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Matters came to a head in March, , when the Boston Symphony gave several concerts at Carnegie Hall. Jay had tried mightily to prevent the concerts from happening.

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All manner of wild allegations circulated: that Muck had plotted to blow up munitions depots; that he had sabotaged American guns; that he had dispatched prostitutes to military bases to infect soldiers with venereal diseases; that he had radioed messages to U-boats from his vacation home in Seal Harbor, Maine. The conductor had been considered immune from an enemy-aliens arrest because he held Swiss citizenship. Matthew Passion, in Boston. The Massachusetts attorney general and the Bureau of Investigation had discovered that Muck was having an affair with a young mezzo-soprano named Rosamond Young.

That relationship allowed investigators to paint Muck as both subversive and immoral—a one-two punch of xenophobia and puritanism. Police pored over his score of the St. Matthew Passion, believing that its markings contained a secret code. Anti-American remarks in the letters with Young were deemed sufficient evidence of sedition.

American Entry into World War I, 1917

Muck spent the remainder of the war in internment camps, where he conducted the camp orchestras. In a later interview with H. The conductor was fiercely anti-Semitic, and when he returned to Germany, in the early nineteen-twenties, he swung to the ultra-nationalist right, becoming an admirer of Hitler. The foot-high ridge had given the Germans a commanding defensive position. British, Australian and Canadian tunnelers had worked for a year to dig mines and place tons of explosives. June 13, - London suffers its highest civilian casualties of the war as German airplanes bomb the city, killing persons and wounding The British react to the new bombing campaign by forming home defense fighter squadrons and later conduct retaliatory bombing raids against Germany by British planes based in France.

Developments in 1917

The Germans are lying in wait, fully aware of the battle plans which have been leaked to them. The Russians attack along a mile front but suffer from a jumble of tactical problems including a lack of artillery coordination, poor troop placement, and serious disunity within the ranks reflecting the divisive political situation back home.

The whole offensive disintegrates within five days.

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Sensing they might break the Russian Army, the Germans launch a furious counter-offensive and watch as Russian soldiers run away. July 2, - Greece declares war on the Central Powers, following the abdication of pro-German King Constantine who is replaced by a pro-Allied administration led by Prime Minister Venizelos. Greek soldiers are now added to the Allied ranks.

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Third Battle of Ypres July November 6, July 31, - The British attempt once more to break through the German lines, this time by attacking positions east of Ypres, Belgium. However, by now the Germans have vastly improved their trench defenses including well-positioned artillery.


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Although the British 5th Army succeeds in securing forward trench positions, further progress is halted by heavy artillery barrages from the German 4th Army and rainy weather. August 10, - The British resume their attack at Ypres, focusing on German artillery positions around Gheluvelt.

Mud and destruction

The attack produces few gains as the Germans effectively bombard and then counter-attack. Six days later, the British try again, with similar results. September 1, - On the Eastern Front, the final Russian battle in the war begins as the Germans attack toward Riga. Bypassing any strong points as they move forward, storm troop battalions armed with light machine-guns, grenades and flame throwers focus on quickly infiltrating the rear areas to disrupt communications and take out artillery.

The Russian 12th Army, under General Kornilov, is unable to hold itself together amid the storm troop attacks and abandons Riga, then begins a rapid retreat along the Dvina River, pursued by the Germans. September 20, - A revised British strategy begins at Ypres designed to wear down the Germans. It features a series of intensive, narrowly focused artillery and troop attacks with limited objectives, to be launched every six days.

The first such attack, along the Menin Road toward Gheluvelt, produces a gain of about 1, yards with 22, British and Australian casualties. Subsequent attacks yield similar results. October 12, - The Ypres offensive culminates around the village of Passchendaele as Australian and New Zealand troops die by the thousands while attempting to press forward across a battlefield of liquid mud, advancing just yards.

Steady October rains create a slippery quagmire in which wounded soldiers routinely drown in mud-filled shell craters. October 24, - In northern Italy, a rout of the Italian Army begins as 35 German and Austrian divisions cross the Isonzo River into Italy at Caporetto and then rapidly push 41 Italian divisions 60 miles southward. By now, the Italians have been worn down from years of costly but inconclusive battles along the Isonzo and in the Trentino, amid a perceived lack of Allied support.

Nearly , Italians surrender as the Austro-Germans advance, while some , desert. The Austro-Germans halt at the Piave River north of Venice only due to supply lines which have become stretched to the limit. October 26, - At Ypres, a second attempt is made but fails to capture the village of Passchendaele, with Canadian troops participating this time.

Four days later, the Allies attack again and edge closer as the Germans slowly begin pulling out. The initial attack on Beersheba surprises the Turks and they pull troops away from Gaza which the British attack secondly. The Turks then retreat northward toward Jerusalem with the Allies in pursuit. Aiding the Allies, are a group of Arab fighters led by T. Lawrence, an Arab speaking English archeologist, later known as Lawrence of Arabia.

He is instrumental in encouraging Arab opposition to the Turks and in disrupting their railroad and communication system.


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  5. November 6, - The village of Passchendaele is captured by Canadian troops. The Allied offensive then ceases, bringing the Third Battle of Ypres to an end with no significant gains amid , casualties experienced by all sides. Early on, the Germans withdrew to a new position: the Hindenburg Line.

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    But here, as on the Marne, at Arras or in Flanders, appalling allied casualties mounted as they battered against these new defences. During the year the Americans joined the allied cause, but the Russians were on the way out. Ultimately, both these events would profoundly affect the course of the war. For the Australians on the Western Front, was simply more of the same: bloody battles and terrible losses. It was to be their costliest year of the war.