Kant positions art as being produced by the unconscious, without the artist knowing what is happening. This assertion seems to leave room for art to be divinely inspired. Nochlin denies these sorts of poetic musings about art and its creators, critiquing definitions of genius like those in Kant and their implications upon analysis. Claiming that an artist is born with a predisposition towards genius, first of all, negates questions of access directly, though some would argue he does not mention access at all.
Access to art education is not a relevant question if one does not require any education to become an artistic genius be-. What is notable about this point is that is coincides.
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Their position would rest on the assertion that social context would be important in reading the work in any which way. This point indirectly negates social position, or gender, mattering in terms of art production. The third clause of the Kantian definition of genius being that nature gives rule to art, or creates artistic norms, builds off of the claim that the artist is gifted and driven by nature.
The implications are very similar here. It claims that artistic norms, like formalism, are not art historical constructs relying on social beliefs, but that they come to be through nature. After elucidating his definition, Kant gives subsequent conditions or properties of achieving genius. The first implication of the subsequent stipulations within the Kantian definition of genius concerns the clause that beautiful art is only the product of genius. When placed in relation to genius, however, it implies that art is autonomous from human, social and political forces, and that it is, rather, a force of nature.
The art emerged fully formed without the artist knowing how or why it did. It is seen in the influential writings of art critics or philosophers like Clement Greenburg who theorized and stressed formalism, or the viewing and study of art for its formal or material qualities, rather than for social or political messages. Revisionist art historians see these kinds of arguments as prizing masculine geniuses, which directly informed a similar privileging in the historiography of art that they are trying to debunk.
They seek to place art within its historical, social, and political contexts. Originality is also at the crux of the issue of autonomy. Saying that art must be original as a tenet for artworks of genius allows Kant to non-overtly say that artworks must be uninfluenced by others, by society, by politics, etc. Nochlin articulates a similar line of thought, citing the example of Vasari discovering and teaching Giotto as one of many instances of influence and teaching within art history. An important question that revisionist art historians like Nochlin would likely pose is. Kant disputes questions of access, basically saying that everyone should be able to achieve the same subjecthood and therefore opinion of art, regardless of their identity.
It appears that Kant is seeking a scientific rendering of subjectivity and of art viewing at large, one that seems to value his own opinions on art as the basis for this rendering. In saying that a work must be exemplary, it must be asked whose opinion is valued and whose is not. The contradiction inherent in this is that technique and skill are typically learned, and Kant remains firm on the insistence that the processes of geniuses cannot be communicated, though he does stress the importance of education even if not far enough.
Nochlin discusses the practices of drawing the nude and apprenticeships, which were both available exclusively to men and vital to the entrance into the art world of that time. Some of his points, especially those related to artistic genius, are now considered outdated, conclusively, at least in newer dialogues of art history.
What is called new art history or revisionist art history was launched after this article was published in ARTnews in Nochlin states in an interview with the same publication in May of that art history as a field lacked this kind of thought and discourse before and that it had to be constructed. The process of art viewing is a concept always being rethought, the nature of artworks themselves and the interpretations of art and the way they express intelligible content.
Subsequently, it appears he does not consider his privileged position of cisgendered, male, whiteness. His account takes away the subjective aspect of art, whereas the disagreement between Kant and Nochlin in itself suggests that art, by definition, is subjective, its interpretations malleable depending on the viewer. This is not to say that anything goes; objective limits to this claim do. NOTES 1. Immanuael Kant, Critque of the Power of Judgment, trans.
Bernard London: Macmillan, , Kant, Critique, London: Routledge, Kant, Critique, 56 and While Marlowe composed his drama during the Renaissance, a period of cultural and religious upheaval, he clung to the medieval ideal of Christian orthodoxy. Similarly, Goethe wrote his play following the Enlightenment and disparaged stringent Christian theology, yet he rejected the enlightened concept of reasoned rationalism by harking back to Renaissance humanism.
Both texts embrace the religious and philosophical principles of an earlier age; whereas Marlowe composes his drama in accordance with the Christian purview, Goethe rejects this religious heritage in favour of exploring a humanistic one. In essence, both works renounce the present in order to return to the past. During this era, tensions flared between Christian and pagan values.
In the High Renaissance in particular, Europe experienced increasing strain between classical humanism and the Christian faith such that many would be lead to distance themselves from Christian orthodoxy. However, Marlowe chooses to follow the Christian faith in his drama and therein return to an earlier age of fervent religious belief. As a student of theology, Marlowe drew upon St. As the play progresses, Faustus further dissolves into false pride by entrenching himself in a frenzy of self-indulgent pleasures.
While mocking these demons, Faustus fails to recognize their reflections within his own sinful nature. Writing during the Enlightenment, Goethe spurns the teachings of Christian theology to concentrate on more secular studies. But Faustus wilfully refuses all aid — and so goes down to damnation. Christian text. Goethe, on the other hand, chooses to end his work in a wholly different manner. It seems logical to assume that if Faust should receive divine salvation then Goethe has ended his text on a profoundly merciful Christian note.
Faust does not seem to be a character deserving of salvation, and yet, he is saved. Within the fictional realm of writing, both Marlowe and Goethe hark back to earlier ages and return to their respective pasts in order, perhaps, to expose the contradictions of the present. Roland M. Norton, , Kaufmann, introduction, Jantz, Faust as a Renaissance Man, A form of drama popular throughout the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries which presents personified abstract qualities as characters in order to instruct the audience concerning moral values or proper conduct.
Collection of Critical Essays, ed. Dann werden die Geschlechterbeziehungen in Lohers Leviathan durch 1 Marie Meinhofs Selbstzweifeln als Folge der Spannung zwischen traditionellen Rollen und den Zielen der emanzipierten Frau, und durch 2 der Inversion der traditionellen Geschlechterrollen analysiert. Sie untersuchten den Zusammenhang zwischen den Terrorismus und dem Anstieg der Frauenemanzipation. They bear the entire burden of raising children but have no influence on the history, purpose, or direction of this work. They no longer want to suffer insulting comments for not having a good education, or only a partial education, or not being able to work in their professions because they are raising children — all of which leaves its mark, for which they are usually held responsible.
They made it clear that it is not a personal failure for a woman not to be able to combine raising children with work outside home; it is a societal failure, since society makes these two domains irreconcilable. Diese Zweifel entstehen durch der Spannung zwischen den traditionellen Geschlechterrollen Mutterschaft und dem Kampf der radikal politisierten Frau. Zu Luise Ensslin sagt Marie in der 9. Gleich darauf, in der Inversion von traditionellen Geschlechterrollen Schon in der 5.
Wilhelm sucht nach Luise Ensslin und hofft, dass Marie, die bei Christine versteckt ist, ihm bei seiner Suche helfen kann. Zuerst wird diese Negation durch Wilhelms Worte aufzeigt. Folglich haben. Luise und Wilhelm ihre respektiven Rollen getauscht. In diesem Fall ist es die Frau, die auf die Umverteilung der Rollen anspornt. Szene dargestellt. Wenn man den Dialog weiter folgt, kann man Christines Haltung wahrnehmen indem sie immer dem eleganten Herrn zustimmt und sich gegen Marie stellt. Nichts riskieren um eines Wohlergehens willen eines scheinbaren Wohlergehens vielleicht.
So gibt Marie die Rolle ihres Geschlechts auf und geht in den Untergrund. Du willst doch nicht etwa in den Untergrund gehen. Allein diese Tat, den Austritt einer Frau aus der Familie, wird als ein gewaltsamer, sogar terroristischer Akt empfunden und interpretiert. Noch heutzutage sind die Terroristinnen nicht nur als nicht-weibisch, sondern auch als terroristischer als Terroristen dargestellt.
Scholl metaphor, and the saint-to-witch career of Joan of Arc, when he casts Ulrike Meinhof as a kind of fallen angel. Mother do, too, and are culturally probably the most popular and positive incarnation of the feminine. Dea Loher, Leviathan, Verlag der Autoren, , Just as in his other novels Tale of Two Couples, The Cavalry Story, or Tale of the nd Night, Hofmannsthal refers to the intimate experience of the mystical, yet expands this theme through the use of the epistolary genre. A fictional aristocrat from the Elizabethan era, Lord Philipp Chandos has given up on his promising literary as well as political life and retired into a withdrawn state.
Closed-off from the world, he leads a rural life void of any sort of intellectual activity. The letter then unfolds as the accurate description of a peculiar crisis. Chandos explains how he has lost the ability to read, write and even speak other than in a numb manner. He goes on further to depict specific, mystical moments that he spontaneously experienced, which he considers unattainable by words. Scholars agree that Ein Brief portrays a man in crisis. Introducing the plot of the letter, H. Daviau argues that the. Compared to his ambitious youth, for example as he had the project of publishing an encyclopedia,5 Chandos indeed seems reduced to a vegetative condition.
Yet, for a man who has lost all linguistic consistency, his letter is virtuously eloquent. This paradox makes one wonder whether the gifted Chandos is really gone or not. To what extent is the crisis of language a positive experience for Lord Chandos? How does his paralysis illustrate a more meaningful grasp of life? Although briefly introduced, it is important to revisit the drastic change Chandos has been through. At age nineteen, the young lord was a literary prodigy, familiar with Antiquity and relentlessly thinking about ambitious projects. Above all, his desire to encompass the quintessential into a single work stands out:.
That was the project dearest to me. From then on, all conceptual boundaries seem to vanish, starting with abstract words. By dismissing rhetorical devices, Chandos has entered what Katherine M. I felt like someone locked in a garden full of eyeless statuary, and I rushed to get out again. Instead of this illusion, he now strives to access true lucidity,. We can positively assert that Lord Chandos has departed from rhetorical language and moved into a world of Philosophy.
In his previous existence, Chandos sought to enclose the totality of life into an encyclopedic project. How then, can one understand the world? Or, in linguistic terms, how can one access the signified without the signifier? More than a notion of closeness, these mystical occurrences appear to channel a feeling of plenitude. From the most unremarkable objects the watering can, for example he experiences the presence of the beautiful.
Michel Hulin interestingly suggests that Chandos has completely resigned from his aristocratic isolation and genuinely opened himself to the diversity of existence, as traditionally rural utensils watering can and animals cows, rats, dogs now convey intense emotions. In spite of these occasional moments, as he cannot summon the sublime at will, Chandos lives in a state of utter emptiness. Strom von Empfindungen ohne tragende und bleibende Substanz. This very letter serves as a paradox, demonstrating his re-appropriation of language through heightened sensibility.
It makes sense to say that Chandos has finally accessed the wisdom he always yearned to have; instead of a dead-end, this is a new beginning in his creative process. Chandos has indubitably changed: previously blind, he has become lucid, patient, and now employs words with wise scrutiny. His conscience of the universe has grown vast and extremely acute.
Instead of his previous desire to encompass the totality of life, he now knows that only taciturn contemplation can make this ravishing oneness manifests itself. The disintegration of his self reflects the true, chaotic nature of the real world. Terrifying as well as exhilarating, this experience of fading into emptiness is nonetheless not to be considered as a tragedy, but as the start of a new creative power.
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It is the task of thinkers and creators to continually strive for the expansion of their awareness. The example of the fictional Lord Chandos, his real life counterpart Francis Bacon, or more recently, French artist Fabienne Verdier illustrates how one can master the nameless flow Chandos has discovered, through philosophy and art. Originally in French, translated into English for the purpose of this essay. Donald G. Hugo von Hofmannsthal, J. Banville, and J. Hofmannsthal, Lord Chandos Letter, Katherine M. Sag uns endlich, was ist denn los mit dir? Pierre-Anthon nachdenklich : Ich gaffe nicht in die Luft.
Ich schaue mit leerem Blick ins Nichts. Pierre-Anthon lacht. Aber das gibt es nicht! Du bist also der Meinung, dass es nichts gibt, was etwas bedeutet. P: So viele Fragen ins Nichts. Ich erinnere euch nur daran, dass ihr in wenigen Jahren alle tot seid und vergessen und nichts. Euch immer daran zu erinnern, dass ihr nichts bedeutet. Nichts hat Bedeutung. A: In diesem Fall, warum lebst du noch, du kleiner Eingebildeter?
Nicht wahr, Pierre-Anthon? P: Nicht wahr, Agnes. A: Bist du so sicher? Warum bleibst du denn allein da oben?
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Du bist aber kein Elender! Unten gibt es nichts mehr zu sehen, nichts mehr zu sagen, nichts mehr zu tun als da oben. Ihr seid keine bessere Gesellschaft als die Pflaumen und der Wind. A: Wie kann man nur so besserwisserisch sein und sich sein eigenes Leben kaputt machen? Nicht Dein Leben ist sinnlos, sondern deine Haltung! Deine Arroganz nervt uns alle! Pierre-Anthon wirft eine Pflaume. A: Schau dir mal was an… Zieht den Vorhang zur Seite. Sag nichts Falsches mehr, PierreAnthon!
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Ist das Aschenputtels Kopf dort am Gipfel des Bergs? A: Ja und es gibt noch mehr!
Schau mal auf dieser Seite…siehst du nicht Jesus am Rosenholzkreuz? Sieht du nicht, dass alles hier Sinn hat! Er deutet auf das karierte Taschentuch. A hysterisch : Das ist die Bedeutung! P: Aha, das ist also die Bedeutung! Ihr seid doch ein Haufen Idioten! A: Wir haben dir die Bedeutung gezeigt, und du weigerst dich es zu sehen. Er wird diesen Fehler bereuen. Nicht wahr?
Elle le pousse contre le mont de signification. Elle sort une pomme de sa poche, croque dedans et contemple le mont de signification. Sie schiebt ihn gegen den Berg der Bedeutung. Das Licht schaltet sich langsam aus. Although much of the scholarship on Modernism largely describes art objects in terms of form, line, and color, socio-political interpretations are equally valid and applicable.
These assertions can be upheld solely from what is visually represented in the paintings themselves and from a general understanding of what the German Expressionist movement itself is defined as,2 which is of expressive tendencies of the emotional sort relating directly to personal experience. Art is intrinsically bound up in political and social ideology, which can be evidenced by two of. Self-Portrait with Model is a portrait of Kirchner in his role of avant-garde artist, painting the female model positioned and seated behind him.
Kirchner looks like the canonical genius Modern artist wearing an open jacket that makes it ambiguous whether or not he is nude.
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His powerful stance and his open jacket point directly to what lies beneath the shadow of the fabric draping over him: his genitals. This suggests an egotistical security in his identity as a bohemian male artist. His lack of attire also evokes the artist-as-genius, and in doing so, he is able to assert himself more confidently, his self-expression coming across in his actions and, most of all, in his painting.
A manly cigar hanging out of his mouth and a phallic paintbrush placed in front of his genital area are two overt suggestions to his manliness, reassuring viewers, and perhaps himself, of his gender. His gaze is intense and the model looks at him almost critically, arguably displeased. What seems to be more important, based on the positioning of the figures and the title of the painting, is Kirchner himself.
He is a self-understood artistic genius safely in his realm, his studio. Facing away from the model, which is the opposite of what would be expected as the painter, he gazes in the direction of the viewers, as though, as a viewer himself, he is deciding how best to paint his portrait. Kirchner portrays himself looking severe and emaciated, with dead, unseeing eyes.
The fact that Kirchner portrays himself without a hand is a reflection of his own perceived emasculation caused by his fear of what war can do to a person. If in the previous portrait Kirchner conveyed his masculine identity through his expressionistic art, here it seems he has lost the ability to focus on his art due to psychological trauma, something he tries to convey symbolically and expressively with what appears through the physical disability. This fear is shown in an iconographical way here.
Here, Kirchner depicts himself in an entirely different way, one it seems is an expression related to his own subjective fear of war that, in the context of the painting, has changed his ability to create. His altered creative abilities therefore transform his methods of expressing his masculinity, as well as his prior confidence of it. Further still, the painting would not exist if it was meant only as an aesthetic piece; it would be inextricably mutated. The National Socialist Party viewing the art as formally degenerate as well, evaluated them as degenerate works in terms of material practice and creation outside social circumstances.
In essence, I am arguing in opposition to Greenburgian formalism, which argues that art is aesthetic first and all else second. Art that resists these concepts of political or social relation — manifesting as aesthetic art — seems to do so on purpose due to a belief of what art should be, making a message all its own. The German Expressionist movement commenced shortly before the First World War and peaked during the s in Germany.
It was a modernist movement defined by its depiction of the subjective experience and evocation of emotion. Oberlin College. This refers to a fear that is typical of all ages, that culture and mankind at large was better in a previous time or that there has been a notable decline. Galger, The main message that they developed, which would be further built upon by other Transcendentalists, was that every man and woman possessed the means within themselves to attain self-actualization and that if these individuals worked together as a community, then a new state of societal well-being could be reached which would bring spiritual and intellectual fulfillment.
Not only Kant, but two German plays written between the years and can also be interpreted and seen as precursors for the Transcendentalist movement. By practicing individualism, one becomes self-reliant. It would be self-reliant people who form a desired community where nobody takes away from the group but everyone supports it.
Go tell your patriarch, brother, I am not. In Mary Stuart, the character of Mortimer practices his own individualism and as a result ends up discovering a certain amount of personal spiritual development and growth. Not only does Mortimer portray Transcendentalist individualism by abandoning the institutions he was born into and finding his own path to spiritual fulfillment, he also discovers this fulfillment through the appreciation of art and through the idea that Spirit communicates through art; an integral Transcendentalist concept.
His inability to practice agency and to pursue his individual calling may leave him in a state of spiritual dissatisfaction. Queen Elizabeth in Mary Stuart is a character completely void of any sort of sense of individualism or sense of agency. Do you blame me, your Queen? For Transcendentalists, morality in humans is seen as wholly intuitive. They see humans as ultimately good in nature at a fundamental level. God cannot calculate it — he has no moral philosophy — no ethics.
In a way, his actions seem to be instinctual and derived out of Conrad doing what he felt was right at the time. This example of a moral action directly corresponds with what would become of Transcendentalist moral views. A Transcendentalist thinker would argue that the apprehension and difficulty in making such a decision comes from the Queen instinctually and intuitively knowing that to execute Mary Stuart would be wrong.
However, her political and religious stations are clouding her judgement. The moral ambiguities littered throughout Mary Stuart carry. The Transcendentalists believed wholeheartedly in political and religious reform, some even going so far as to start their own self-sustaining communities such as Brooks Farm. Be the first to ask a question about Allein auf Wolke Sieben.
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Jan 15, Anica rated it it was ok Shelves: chick-lit. Exactly as predicted, Jana Voosen started this book with a slightly good idea and turned it into stupidness all over. But here, heaven is a place where I sure as hell LOL! The fuck?! I guess, pages are not enough to come up with a decent story and describe all important parts.
I al Exactly as predicted, Jana Voosen started this book with a slightly good idea and turned it into stupidness all over. I also had really big issues with Lena, the heroine, and the whole atmosphere at all. I just wanted to get this over with. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Jana Voosen. Jana Voosen. Jana Voosen is a German actress and author. Books by Jana Voosen. Trivia About Allein auf Wolke No trivia or quizzes yet. Welcome back. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account.