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Highway Engineering: Pavements, Materials and Control of Quality - CRC Press Book
View basket. Continue shopping. United Kingdom. Search Within These Results:. Brockenbrough; Boedecker, Kenneth J. Handbook of Highway Engineering Robert F. Brockenbrough; Editor-Kenneth J. For example, drivers who buy a lot of petrol pay more fuel-taxes. This is not a tax, but rather prices charged to motorists for the use of highway services. The second time-honored principle is the ability-to-pay principle. People should pay charges in accordance with their ability to pay. People with a greater ability should pay more than those with lesser.
Two concepts related to this principle are horizontal equity and vertical equity. Horizontal equity is said to exist when people with the same ability to pay charges pay the same amount of taxes. Problems arise when we try to apply this idea, because it is not always easy to compare people in terms of their abilities to pay. Income is often considered to be the best proxy as an indicator for assessing the ability to pay. Vertical equity is said to exist when people with different abilities to pay in fact do pay appropriately different charges.
Many of these attempt to minimize risk to the government Heggie and Vikers, ; Irwin et al. One of them has a portfolio of stocks and bonds worth SGD1 million, while the other has little or no wealth. Do equal incomes mean equal ability to pay? If not, how do we enter wealth into the calculation? Next consider two married couples, each with a SGD50, annual incomes.
One couple has three dependent children, while the other has none. If not, how do we factor the number of dependants into the calculation? One of them works hard and earns SGD,, while the other one is something of a slacker, doing half as much work, playing lots of golf, and earning only SGD50, Should we treat these two as having the same ability to pay, or should we regard the one as having twice as much ability to pay as the other? Should we reward sloth? If you say yes, you are in favor of a proportional ERP rate structure.
If you say A should pay more than twice the amount of charges, you are in favor of a progressive structure. If you say A should pay less than twice the amount of charges, you are in favor of a regressive structure. Implementation is impossible. Also, the costs of establishing a toll system, the collection costs, and the diversion of tolls by collectors can be high.
Good project structure attracts foreign equity and foreign commercial bank loans. Lenders generally limit such actions in the loan agreement with the concessionaire, but it is always an issue as to how much equity should be injected in the beginning and how long and to what extent the concessionaire should hold it. The longest tenure that a toll highway project company can obtain in a commercial bank loan in the East Asian countries is about 5 years, which is far too short to recoup the investment, whereas in many developed countries such as in the United States and United Kingdom, the tenure of commercial bank loans may extend to 15 to 30 years, i.
To address this issue, various measures have been implemented in toll highway projects in developing countries. Alternative solutions that have been tried include: i long-term loans of government controlled banks, ii shareholders loans from an off-shore parent company that raises funds on off-shore capital markets, iii domestic bond issues underwritten by government controlled institutional investors, iv credit enhancement with respect to domestic fund raising and direct loans from donor agencies, v securitization of existing toll highways, and vi credit enhancement through revenue sharing with existing facilities.
There are many examples where the approaches set out above have been successfully applied. Indonesia used long-term loans of government controlled banks in many of their toll highway projects. China has used shareholder loans from an off-shore parent company that raises funds on off-shore capital market, as well as asset securitization of existing toll highways. On the other hand, an IPO based on multiple assets with a portfolio of stable cash-generating toll highway projects may become an appropriate solution to fund raising issues in developing countries.
China has gone into IPO, often for multi-asset companies; in many instances both expressway and holding companies listed their shares on the Hong Kong and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges. However, there are some concerns with the asset securitization approach such as the possibility of over- leveraging the asset at the expense of the obligation to repay the original loan.
At its IPO, the company had interests in ten highways in China, of which eight were in operation and six at different stages of negotiation. This structure allowed cross-application of dividends so each project could support the other. This concept was created in United Kingdom. Although the project company has succeeded in the operation of the existing Severn Crossing, mitigating the start-up risk of the new project, the debt—equity ratio of the newly constructed portion of the project is only about 0.
This pinpoint equity approach frees investors from the problem of slow recoupment through dividends and also may lower the cost of capital. This in turn lowers the debt—equity ratio to 0. It has also been used to provide liquidity for shares held by the contractors and the sponsor companies. The North—South Expressway Malaysia and the M2 motorway Australia projects involved application of the concept to provide liquidity for shares held by the contractors and the sponsor companies.
The approach is risky because it relies on favorable trends in the real estate market. The concept has been planned or actually applied in a number of contexts, for example, the Guangzhou—Shenzhen Superhighway in China, the Hopewell Bangkok Elevated Highway and Track System in Thailand, and the Malaysia—Singapore Second Crossing in Malaysia, with the experience indicating that over-dependence on real estate investment earnings to structure a transport concession is risky given the volatility of real estate markets.
For example, the Bank is now actively assisting China in the development of a policy framework conducive to attracting private capital for new toll highways. The new BOT framework is to be put forward as a provisional decree on highway projects with private investment with approval from the State Council pending. Support for master planning, feasibility studies, and concession contract have been provided as part of technical assistance.
EBRD was instrumental in improving the drafting of certain parts of the concession contract in Hungary e. The United States Agency for International Development USAID assisted in the establishment of a BOT Center in the Philippines, with the responsibilities of information dissemination, training, and provision of assistance for the drafting of bid documents and conducting the bidding.. The center provides technical assistance to various government agencies involved with private sector participation, but has no regulatory role or real power outside offering suggestions.
Sensitivity Analysis was also conducted to test the robustness of the project against changes in prices and interest rates. There was no government or federal funding involved in these projects except for projects in Canada where most projects were subsidized or funded by the government. However, no complacency was allowed as the private developers were obliged to payback the government from toll revenue collected. Contingency funds were allocated for any possible unanticipated costs escalation. Legislation set up relevant departments and institutes to monitor and cooperate with the private developer independently of the government.
Highway Engineering Books
The consortium thus will consist of several different companies or corporations that specialize in all required aspects such as construction, engineering, government regulations etc in the project. Both the government department and private entity would have to be engaged in obtaining public support in favor of the project. Appropriate measures were undertaken to preserve or sometimes rebuild natural habitats such as the Dulles Greenway project. Due care was undertaken to ensure minimum disruption to the existing residents in the community.
Despite all the necessary planning and implementation measures taken by both the government departments and the private entities, to ensure successful construction and eventual sustainability of these projects, some projects encountered problems. Others managed to overcome the challenges without incurring additional costs. We shall look at some critical factors that caused some projects to fail. Sixteen thousand citizens signed petitions against State Road and a majority of the city council members rejected the project.
Polls indicate that residents will not travel through the highway if toll were imposed. In Arizona, the highway project VUE was also defeated due to poor public relations. In addition both the ADOTand developers also did not make any concerted effort to obtain the necessary support. Other states realizing the situation in Washington and Arizona, made developers submit proposals to local communities after submitting to the government before entering into any form of negotiations with the government.
The tunnel could not be closed or sold, thus such arrangements had to be made.
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