done a revision, a delicate revision of his physical temperament and his way of reacting, I find a tiny little flaw almost like a third of a quarter of half of a crumble of something I cannot figure out about this boy whom by the way I believe is perfect. His hands or hair do not indicate any reason as to why this particulate taste.

I am in one of the most advanced science labs technologically, three-dimensional. To give you an idea of what I mean I can tell you that this place is very dark, there are no gaps, even on doors through which electric or sunlight can filter. The ceiling is lined with impressive wiring; the floor is made of frozen mineral water with petrified bubbles to be used as oxygen for our patients.

At the front door we have a skin cell detector in poor condition. It works like a scanner with ultraviolet rays that instantly change color according to each patient's disease. It immediately informs us with brain data and we know how the patient thinks and the time their treatment will take. Interesting, is not it? What I mean is, like many teenagers, he had the phone in one hand and carried out activities with the Continued While eating, he would spoon with one hand and with the other he would text, or if he was writing with one hand he would hold the damned device in the other.

When he was separated from it a depression so deep set in, it became schizophrenia. The only word he said when I first interviewed him was a very soft "sleep" and he pointed to his forearm as if stroking a feline. Since then I took over his care, because he seemed interesting and because I'm the only one who occasionally gets a word out of him. He seems to speak in codes, last time I deciphered what he wanted to say.

He always speaks when no one is there. Yes, inside the pouch, the kangaroo has been studying humans as long as it can remember and found out that what they carry in their bags is unusable material. What they keep there are causes for violence, acts of war, acts of hatred and greed. So the kangaroo in its pouch stores its little one because it represents one thing: the source of love and protection. But I insist that what he pets is It's time for your treatment, hurry up.

If you say it's a cat then it's a cat. I need a jar without a handle so that I can embrace it as my grandmother embraced the bug bomb while the mosquitoes twisted in giggles. Only half to drown my silence because I need you, I need you. OF THE STREAM There I left you, under a shade of streams among hooves of cattle and slimy meadows there where you always wanted to come to a standstill as you smiled at splashing snails on the shore and your face lit up slowly breathing the sun threading the wind. Each year we returned to the same spot as muleteers after a buccaneer map where treasure was a cross and the road was broken even if the day was gray with rain-filled air you did not care because freedom was yours That was where everything was after the smoke left your bones in a corner there, in a long crown made of roots and water your river your life your lair your farewell.

August, September, October, November, and December almost at an end. All this time with the set idea that I have 90 students with brown eyes and different ages. Some of them come with baggage full of prolonged childhoods and others with grown up looks and eyeless teddy bears, and worn hands in small bodies. My fifth graders sit on their chairs every morning in class. They take out their notebook and reading book. Boys wear soccer shirts and girls white Aztec princesses shirts. Like any other mother, today I feel that I have failed these children.

I forget my own childhood. I leave that school with a bag full of books and papers slowing my steps. I get frustrated when they forget parts in tests, I walk away from them when they demand lots of attention and I approach them when they ignore me. I lose patience with their parents who send them hungry and frightened in the mornings.

The most recent incident was when the father of one fell asleep with a lit cigarette and nearly burned the house. I see parents taking their children or children taking their parents to school. I teach social studies and Spanish a misplaced and forgotten language here in the North. Sometimes my kids are no longer interested in speaking the language of their parents and prefer the language of civilized countries. Maybe they are persuaded by the promises of the American dream where everything is possible if you work hard enough. The dreams of watching snow fall on civilized countries.

That is how my mom spoke of this country when we lived in the south. This snow falling endlessly slow and silently tonight, as I write this in my reduced room in New York. A memory: When I was born, there was no money in my home. Because doctors charge too much, and giving birth should be free, like air. As I was saying, I have a student whose father sleeps with lit cigarettes. He does not speak to me in English either.

The jolts of language. Sometimes I want to take that child home, wrapped in a white sheet. The struggle of moving forward, of listening, of waiting, of understanding the babbles and shrieks of recess, of having, of belonging, of love, of language. Everything, always, requires a pause. Such is life here in the North. I have twelve days of vacation for Christmas. Snow falls slowly and quietly in New York.

Then I find time again for the memories of the South. Memories of Christmas in Buenos Aires, where summer falls in December. Synthetic trees decorated with bright ornaments. Santa Claus plastic dolls on roofs, fireworks lighting up the night sky. Chicken with potatoes and mayonnaise. All in a context of dampness and warmth. The tide of Rio de la Plata declines during summer, leaving yards and yards of sand.

Today I remembered again Puerto de Olivos and the beach of my childhood. I rescued those memories when my mom would take me and my sister to walk around the harbor and along the beach, before going to school. When we could feel owners of the beach before noon. And back then, feeling like the owners of the beach was akin to being masters of the universe, feelings of being river and sand, and seaweed and fish, and dock and stray dog, and damp wind and cloud. Eventually that beach closed, and the sand under my feet began to contaminate just as the water of the river, until the municipality had to close it and leave it to the military.

I remember that in this outburst of white sheets, and silent snow. Far away and long ago, here in the North, still the memories of the South. Windblown, for the breeze played through it. Through it, I feel like passing my fingers to tame it again. Again I sense your gaze over me, full of love and tenderness.

Tenderness that inspires and invites a hug, long and strong. Strong kiss I place on your forehead, to encourage you to bravely face your destiny. Destiny that is uncertain, full of adventure, victories and defeats, love and distaste, mishaps and challenges. Challenges to find yourself, your place and motive in this life. This life, which we are privileged to know and to enjoy, to suffer and to dare. To dare every obstacle with courage and sanity, without escaping or disregarding, Without obviating or assuming.

The officials, one after another, interrogated him every way possible. But they did not get a single word about the deed that had gathered everyone at the station that humid afternoon. There had not been big news in that ancient village in a long time. The last one had been that the weekly bus had punctured all four tires in the desert twenty minutes from the village. The passengers had to finish the journey on foot, accompanied by the driver and his shotgun and a pack of coyotes surrounding them and howling; more for fun than prey only to make their territory known.

The destruction of a work of art could not be overlooked. Nobody could explain why the man had found joy and pleasure in the destruction of the painting. His words slow to a trickle, gave birth to a uniquely factual story. Victor -so he called himself— said he could not resist looking into the painting which was like looking in a mirror without finding himself. I have been looking for myself for some time in every corner of this place and I had not found myself.

As soon as I saw the painting, I thought I had found the end of my quest. But the beginning is just starting because now I must connect memory romps of that colorful image spread on the floor. The officers looked at each other and they could only aim to get him a cup of coffee, clear the dusty table placed in front of the arrested and spread on it pieces of the painting. Case closed. The village could return to their stoned memorized routine, waiting for new news: the reconstruction of the artwork and the reunion of a lost man with himself.

Nameless place, without origin and without end where spirits and souls never die, they live to transform, feed on corn milk and fruits, on tranquility and peace, they dress in harmony and love. Time and location do not exist; the cardinal points are one, the four spirits of Chaac lead you to the same axis in different dimension and color.

Over there the Sun and Moon sit and dialogue while children play with the Big Dipper and star constellations run nonstop. I remember very well that over there there are no limits, no logic, no outlines, everything is essence and creativity. I used to fly while the wind wove my long hair; my feathered body was renewed every time I journeyed. I flew over rivers, mountains, deserts, over three volcanoes and a lake, and the spirit of Xocomil plunged me into the depths of its waters.

Now you know why I never asked or answered I come from that place Where the sun and the moon make love, not as a simple act limited by time, it can last all day, all night, an era, or an entire cosmos. So do not interrogate or question me again, you will never understand, we better speak the language of the eyes. That was how that time I could see, smell and feel your betrayal, you thought you could play me, you forgot that the wind is not an element but a spirit that woke me that cold night so I could find your vile treason.

Hunab Ku. Ix Chel sage old moon, you who nursed me with Yum-Kaax corn essence. I did not want to hear, I did not want to see much less feel but they insisted and spoke to Chaac so his four spirits could take me to the place where you were. Upon arrival, before entering, Ix Chel, the old moon began to speak and said "You now know time which cloisters mortals and renders them useless.

You will glimpse deception and betrayal mating and wallowing, so do not be alarmed by what your false eyes witness, breathe and blow so that your veins can stir, remember: You are not from that place. My hands drew ten spirits, the ten longer minutes anyone can count. Towards the sixth minute I froze upon hearing the song of your misplacement and I could make out the error in your words, it was like an echo fracturing my eardrum mocking me and making me see your mediocrity.

When I entered, my eyes saw your naked skin. He can open or close, create or demolish. I smelled the putrid smell of your deceit and saw into those green eyes which once trapped me to speak to your bones and marrow. They were streams of blooded tears flowing from your veins. Everything is accomplished; time to fly to a new destiny maybe a new horizon. YumKaax transformed as the tree of life anxiously awaits me to nest in its large branches while I drink from its essence corn milk which will make me reborn because I come from that place!

The following are its explanationsChaac: god of rain and the four directions. Xocomil: Natural phenomena described as. I promise to imprint our names where we so often have met where many times you have kissed me with such passion that even the moon has blushed and the stars hidden with such bashfulness.

I promise to carve our names on the stone witness of our meetings. Here, take this iris from my hand this iris will not be stronger than our love this delicate iris of subtle scent which permeates this magic moment this moment of perpetual promise. This stone, with our engraved names is a symbol of our love affair our affair will sweetly echo through the doors of time through the centuries.

So solid, so enduring, so transcendent as vast as your love, as my love years will pass, time will pass, eras will pass you and I will pass but not our love nor will the stone that has witnessed this passionate. Blessed will be then this time as it has been the birthplace of two lovers that became one by looking at each other. Understand that when day ends night approves. So we come, so we break, and so it beats the cheerful Heart. Flowers surround the world, time, the firmament, songs to the Heart.

All absorbed in the dual cycle our ancestors understood. I gift it to you, keep it, in there remain the embedded elements. Heart of fire Heart of water Heart of earth Heart of wind When we part do not fear, be grateful. I might be far away and will not see you. The Heart knows and will manifest the path that will take you to your destiny, as we are in the worst of times and perhaps the most crucial. Many scientists travel dreaming of success, but they do not understand the elements bound to our hearts such as cold, heat, logical duality.

The question is: Why look elsewhere Continued The technical and industrialized world has complicated life. It complicates everything. They live in a rush, they have erased from their minds what essence holds: Heart of fire Heart of water Heart of earth Heart of wind. How beautiful! How exotic! So delicate, with long wings, magical. I was not frightened, I was curious. I hid among the flowers to follow it. It was easy to distinguish it as it was different from the others. I was losing it from sight, it flew away into the sky, and it became very small.

I have not. I do not remember ever hearing the sound grasshoppers make. I only know that in Mexico they are eaten a lot during rainy season. When is the rainy season in Mexico? Ah, the rainy months are May to October. Imagine, during that season you can witness quite a few downpours. When I was a child I loved playing in the rain But the best was playing with the mud. Did you ever played with the mud? I used to kneel and pretend to do tamales with my hands. Hence chulo is the "b'hoy" of the ring, and chula, the "gal," in the eiact flavor with which they are uttered. Don could never have sprung originally from dominus, which makes legally only dotn'no, and by assimilation of the m, donno.

It was formerly only applied to kings and great lords. In the old language we have Don Christo. To pass on. This hinge, then, is the " creaker," an epithet not inapplicable to modem hioges. A derivative form quirritus furnishes us with chirrido, an intolerable racket known to those who have travelled over the hills from Oviedo to Tolosa, produced by a wooden spring catching the tire-knobs of a solid cart-whee! On abrigo, Dietz expends a whole page in a vain inquiry as to how the L.

But there are inversions of signification as well as of phonetics in the Spanish word-forge. Abriga there first means "what makes you warm," like a shawl, a cloak, a top-coat, suggesting the only source of heat they have there, — that of the sun. The merchant praises the quality of his pailo, assuring you que abriga bastante, i. The national habit of "taking the sun" — tcunar elsol — is the Spanish version of the L. From this custom of economically borrow- ing of Providence a "sunny spot" protected from the sharp rooun- tain currents, came naturally enough, to a people without fires or comforts at home, the general idea of shelter, while the old Roman word, as persistent as her stones, remains to give the tradition of protection from cold by getting in the sun, rather than mere shelter from wind and storm.

In mandarin we have rejected the Sanscrit origingiven in English dicttooaries, as an absurdity, after having consulted the venerable professor S. Wells Williams, a philologist who learned his tongues where they are spoken, and, therefore, knows his people. He declares it to be a " pigeon English" designation introduced through the Port, mandar, and never employed by the Chinese. Evidently there was an earlier edition. We regret that we have been obliged to exclude at the last moment an Introduction of fifty pages or more, embracing a succinct history of the languages of the Peninsula, with specimens of early Castilian, Portuguese, and Basque, and the dialects spoken in Galicia and the Asturias, as well as the Provencal surviving in Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands ; the phonetic laws governing the HiEpanicizing of Latin words ; the most useful works on the lin- guistic study of these languages and dialects, and finally a bibliog- raphy of Dictionaries and Grammars from to , the date of the definite edition of the Spanish Academy's Dictionary.

The unexpected length of the Vocabulary, however, has increased the size of the volume to such a degree, that it was thought prudent to withhold the Introduction, at least for the present. For the typographical accuracy of the book no pains have been spared, the revised sheets from p. We de. Henry M. Modern Spanish Rbadings: I. Nadie paM sin hablar al portero, 6 los viajeros en Vitoria.

Vuelva V. Por el mismo g 3- El Periodista. El Retrato. For Ramon de Mesonero Romanos 24 5. Callar en Vida y Perdonar en Muerte. La Mariposa Blanca. Por Gustavo A. Becquer loz 8. Por Modesto Lafuente 9. Por Emilio Castelar b. Por Juan Valera b.

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Nadie pase sin hablar al portero. En nombre del Padre, y del Hijo Ya se ve, era la intendencia. Dos monacillos hai;lan en la antesala, con dos voluntarios facciosos, el servicio que suelen hacer los porteros de estrado en ciertas casas, y im robusto sacristan, que tiebfa ser el portero de golpe, los intro- dujo. Por consiguiente, este papel no vale. Mire V. Apunte V. London Repare V. Cierto que la idea es graciosa.

Vimosle por fin, y "vuelva D,g,t,.? Es claro que lao faltando este principio no tuvieron lugar las reclamaciones. Averiguamos que necesitaba dinero diariamente para comer, con la mayor urgencia ; sin embargo, nunca encontraba momento oportuno para trabajar. Martes era a! No hay hombre capaz de seguir dos horas una intriga.

Y como en todo caso r:,9,N.. Pero aqui llega. Estoy persua- dido que la comedia no es buena : es decir, tampoco es mala. No se atreven. No ignora V. Con estos elementos, con coche y. No puedo dejar de cotiJenir en que estamos en el siglo de las luces. Aquella agradable variedad de sillas desven- cijadas, tinajas sin suelo, linternas sin cristal, santos sin cabeza, libros sin portada ; aquella perfecta igualdad en que yacen por los suelos las obras de Locke, Bertoldo, Fenelon, Valladares, D,g,t,.? No hay duda en que este vecindario aumenta ; no se hallan casas, dijo uno de los presentes.

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No ; es buena y tiene comodidades. No, que yo sepa. Puede que esta felicidad, aunque santa y modesta, fuese demasiado perfecta para ser duradera en un mundo en que, por desgracia, aun los buenos se acuerdan menos del cielo cuando la tierra les hace la vida dulce. Esta noche No, no, acaba. El otro asistente estaba malo en el hospital, y no se habia movido de su lecho. Entre tanto la ciudad estaba aterrada. Nada pudo la justicia inquirir, ni aun sospechas que hubieran podido servirle de vis- lumbre en aquellas tinieblas. El crimen con el misterio se hace pavoroso y crece como el terror en la oscuridad de la noche.

Por lo visto, dijo el forastero con una sonrisa agria y amarga,. El dolor no puede ser eterno en este mundo ; asi lo ha dispuesto Aquel que sabe lo que nos conviene. La ausencia es un velo poco transparente. Pero decidme, n,r. Dice el D,g,t,.? La D,g,t,.? La tropa tenia orden de permanecer en Val de Paz. Venia D,g,t,.? S i de su capitalizado caudal. Pero el tiempo habia de D,g,t,.? El pelo de la joven madre, se habla encanecido.

Sobre sus facciones demagradas se habia 7S0 extendido la palidez verdosa de la ictericia ; sus ojos extravia- dos y hundidos brillaban calenturientos en un circulo morado. Estoy ciertamente con mucho cuidado. Los facultativos desorientados, agotados sus recursos, se cruzaban de brazos. Hasta I ahora ha pasado! Ha dejado el aturdimiento de la infancia para entrar en la formalidad de la juventud. La buena nodriza; que. Bueno ; asi pasan ios dias serenos y tranquilos. Berta, que madrugaba tanto, ya no se levanta tan temprano.

La nodriza, que bebe los vientos por ella y que es capaz de S contarle los pelos al diablo, io observa todo y calla. Asi quiero, le dijo al verla. Berta se puso encarnada como una amapola. Ese clavel ha venido volando de la terraza que da en frente de estos balcones. Vamos, eso no tiene pies ni cabeza. I Dices que no? Nuestros juramentos, dijo. I Quieres saber lo cjue son los hombres?

Berta ,. Trae V. Pues la de V. Si es verdad que los muertos resucitan, es claro que acaba V. Si, ama Juana, el demonio en persona. No, dijo el padre de Berta, no es horrible. Ha tomado el aspecto de un hermoso joven que tiene todo el aire de un formidable calavera. Por la puerta, Juana, por la puerta. Se mete ; por cualquier parte. Como V. No he sabido resistirme, no he podido defen- derme, y me ha cogido la palabra.

Un hombre no seria tan cruel conmigo. De pronto dijo : — j Ah 1. Ahora lo veremos. El demonio, pues, habla logrado introducirse en la casa de "' Berta de la manera que hemos visto, y no solamente se habla D,g,t,.? No dejaba la ida por la venida. En estas secretas murmuraciones desahogan la aversion que les inspira, y entre la nodriza y el padre lo ponen como nuevo. Echarlo de la casa. Huir lejos , , , muy lejos Vaya, no hay que pensar en semejante desatino, ' Lo que debemos hacer es poner pies en pared y defendernos.

No se necesitan ni fuerzas ni armas, replicaba la nodriza. A puerta cerrada el diablo se vuelve. Esto para la nodriza era imposible. Se llama Adrian Baker, carece de familia y posee grandes bienes de fortuna. El azul de sus ojos es ese azul oscuro que presenta el agua en las grandes profundidades.

Siente como si toda su sangre recibiera de pronto la savia de la juventud. No hay manera de eludir el encanto de sus palabras, el D,g,t,.? No para aqui 30 la cosa, porque cuando menos se espera, resuena por la caja D,g,t,.? Tales son todas las noticias que se tenian acerca de Adrian Baker.

Sn embargo, Adrian Baker no dormia. Bueno, dijo: La pnieba es tremenda, pero necesito esa prueba Es preciso bajar al sepulcro. Muy bien, le consultaremos. Eso es claro. Es un viaje repentino. Se va solo; solo como un hongo. La del humo Al que se va se le olvida, y al que se muere lo entierrnn ; ese es el mundo. Bien; veremos. Mas la noticia se confirmaba, y era preciso creerla. Las flores, agitadas suavemente por las brisas de la primavera, se 30 inclinaban hacia Berta como si le enviasen un triste saludo, D,g,t,.? De pronto atrajo sus miradas el vuelo de una mariposa 5 blanca que flotaba en el aire.

La muerte de Adrian Baker ha causado en Berta terribles estragos. Avara de su dolor, lo esconde dentro de si misma, como un tesoro que pueden robarle.


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Berta, pues, estaba hechizada. Adrian Baker. Adrian viene Decirle que Berta habia perdido el juicio, era lo go Modem Spanish Readings. Siempre el mismo pensamiento dando vueltas en su cabeza como un remolino. Es Adrian. El ama de llaves tuvo valor para pasarse la mano por la I frente y restregarse los ojos. Pero su voz no obtuvo respuesta. No hay duda; el piano de Berta tiene la cualidad mara- villosa de hacer sonar sus cuerdas sin que mano humana intervenga en ello.

Juana se siente asaltada de terrores continuos ; en la casa no hay sosiego. Las noches se pasaban en vela y el pavor de que todos estaban poseidos las hacia interminables. Las ruinas D,g,t,.? Juana, no estoy loca. Yo lo espero. El solo lo sabe. Nada tuvieron que replicar y nada hubieran podido repli- carle, porque la voz les faltaba. L No era posible evadirse del testimonio de la evidenda. Yo, Adrian Baker. No soy un espectro que sale del sepulcro. El loo Modem Spanish Readings. Su padre y su nodriza la siguieron silenciosos. La duda mata. Comienza la unidad. El rey es grande, la reina eminente.

Es la reina la que los pre- side, la que oye las quejas de sus subditos, la que repara los agravios. Las letras humanas adquieren un prodigioso desarrollo en este reinado feliz. A poco tiempo asombra la Espafla al mundo con la edidoD de la Poliglota, la. En el reinado de la piedad se levanta un tribunal de sangre.

Un dia aparecen corte- sanos y soldados vestidos de gala. General alborozo se nota en tos reales de los Cristianos. Se levanta el campamento, y se encamina hacia los muros de la soberbia ciudad. Un personaje moro, seguido de cincuenta caballeros mu- sulmanes, se dirige con semblante mustio hacia el Genil.

Los orgullosos hijos de Mahoma, vencedores en Guadalete, se han retirado llorosos, vencidos para siempre en el Genfl. Es la reina Isabel de Castilla. Sucumbe la opulenta Oran. Brilla la cruz en sus adarves, y ondea en sus almenas el estandarte de Castilla. Nueva era social. Atronaban D,g,t,.? La bondad de S. Aunque no anduviesen perezosos los oficiales de secretaria encargados de extender los decre- 30 tos, los soldados, cansados de aguardarlos, prorurapieron en r:,9,N.. Apenas se habla apeado Careta de su carro triunfal, cuando insolentes retos D,g,t,.?

Es preciso que la historia no calle, porque la historia es la conciencia de la humanidad ; y entiendan los que no 10 la temen, que su justicia es implacable y sus castigos eternos. Nacido en una Corte corrumpida, su conciencia no tuvo un dia sereno. Ocultar con sus liberali- dades las miserias de su cautiverio. Renace en i8zo. Presidia las sociedades secretas del realismo. El libro del Sr. Por el contrario, las afirmaciones y diatribas del Sr.

Se nota adema? Confiese, pues, el Sr. El litxo del Sr. Para ello, antes de empezar con las dudas, es menester dejar sentado aquello en que todos convienen. Sobre las causas de este malestar se disputa mucho. Algo, aunque poco, de la cultura culinaria se infiltra y penetra 15 hasta en los lugares. Esto supone una turba de aspirantes lo menos de cien mil. Ix s que no entran en el grupa exiguo no es por falta He ganas, sino por falta de ao habilidad. Y tercera. Todos me parecen infruc- tuosos. No digo nada de los literatos. Lo declaro con entera sinceridad; el Sr.

El Sr. Se necesitan, pues, arrobas de vino para com- prar el vestido : un verdadero rio de vino. Luego son indispensables ocho fgnegas. Como prueba de la perversion, empieza el Sr. Lo ao primero que se necesita para ser patriota, es tener patria, y Pelayo no la tenia. Por eso apenas hay patriotismo en los siglos medios entre la plebe. En lo antiguo, cuando la patria se limitaba por los muros de la ciudad, como 35 en. Pues no digo nada de los de Homburgo, que ha sido un Estado, que ha sido una patria hasta Si se habla, pues, tanto de patriotismo, es porque le hay, y no para encubrir que no le hay.

Contra esta burla hay los mismos argumentos ya expuestos. De esto tampoco tiene la culpa el grupo exiguo. No es asi. Sin embargo, el Sr, de Liniers no se contenta con pintarnos en as caricatura tan crue! Su libro consta de tres partes. Hasta la misma perversion moral, si la hubiese y fuese tan horrible como db. Lo confieso con franqueza. Lo dudo. Lo que ansian es que se afirme la creencia de que todos hacen lo mismo. Digalo sino, el destino de asistente de Sevilla, donde la mayor parte de las plazas concejales llegaron k hacerse hereditarias y aun delegables.

El primer ejemplo que encontramos de este elemento son las Cortes de Burgos de , medio siglo antes que fue- 10 sen llamados al parlamento de Inglaterra los diputados de los Comunes, y cerca de un siglo antes de los Estados Generales de Francia. El D,g,t,.? No habia ley electoral ni base para ella. En este periodo hubo. Asi los efectos de aquella hermandad fueron parciales y casi nulos.

En nuestros dias se ha querido hacer la apoteosis de los comuneros. El hombre, pues, como ser inteligente es un ser social. En Roma estas dos leyes coexisten; pero coexisten para combatir, y combaten para perecer. Their local governmenl was supported by dulies levied on imparts ; and their excellent highways kept in repair by a tax on passing vehicles, except he post-diligence.

At he close of the last Carlistwar, in , the king, Alfonso XI I, praclically abrogated iheic ancient fueros, which Philip II had spared, and subjected them lo the common burdens of the nation. London, , a vols.. Hence the name CarlisI, generally a synonym for Bosque factions, who Joined his standard 10 oppose the imaginary Invaaon of Iheir fueres, urged on by iho ultramontane clergy. Render: In France the Sails viere formerly called upon to perform, etc, 4.

I think, every- where in coired diction. Of course the post-road ran through it toward Ihe Spanish frontier, as the railway does now. Tlie Puerta de Puencftirftl signifies the gate on Ihe north side of Madrid, where the custom-house formerly stood for travellers coming by the highway, still called the Mala de Fiatuia, or Post Road of France. The highway enters the town by the Calle de Fuencarral popular Calle Fun- earral , whence the name of the Puerta, continues down the C.

Trans- late de, after registr p, by at. Page 3. SB decir, thai is. See also p. Many towns of Spain have, besides their arms, an epithet, such as '" muy fiel," '" muy leal," " D,g,t,.? See Gram. ConiUiffO ea, elc, ajiolher French consiruclion like that in p. En nombre, etc.

The process is veiy long, the text to be used filling fifteen pages in one of the old manuals. See Jansenius : Liier Eiclesia. The brother Charles expected lo succeed Ferdinand, but the liberal portion of the country proclaimed the infant Isabella, under the regency of her mother, Maria Cristina. Hence the seven years' civil war which " Charles the Fiith " sustained chiefly through the Basques, the traditional absolutists and foes of innovation.

Hence, also, the partisans of Carlos were called Catliits, and facciosos, or rebels, who harassed the country in guerrilla Gram, j All this passage is a fling al the exclusiire- nessofSpaniards, over the broad shoulders of tbe Alavese curaj. Page 4. See note to p. So, many verbs in Sjianish lake an infin. The construction in le dijo al Frances is called pleonastic or rt- dundant. In Spanish it adds strength, roundness, to the phrase. See Cram. Sec Gram. For subj.. Gram, J J , c. The adjectives complacido and eatlBtecIto are here used as adverbs ; with a self-complatent and saiisfUd air. Here is no other qnein hereaboitls than.

Pa 1E 6. Pace 7. Page 8. Vualva V. Oran peraona, elc, the first man viko calUii hitiatsi a tnorlal sat nwrf have been a perssnagr. Fur subj. UD tanto cuanto d,, lalhtr amusing. Page 9, See Gram, j Gram, f Un extranjero de estos, etc. For sobj. See Baiall, p.

Page ii. Has jml gent sat. Fot Eubj,, Gram. Botines is Ihe present term in Spain, as well as botoa, i. A quien le, Te. I : what do yon Ihmk of th Page Gram, i 7CQ, i. ISO, entre ml, la myseJf in my sleeve. Betiro, for el Buen Ketiro, a large park or grounds on one side of Madrid, formerly containing a. It is now open to the public, is furnished wtlh a drive, and in the summer evenings concerts and theatrical entertainments make it a fashionable resort unequalled in Europe.

Como aoyeld. This is the classic pitillo, the cigarette. PaGF If it were the other way, we should have had al conejo. Be ha quedado en el aire, is suspended in mid air. See note 10 p. Pace The dimin- utive -ilo is here provocative and piqaant, not possible to render. Bl as que, etc. Page PaOB PaGK iB. Formerly the first was called Jefe politico, but now Gobernador civil. Preciso, si, unavoidably, since.

In that way the press is forced to respect the nation and public Bs me ha dado palabra. Gentltmm, thai toUl not prevent us from throwing down the gauntlet Page No tenifo iDCon.. I hatie no abjection, Deje V. The blasphemous Janguage odlie text here should be evaded ns above. Jrom which the highest bidder takes the o take. Por los anos, about the year. He intimates that in the olden time he was up to the mark of good society when engaged in the " whisi " of that day, and in the fandango, now so vulgar and out of place.

The celebralion was tum-Jold, the aulhor snys. Here the noble and distinguished youlh of Madrid were educated. Since the buildings are occupied by Ihe Hospital Militar. Talayera de la Reina of the Queen was so named after the mother of Alfonso XI , and is an old ruinous town situated on a lovely plain nol far from Toledo. Ferdinand, king of Cas- tille and Leon , conquered from the Moors Cordova, Seville, and Gram, j , a.

Locke, the English metaphysiciaii, ; Bertoldo. An ellipse for IjO que V, guste dar. Page 3a, — These paper strips bound on the corner of a balcony indicate an apartment to lei ; when attached to llie emlre or front of the balcony, they announce a boarding-house with aeconunodations to spare, PaGF,3S. In Southern Spanish houses which usually consist of two floors, the ground floor for summer use.

The taguan is terminated by an iron open-work door at the court end. Did the assassin eiperience a feeling of faiatness thai compelled hits to seek the supportof the Toali. Acaso is merely the oral sign of an interrogation. When any of the Moors or Jews became Christians, they and their descendants were rated as cristianos nuevos, new Christians or proselytes ; and bmilies intermingling wtlh Ihetn were always considered as more or less tainted.

The Spaniards of pure pedi- gree were called also el Tizon de Bspafia, the Brand of Spain, from a pamphlet written by Cardinal Francisco de Mendoia y Bobadilla, bishop of Burgos, addressed to Philip 11, to prove that a great part of the Spanish nobility were tainted with infidel or Jewish blood. Jj , n,- Juiciosa 19 here used in its popular sense of quiet, "proper," "good"; — French, sage; German, arlig. Iba ya picando en historia, -mas aim getting to be a fixed faet.

Y si pudo callar, etc.. T VamoB, etc. No quiero decir I Baas teaomOBi That is the case, is iif LiOCa, etc.