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For the above reasons, the Troika encouraged the Greek side and the Cypriot side to negotiate a sale of these branches, at a fair price reflecting the value of their loans, taking into account the future losses which had been identified by the consultant Pimco. The sale of the Greek operations of Bank of Cyprus and Cyprus Popular Bank to Piraeus Bank is a private transaction that was approved by the Greek and Cypriot banking sector supervisors.

At a period of economic and financial crisis, there is a clear lack of resources for investments, social expenditure and development throughout Europe. It is certain that tax evasion and capital flight to tax havens intensify economic problems and unemployment in Europe and we should be combating this effectively. How much of the aforementioned capital originates in the Member States or belongs to wealthy Europeans? How and to what extent is capital flight to tax havens related to the informal economy and tax evasion which are becoming big problems in many Member States?

Due to the nature of tax evasion, the European Commission has no information on the exact amount of undisclosed funds held in tax havens. In its forthcoming Tax Reform Report , the European Commission will take stock of existing studies and indicators on the topic of shadow economy. If so, what is being done to stop this? At the outset it should be noted that there is no harmonisation at European Union level in the field of vehicle taxation. Therefore, the Member States remain at liberty to levy such taxes. For this reason, the Commission presented a car tax proposal for a Council Directive in in order to improve the functioning of the internal market and to promote sustainability.

That proposal did not receive enough support from the Member States. Greece is therefore allowed to levy a tax upon the registration of a vehicle to be used on its territory in a permanent manner. Dar m. Remiantis Lietuvos Respublikos Energetikos ministerijos duomenimis m. The containers manufactured by the contractor which fail to meet the technical requirements have triggered a whole series of other problems regarding the implementation of the B1 project because the equipment, shock absorbers and cranes located at the Ignalina nuclear power plant, as the contractor himself has already recognised, cannot be used to lift containers manufactured by the contractor or empty fuel from the second reactor unless they are rebuilt.

Commissioner, do you not feel that there is a real threat to nuclear safety in the implementation of the Ignalina nuclear power plant decommissioning process? Does the Commission not feel that such a situation is unacceptable and that it should play an active role as an arbiter in addressing the issues mentioned, particularly given that the contractor already deviated from the approved technical conditions in the initial phase of the project and has yet to meet the legal and contractual requirements of the Ignalina nuclear power plant, and that this is preventing Lithuania from carrying out decommissioning work safely and appropriately, which was a requirement provided for in the Treaty of Accession and which is having a negative impact on the prestige of both Lithuania and the EU?

Further delays in the completion of project B1 Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility will delay the defueling of the second reactor core at the Ignalina nuclear power plant, as well as the defueling of the fuel ponds of both units that are currently fully loaded with spent nuclear fuel. These directives also provide for the regular assessment by the license holder of the safety of the installations and facilities concerned, as well as improving the safety, under the supervision of the national competent regulatory authority in this case VATESI. The Commission is aware of the difficult situation that the operator of the Ignalina nuclear power plant is facing with regard to the implementation of project B1 and the involvement of the contractor Nukem-GNS.

Since then, both parties have made progress in addressing the outstanding issues and upon resolution of the last remaining issue upgrade of cranes in the reactor units the EBRD could consider lifting of the suspension. Can you update me on what progress the Commission has made in terms of putting forward a legal framework for the protection of pets and stray animals i. European Union institutions must stay within the competences conferred on them by the Treaties. As a result, the Commission has no mandate to put forward a legal framework for the protection of pets and stray animals.

The study is expected to be completed by the end of The use of implants will be increasingly commonplace in medicine in the future and their use is growing at an unimaginable pace. Implants therefore need to be of good quality, in the interest of patients. This has uncovered instances in which hygiene was an issue and others in which the products were out of date.

The number of inspectors has therefore already been doubled. In the near future, all distributors will have been inspected. With the opening of borders to this type of service, does the Commission intend to urge Member States also to conduct rigorous inspections of all implant distributors? Does the Commission also intend to urge Member States to keep a register of implants? The aim would be to establish real traceability of implants. In future, we must be able to know at any given moment and in any given Member State, who the supplier is, who the pharmacist is, who the doctor is who implanted it and, obviously, who the patient concerned is.

In order for the chain to be completely safe, distributors must be registered with their national agency. Will the Commission support the mapping of implants throughout Europe, as already happens in Belgium? This map will include any device that has been implanted and all information about the implant. Coordination of these activities and exchange of information takes place in the Compliance and Enforcement Group, comprising experts from the Member States and the Commission. In the context of the measures adopted following the PIP breast implants incident, the Commission asked the Member States to reinforce their market surveillance activities.

The Commission is also engaged in a dialogue with Member States and healthcare professionals about implantation registers within Expert Working Groups on Medical Devices. The proposed Regulations also include a requirement that manufacturers fit their devices with a Unique Device Identification UDI to improve device traceability.

Regarding mapping of implants, the aforementioned proposals foresee that patients who are implanted with a device should be given an implant card containing essential information on the implanted device and any necessary warnings or precautions to be taken. Le but est simple: gagner un maximum d'argent.

The market in imported animals is highly lucrative, so lucrative, indeed, that many people have seized on it as a way to make money at the expense of the animals themselves and their prospective owners. The aim is simple, to make as much money as possible, and the method used is just as simple: pedigree dogs of all kinds can be bought extremely cheaply from breeders in central Europe.

Puppies are separated from their mothers before they are even two months old, and the importers have forged paperwork and vaccination cards ready for when they arrive in the European Union. The animals are then transported to all parts of France with new documents which fraudulently claim that they were bred in France. The traffickers turn a profit at every stage. Weaning puppies at such a young age, depriving them of contact with other dogs and transporting them thousands of miles without food or water is physically and psychologically scarring.

Far too often, owners are left with ill or traumatised animals. Many are faced with tough financial and ethical choices as a result. Does the Commission plan to introduce psychological, legal or financial support for victims of this kind of fraud in Europe? The EU has no competence in providing psychological, legal or financial support to the victims of illegal traffic of dogs. However, many Member States like France have adopted national rules regarding the breeding and the selling of dogs in their territory.

For both EU and national rules, implementation remains under the competence of the national competent authorities.

Mikroökonomie I - Lektion 8: Markt und Preis

There are also EU provisions to protect consumers against misleading claims from traders. In the light of the results of the study, expected by , the Commission will consider if further measures are necessary. Below are some slanderous and homophobic comments taken from the publication L'Observatoire de l'Europe :. The postmodern regime of an integrated Europe is the institutional product of an approach whereby the overriding concern is having no limits.

It therefore came as no surprise that it was from this side, once again, that the great anthropological breakdown of civil law, marriage and parentage originated. How can the European authorities accept comments like these appearing in a publication whose title could suggest that it originates from the European institutions and under the starry banner of Europe?

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Is the confusion not dangerous for the reputation of our institutions as well as the fact that citizens may believe that it is an EU-produced publication? The European Commission is determined to combat homophobia and transphobia to the full extent of the powers conferred on it by the Treaties. The European Commission has however no general powers to intervene with the Member States in the area of family law and the specific case of recognition of marriages and registered partnerships, be it same-sex or different-sex, is not covered under Union law and remains within the legal competence of each Member State.

The Commission is strongly committed towards ensuring freedom of expression within its competences. As the Honourable Member has pointed out, L'Observatoire de l'Europe, is an independent periodical and the European Commission does not interfere in the editorial policy of the press. Does the Commission not think punishing her behaviour with a prison sentence is disproportionate? It should be remembered, for example, that several Sufi tombstones were vandalised without the authorities taking much action. Does the Commission not find it worrying that this young woman is accused of belonging to a criminal organisation, which is reminiscent of the type of accusation made under totalitarian regimes?

The EU Delegation has met her lawyer to enquire and assess the issues at stake in this case. In that framework, it is worth noting that several articles of the penal code have been used by Tunisian prosecutors to instruct cases against Tunisian citizens.

Ai sensi dell'art. Sono state ripetutamente intraprese iniziative sui diritti umani. Per quanto riguarda il caso specifico a cui si riferisce l'onorevole deputato, il capo della delegazione UE di Hanoi ha reagito postando un messaggio sul sito web della delegazione e ha espresso pubblicamente la preoccupazione dell'UE per il recente arresto e le condanne nei confronti di attivisti, blogger e studenti, chiedendo un riesame immediato di tali gravi pene. The EU is aware and concerned about signs of a more restrictive approach to human rights in Vietnam, in particular freedom of expression and freedom of religion or belief.

The EU raises human rights concerns in regular meetings with the Vietnamese Government. Demarches on human rights have been carried out repeatedly. Tra questi risultano esservi anche cittadini europei. Da allora, diverse organizzazioni internazionali sono state costrette a lasciare il paese, a causa della crescente oppressione attuata dai Fratelli Musulmani. All'articolo 4 della decisione n. At the start of June, 43 activists from non-governmental organisations operating in Egypt which are involved in the democratic transition of civil society, received custodial sentences ranging from a minimum of one year to a maximum of five.

Some of these activists are European citizens. In reality, this is a pretext to continue the crackdown on NGOs which already started at the end of during protests against the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. Since then, various international organisations have been forced to leave the country because of growing oppression by the Muslim Brotherhood.

The EU is aware and concerned about the events referred to. The verdict was condemned as a negative signal regarding the work of civil society. The EU will continue to follow closely the case and monitor the situation on the ground through its Delegation in Egypt. Oggetto: Otto arresti di operai durante le manifestazioni di protesta in Cambogia. All'inizio del mese di giugno, otto operai cambogiani sono stati arrestati per la loro partecipazione a manifestazioni di protesta durante le quali si sono chiesti maggiori diritti e garanzie a tutela dei lavoratori.

Secondo il Cambodian Centre for Human Rights il governo teme soprattutto l'impatto delle rivolte sulle prossime elezioni. Inoltre, nel caso Enerji Yapi del , la Corte europea dei Diritti dell'Uomo riconosce, seppur indirettamente, il diritto allo sciopero quale diritto di tutelare i propri interessi ex articolo 11 della CEDU. Se sia in possesso di dati relativi allo sfruttamento della manodopera nei paesi extra-europei;.

Quali misure intenda adottare per promuovere la tutela dei diritti dei lavoratori in Europa e nei paesi terzi? At the start of June, eight Cambodian workers were arrested for taking part in protests calling for greater rights and guarantees aimed at protecting workers. According to the Cambodian Centre for Human Rights, the government fears, in particular, the impact that the uprisings could have on the upcoming elections. Millions of workers, not just Cambodians, are victims of a system where businesses try to increasingly contain their costs, cutting wages to the point where workers are forced to live below the poverty line.

Whether it has any information on the exploitation of workers in non-European countries;. The EU supports ratification and effective implementation of international labour standards, as enshrined in the ILO conventions, by Cambodia and other third countries. The ILO is best placed to promote progress on labour standards, including on freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining, as well as health and safety at work.

This includes respect for the ILO fundamental conventions on freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining, but also health and safety standards and dialogue with workers' representatives. Betreft: Verkeersveiligheid — hoogte bumpers. De Europese Commissie onderneemt grote inspanningen voor het verbeteren van de verkeersveiligheid in de Unie en dat met een combinatie van Europese en nationale initiatieven.

Ook wat betreft het veiliger maken van bumpers speelde Europa een voortrekkersrol, onder meer met de verplichte invoering van energieabsorberende bumpers.

Info Englisch

Er worden mij evenwel tragische verkeersongevallen onder de aandacht gebracht, waarbij de voorkant van een wagen botst met de achterkant van een vrachtwagen. De foto's van de autowrakken tonen duidelijk aan dat de bumper van de wagens niet heeft gediend om het voertuig af te remmen, maar dat daarentegen de motor en de cabine de impact hebben opgevangen. En dit vanwege de grote afstand van de bumper van de vrachtwagen tot het wegdek en dus het belangrijke hoogteverschil tussen de bumpers van beide voertuigen.

Graag had ik van de Commissie vernomen of reeds de mogelijkheden werden onderzocht tot aanpassing van de bumperhoogte van vrachtwagens tot op het niveau van een personenwagen? Zijn andere initiatieven in het vooruitzicht gesteld om voor deze pijnlijke kwestie een oplossing te bieden? Deze richtlijn is laatstelijk gewijzigd in en sindsdien moet de inrichting tegen grotere krachten bestand zijn.

Met Verordening EG nr. Met name wordt voorgesteld om de hoogte van dergelijke inrichtingen verder te verlagen en de krachten waartegen dergelijke inrichtingen bestand moeten zijn, te vergroten. De verlaging van de hoogte leidt echter tot praktische problemen voor sommige vrachtwagens bv.

Het overleg op deskundigenniveau om overeenstemming over een definitief ontwerp te bereiken, is daarom nog niet afgerond. The Commission makes considerable efforts to improve road safety in the Union, by means of a combination of European and national initiatives.

Der Tag im Überblick

Europe has also played a pioneering role in making bumpers safer, inter alia through the mandatory introduction of energy-absorbing bumpers. If not, will the Commission take such an initiative? Have any other initiatives been promised with the aim of resolving this issue, which causes distress? This directive was lastly amended in to require the device to withstand increased force levels. However, the height reduction raises practical problems for some heavy goods vehicles e. Could the Commission provide information on the results of this initiative for each Member State, specifying the amounts reallocated, which programmes these amounts were deducted from, how the reallocation was implemented and the results?

This information includes the number of young persons likely to benefit and the Structural Funds resources reallocated by the Member States for this purpose. The Commission has been working on Action 13 since late , in close cooperation with public and private stakeholders. Over , several targeted and open consultations, including an open conference, were held to gather the views and ideas of stakeholders and Member States on a possible European label.

Since early , the Commission has been working on the procedural steps of the legislative proposal. This should help businesses gain the trust of consumers, thus enhancing their benefits to further invest in service quality. This is particularly important for micro and small enterprises that do not have the opportunity to extend their marketing reach. Does the Commission believe that measures taken since the UN Convention came into force comply with the objectives of the Convention?

The EU ratified the Convention as a supranational entity: what progress however have individual Member States made towards ratifying the Convention themselves? The database of Eurostat also distinguishes by gender or between different forms of employment, i. Concerning the specific data referred to by the Honorable Member, the Commission currently relies on information gathered by the data provision of Member States. However, the current Data Collection Framework does not include the variables of percentage of women in the sector benefiting from maternity support measures, unemployment benefit, training, pay rises, or pensions.

Can the Commission say how many inspections are carried out, broken down by Member State, in Community ports to combat illegal and unregulated fishing? Can it also state the percentage of illegal landings of fishery products that are actually punished? Can the Commission detail the measures it is implementing to control imports that could create unfair competition for the fisheries sector in EU countries?

Lastly, can it say whether there is a unified control of fisheries imports to monitor the quotas being spent by other, non-EU countries? Member States are responsible for controlling importations of fisheries products and are entrusted to refuse any importation if the provisions of the IUU Regulation are not fulfilled.

Imports of fisheries products have to be accompanied, inter alia , by catch certificate, certifying that catches have been made in accordance with applicable laws, regulations and international conservation and management measures. Auch an den Arbeiten auf internationaler Ebene ist die Kommission aktiv beteiligt. Jede politische Initiative zu den Schattenbanken wird diese beiden Aspekte im Auge behalten. What changes have been included in the new proposal, which is to be published in June, that were not contained in the proposal withdrawn at the beginning of May?

Which individuals, interest groups, organisations, authorities or government representatives were in contact with the Commission following the publication of the initial proposal on the regulation of shadow banking? Several Commission workstreams are addressing the risks posed by the shadow banking system. A public consultation was issued in by means of a Green Paper.

The Commission has also actively contributed to the work carried out at the international level. According to current planning, the Commission envisages to present a communication and a regulation on Money Market Funds in the autumn of The Commission is aware of the need to take into account on the one hand the risks to financial stability, and on the other hand the role that shadow banking plays in financing the economy.

Any policy initiative on shadow banking will take into account both these objectives. The communication will only be published once it is adopted by the College. At no point in time has the Commission published a preliminary version. Betrifft: Hohe Dispozinsen trotz Leitzinssenkungen. Verschiedenen Medienberichten zufolge haben nach der erneuten Senkung des Leitzinses im Euroraum am 2. Im Vergleich zum sehr niedrigen Leitzins blieben die Dispozinsen damit auf einem vergleichsweise hohen Niveau. Ebensowenig nimmt die Kommission Einfluss auf die Vertragsbeziehungen zwischen Banken und ihren Kunden.

Compared with the very low base rate, the rates of interest charged on overdrafts are thus still relatively high. Does the Commission have access to data concerning the extent to which interest rates on overdrafts in individual Member States have tracked the base rate since ? Is the Commission taking specific action to protect consumers from high overdraft rates? If so, what kind of action is it taking? If not, why not, and are there plans for any future action of this type? The European Central Bank and Eurostat make data available on their websites regarding overdrafts and revolving loans per Member State.

The Commission however does not intervene in the way banks decide to pass on or not to their clients the changes in base rate decided by ECB. The Commission does not intervene in the contractual relations between banks and customers. However, in order to improve the transparency on bank fees, the Commission recently adopted a proposal on the comparability of fees, payment account switching and access to payment accounts.

This new proposal aims at improving the transparency of bank fees by giving clearer and partly standardised information regarding the bank services and the corresponding fees, including charges for overdrafts. Thanks to more transparent information, the consumers will be able to get a better understanding of the different bank services and fees, to compare the different offers available and consequently to choose the most suitable offer on the market.

Then, becoming client of a bank, the customer will receive detailed information regarding the actual fees charged at least annually. In addition, this proposal foresees that the switching service will be improved for consumers through a quick and reliable process. As a consequence, consumers will be able to switch bank accounts more easily and take profit of better offers in the market. The competition between banks will therefore be strengthened with potential impact on fees.

The media have been reporting an increase in agricultural commodity futures trading over the last few years. While a number of banks have announced their intention of ceasing food speculation, certain of the larger ones are continuing to engage in this practice, which, according to critics, is driving up food prices and having a direct impact on the starving populations of developing countries. Does the Commission have information indicating which EU financial institutions engage in food speculation and to what extent? Does the Commission agree with critics that such activities are causing large-scale starvation in developing countries?

Ensuring that the financialisation of commodity markets supports and does not undermine access to commodities and raw materials or destabilise the European economy or the economies of developing countries is therefore a key policy concern at European level and international level.

There is a lack of information about who could be engaged in food speculation. These proposals are currently under negotiation in the European Parliament and the Council. Januar zur Anwendung gelangt. According to reports in the media, a committee of the Bank for International Settlements BIS has come to the conclusion that banks should inform investors more carefully about the security of their loans. This would make it easier to assess risk. Is the Commission planning measures that will require banks to ensure that all their stakeholder groups, especially their customers, can be kept aware of the security and quality of their loans at all times?

Adequate disclosure on the classification of loans into performing and non-performing, the provisions for impaired loans, as well as the encumbrance of assets are essential for understanding the overall credit risk to which a bank is exposed. On the one hand, it carries forward the existing acquis on disclosures of 1 past due and impaired exposures and 2 the specific and general loan loss provisions, detailed per industry or counterparty and further broken down by significant geographical areas.

Greek entrepreneurs seeking to develop their businesses are constantly encountering obstacles in the form of cumbersome and bureaucratic procedures, while announced funding falls short of real economic needs. Is the Commission monitoring the operation of this body and assessing its effectiveness? Will it take quick and effective action to speed up funding for Greek businesses currently beset by serious cash-flow problems?

The choice of structures managing cohesion policy programmes is the responsibility of each Member State. Having said this, the Commission's assessment of the work delivered by the Unit for the Organisation of the Management of the structural interventions in Greece MOD and the public servants entrusted with the management and implementation of structural interventions is generally positive.

The MOD employs a number of highly-qualified staff who make a positive contribution to the implementation of cohesion policy in Greece. Whether MOD should rent premises or use premises owned by the Greek State is primarily a question for the national authorities.

If EU funds are used to cover these costs, the Commission is of the opinion this should be done in line with the principles of sound and efficient management. Despite the important allocation to Financial Engineering Instruments in Greece did not produce yet the expected results. The Commission follows the situation closely together with the relevant Greek authorities in order to take the necessary actions.

However, tackling the liquidity issue is not a task for the Commission alone but for all the various stakeholders involved. The shameful treatment of the Roma and the local residents is also the subject of constant media reports, while neither the Halandri municipal council nor the Attiki regional authorities are taking any immediate action to resolve the problem. How can the Commission convince the Greek Government of the need finally to take seriously a health issue described by the media as a ticking bomb? The report concluded that the progress on the ground remains very slow.

Member States, including Greece, will need to put further efforts in putting the preconditions into place to make a progress in the 4 pillars — education, employment, health and housing — on which the European Commission will report as of next year. Jointly with this report, the Commission also adopted a Proposal for a Council Recommendation on effective Roma integration measures in the Member States with a focus on a number of concrete measures that are crucial for implementing their strategies.

The Member States should take targeted measures to ensure equal treatment and respect of fundamental rights, including equal access of Roma to education, employment, healthcare, housing and public utilities. The Commission will continue to monitor the progress in the implementation of the strategies and support Member States in their efforts. The retention of passenger name records PNR as a law enforcement measure is a much-discussed interference with the right to privacy.

After the LIBE committee voted against mandatory retention of such data by European airlines, supporters of the proposal announced that they would try again to introduce the measure in the near future. What is still missing is reliable evidence that such a measure is needed in any way. In both cases, no time period was mentioned. For each of the categories mentioned, does the Commission know how many of those detained under the e-borders scheme were subsequently convicted?

If so, how many people were detained under the e-borders scheme and not convicted afterwards? The Commission has no information on the source of the numbers the Honourable Member is referring to. The Commission does not possess detailed statistics on the e-Borders system. How many complaints has it received regarding this matter, and over what time scale?

Since that date, the Commision has received information about, and also at least four complaints from EU-citizens who did not pass the test and whose claim for the benefits concerned had been refused for this reason. As these citizens are entitled to expect the Commission to guarantee confidentiality during investigations which might lead to infringement procedures, no further information can be provided in their respect. In the context of this procedure, the Commission services had many contacts both informal and in written with the UK authorities.

But there are no bilateral discussions under way on this notion between the Commission and any other Member State. While the AIRE Centre was useful in providing some background information on the British law and case law on this matter, it did not trigger the infringement procedure. The administrative steps required in order to be able to drive and insure a new or second-hand car imported from one Member State to another can be particularly burdensome and are an impediment to the free movement of goods and persons in the Union. Many Europeans find themselves in problematic situations because they are not allowed to drive a vehicle registered in a Member State other than their country of residence, and they have to embark on long and uncertain dealings with administrative bodies, in some cases putting their vehicles through repeated roadworthiness tests and submitting detailed documents to administrative bodies and insurers.

The common-sense response to such a situation is for drivers to buy cars in their country of residence rather than having vehicles they already own registered there. Are the Member States working towards harmonising their national vehicle testing systems and making it easier for European citizens to move between their countries of residence and origin? The examination of this proposal has already started in the Council and work on it will continue actively in the coming months with a view to the finalisation of this regulation through the ordinary legislative procedure with the European Parliament, as soon as possible.

Oggetto: La Commissione riveda la sua posizione sull'estrazione del gas di scisto. La produzione di gas di scisto sembra essere, secondo la Commissione europea, la soluzione al problema dell'approvvigionamento energetico dell'UE, in particolar modo per quei paesi dell'Est e per gli Stati baltici vincolati ancora al colosso russo Gazprom.

Intende la Commissione perseguire la proposta di avviare l'estrazione di gas di scisto, nonostante le avverse condizioni economiche e i rischi ambientali che comporta? La Commissione non propone di avviare l'estrazione del gas di scisto. Spetta agli Stati membri decidere in merito al proprio mix energetico e concedere le licenze per lo sfruttamento delle risorse energetiche. In fact in Poland, where there were believed to be more accessible and high-yield shale deposits, US oil companies undertook a series of prospecting operations and determined that the costs would be too high compared with the results.

Will the Commission go ahead with the proposal to begin extracting shale gas despite the unfavourable economic conditions and environmental risk that this entails? The Commission is not proposing to begin extracting shale gas. The Commission is carefully studying the possible risk and benefits of such new sources of natural gas as well as their possible implications for European policy. When granting licenses for the exploitation and exploration of unconventional hydrocarbon, Member States should ensure that EU legislation is complied with, including regarding the protection of the environment and human health.

The Commission has adopted a proposal for a regulation to regulate fishing for deep-sea stocks and protect vulnerable marine ecosystems. The main feature of this proposal is a ban on the use of bottom trawls and bottom-set gillnets. The justification given for banning this gear is the need to protect vulnerable marine ecosystems.

However, the proposal does not transpose UN resolutions and does not follow FAO guidelines on the regulation of fishing for deep-sea species, and these types of gear are not banned in other countries. Does the Commission believe that this ban will be effective if it is not applied across the board, by all fleets and in all areas where the deep-sea species to be protected are found? The proposal does not ban any fishing gear. It foresees that targeted fishing for deep sea species with bottom trawls or gillnets will be phased out two years after entry into force.

Bottom trawlers and gillnetters will still be able to fish, land and sell by-catches of deep sea species. Other gears will continue to operate as at present.

This measure is expected to have low economic and social impact while preserving vulnerable marine ecosystems, since these can be destroyed with just one trawl passage when encountered. Alternative measures, such as vessels moving out of the area where an encounter with deep sea corals or other vulnerable habitats takes place have been examined and found to be not effective to protect vulnerable marine ecosystems. For this reason, the Commission's Impact Assessment concluded that the proposed way forward was the preferable option.

The EU will continue to push for decisions with partner countries that ensure fisheries in international waters are sustainable and environmentally robust. We have made enormous progress in that regard and can achieve more if we can show that we adapt the same approach in EU waters. A quick glance at these figures is enough to prompt a reflection on equality as a fundamental right and principle in our democracy, but one which is severely weakened when millions of people in the Union feel that they have suffered discrimination because of their sexual orientation or gender identity. One of the areas explored in this large-scale survey is education, where the figures show that homophobic and transphobic harassment in educational settings is widespread.

Both the resolution and the results of the survey highlight the fact that European society does not fully accept the application of the principle of equality in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity. This is unacceptable, and the Council should prioritise the issue and relaunch work on the directive on implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation, which is currently blocked owing to the objections of certain Member States.

What steps will the Council take finally to unblock work on the directive on implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation? Unanimity between the Council members will be required before the directive can be adopted. The Council is not in a position to anticipate the outcome or the duration of the ongoing negotiations.

In paragraphs 6, 7 and 8 of its resolution, Parliament calls on the Commission to carefully examine the results of this survey, to provide full and comprehensive information on the incidence of homophobia and the solutions and actions proposed to overcome it, and to produce a comprehensive roadmap for equality without discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity.

Uzor is the lead editor of the Unit Three, and Professor Wohlmuth served as the co-editor. The analysis of the prospects of WAMZ reveals that Maastricht type criteria of convergence four primary and six secondary convergence criteria play a role in the foundation of the Second Monetary Zone for West Africa, but that the Euro crisis leads to new reflections among West African policymakers on the modalities, the feasibility and the future perspectives of the project. These issues as related to the Euro crisis are also covered in Unit 1 of the new volume of the Yearbook - with various essays on General Issues of Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa see the synopsis of the new issue of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook.

Info Allgemein. International Consulting. Karl Wohlmuth. Schriftenreihe des IWIM. African Development Perspectives Yearbook. Energy and Development. Agro-Industrial Development. Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven. Revitalisierung Osteuropa. China in der Weltwirtschaft. Economic Policies in Sudan. Sudanspezifische Forschungsprojekte. Governance and Social Action in Sudan. Technologie und Weltwirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Environment and Development Management Nigeria-Germany. Tagungen und Workshops.

Abgeschlossene Forschungsprojekte Auswahl. Lehre von Professor Dr. Aktuelle Colloquien. Startseite Info Info Allgemein. Info Englisch. Info Forschung. This strategy paper by Dr. Murtada outlines changes which are necessary to get the economy back on track in five major sectors stemming from and supporting institutional revisions: education, entrepreneurship, agriculture, industry, and management.

While the short-term and the long-term solutions are outlined, the Sudanese people themselves need to pull together, to stop competing for power and land, to produce and support fresh leaders, and to begin to consider the long-term conditions of the country for the good of its own people. The section 5 is on. Growth and Employment through Industry , with Recommendations for Industry. Results of Past Efforts and Lessons Learned.

The Section 8 is Towards a New Strategy. And the final section 9 is on Conclusions , followed by References on the history of policymaking in Sudan. Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen has given advice to the author during the process of finalizing the Strategy Paper and has peer-reviewed the paper. This is the second research visit by Professor Yun in Bremen.

Based on these publications, Professor Yun was invited to international conferences and he was asked to submit papers for international publications. Research Purpose, Analytical Standpoints, Previous Studies and Expected Research Results a short summary of the Research Proposal : With the deepening of the economic integration, and particularly since the recent Euro Crisis, there are heated debates over the social dimension of integration in Europe.

The former approach has analysed various European economic and social models, focusing on the institutional complementarity among industrial relations, including collective bargaining, labour market flexibility or rigidity, the vocational training system, the financial system, and so on.

This approach is also giving special attention to the interrelationships among the required skill specificity, the skill formation, employment and social protection systems, and the institutional comparative advantages of each national employment model. This latter approach is using a sophisticated methodology and is developing policy arguments for industrial upgrading within the hierarchical structure of the new international division of labour.

The second research report is forthcoming in February Starting Point or Background of Research first draft There is a discussion about two prevailing myths. The Myth 1 is related to the Eurozone Crisis considered as being due to fiscal profligacy and being a sovereign debt crisis right from the start.

These two arguments are evaluated. Problematic Causal Chain of Cost Competitiveness, Imbalances, and Internal Devaluation first draft There is a discussion of the role of the Unit Labour Cost ULC , being considered as an a priori argument for labour market reform being inherent in the referred to competitiveness indicators. The drawbacks of the ULC analysis are presented. This is followed by a survey of recent researches on the regional imbalances in the EU.

Then the changes of this model are analysed, by looking at two kinds of modularization and the implications for the production networks, referring to the electronics and automotive sectors. Then for these two sectors the implications of the expanding production networks on the employment regimes are considered. Professor Yun is doing intensively literature researches, but is also attending conferences, lectures and discussions with experts in the field. He is also considering to visit international enterprises which are located in Bremen, as these enterprises are valuable sources for information on global value chains GVCs and global production networks GPNs between Germany and the Visegrad countries.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth is meeting regularly with Professor Yun for discussions of the issues.

Fragwürdige Mindeststandards

The study has high relevance also for the strategy of the German trade unions as globalization impacts differently on economic sectors in Germany. Professor Reuben A. The scheme delivers subsidized agricultural inputs to farmers through an electronic wallet e-wallet system. With unique voucher numbers that are delivered to their phones, farmers then redeem their input allocation from accredited agro-dealers. It is expected that this scheme will improve agricultural input distribution and marketing. In addition, it should provide incentives to encourage actors along the fertilizer value chain to work together towards the common purpose of improving agricultural productivity, household food security, and income.

The hope is that this would better serve the intended beneficiaries who are farmers and reduce the fiscal burden of a universal fertilizer subsidy from the government thus making it more effective. However, there is need to find out if this new scheme is pro-poor and to test its impact on the fertilizer use and the productivity of the farmers in Nigeria.

Professor Alabi will continue his researches about the pro-poorness of the programme in Washington D. The Unit on Nigeria has an Introduction written by the two professors on the issues, the contributions and the proposed strategy for Nigeria. New tools for agricultural transformation are considered, such as using indigenous agricultural technologies, developing Genetically Modified GM crops, and implementing Food Fortification strategies in Nigeria. A critical evaluation of these new tools is presented.

Professor Alabi will continue his researches in Bremen until Professor Wohlmuth supports the programme since as a senior adviser. Ein Fallbeispiel. The Conference was a remarkable event. There were panels, main lectures and presentations, keynote lectures, breakfast, lunch and dinner sessions, on subjects such as the consequences of the financial crisis and the great recession afterwards; the future of the eurozone; the growth of the dual economy in the advanced economies; the causes of popular revolts and of the rise of populism; lessons from democratic collapses and the rise of Nazi Germany; the rise of Trump and the America First Agenda; the emergence of public and private debt traps; the role of fake news and the role of economists; new developments in various contested fields of economics and political economy; but also discussions on developing economies and emerging economies; on Adam Smith and the Scottish Enlightenment; on technology and economic development; on immigration and intergenerational issues; on gains from trade, and so on.

Lectures and presentations by four Nobel Prize Economists were of special importance and insights. For development economists the sessions about the growth of the dual economy in the advanced world were a highlight. The discussion about dual economies was for a long time a domain of development economics; the development economists studied the take-off and the catching-up issues. The original purpose of dual economy models was it to show how a modern sector can be developed through surplus labour from a stagnating traditional sector.

In two sessions of the Edinburgh Conference the reasons for the emergence of the dual economy in the advanced countries and the type of policies to prevent the further advance of the dual economy were discussed. The middle class is described as increasingly vulnerable and vanishing, while the class of precarious income earners is rapidly growing.

They have negative reported saving true for other OECD economies , and a negligible wealth. The interactions determine also the crises to be anticipated. Therefore, the Edinburgh Conference discussed which type of policies could prevent the spread of dual or trial economies and the emergence of severe crises in the future proposed interventions mentioned were: innovative enterprises to achieve sustained prosperity; wealth creation through state entrepreneurship; new policies for redistribution of wealth and income; a guaranteed minimum income plus a commitment of the society to full employment; gender-related policies to combat the dualism and trialism; etc.

Professor Wohlmuth had the opportunity to participate as a guest observer at the conference in Edinburgh by invitation of INET. The participation at the conference opens new avenues for the work in development economics, but also in regard of international economic policy. He is author of an essay for Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook, dealing with knowledge spillovers from multinational corporations' affiliates in Sudan. He has obtained his Ph. She was invited by the ACBF to be a key consultant for this project. In the chapter one of the report the Africa Capacity Index is presented, mentioning the top performers and the low performers.

An Overview section and a Summary and Policy Recommendations chapter give a balanced view of the capacity developments and gaps in Africa and especially in the STI sectors. SWP This report analyses the implementation and impact of decentralisation in Sudan: To what extent have the efforts to implement decentralisation policies actually devolved power and fiscal resources to sub-national levels, for the benefit of the local populations? The present research confirms what other studies have concluded: that in Sudan the centre remains the ultimate arbiter when it comes to the distribution of economic and political resources between the centre and local states and regions.

Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth

Economic control and fiscal transfers in Sudan remain relatively centralised. There is no systematic relationship between actual transfers to states and poverty reduction. Government expenditures for states have increased at the same time that state-generated revenues have decreased, and a fair and equitable system of fiscal equalisation and gap-filling is absent.

Finally, there exists a mismatch between fiscal decentralisation and the political set-up. The prevailing features of governance in Sudan do therefore not embrace genuine political and fiscal decentralisation. The Editorial Committee of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook has decided to split the scheduled volume 20 for into two volumes, the volume 20 for and the volume 21 for This was considered as advisable because of the great number of high quality submissions of manuscripts to the Editors.

In Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook essays on the linkages of inclusive growth, sustainable development and STI policies will be presented in the Introductory Unit. Focus countries are Sudan and Nigeria. The African Development Perspectives Yearbook has over the decades - the first volume has appeared in — become the major English-language publication on Africa in Germany. The response to the annual International Calls for Papers is huge, with an increasing interest on the side of African experts and experts from international and regional African organisations.

This was a great event, with TV appearances in 48 African countries. The Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen, which is editing the Yearbook, is also involved in researches, advisory work, and training activities. In the Research Group will celebrate the "30 years birthday ceremony" of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. Professor Karl Wohlmuth is co-author of a new study on employment creation in Tunisia. This is a reworked version of the study which was published in in German, Arabic and French languages. Main issue is how to develop a new employment strategy for Tunisia amidst dangers of increasing unemployment and spreading political instability.

The authors provide a frame for employment policies consisting of three strategic elements. Element One considers the long overdue need for a pro-active policy towards small and medium enterprises in Tunisia. Element Two addresses the need to integrate Tunisian enterprises in a more effective way into global and regional value chains. Element Three focuses on the need to start a broad-based reindustrialization process in Tunisia and to manage in a better way the deindustrialization process in the field of old industries.

Also the trade policy and implementation issues of the proposed strategy are discussed.


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There is a great interest of Tunisian policymakers in this strategic approach towards employment creation. Governmental and non-governmental institutions in Tunisia and various donor agencies are working now on solid foundations for a an operational employment strategy and policy for Tunisia.

The Council of Economic Advisers of Tunisia has established a working group on these issues. Despite of the importance of the employment issue not too many studies were done so far on employment policies for Tunisia. The four versions of the study by the three development economists:. Professor Karl Wohlmuth was in recent months active as an adviser to research projects, conferences and publications see some projects below :. Guest researcher Professor Reuben A. Alabi extends his research stay in Bremen for three more years.

The new Research Programme for was recently presented as a Letter of Intentions and discussed with Professor Wohlmuth. It has three major components, comprising major policy issues of agroindustry development in Nigeria Crop productivity, Public expenditure for agriculture at state level, and Combatting youth unemployment through agriculture development.

Professor Wohlmuth is working as a consultant and senior project adviser in these projects. The Dean has extended an invitation to him for a year. Throughout the research period Professor Wohlmuth was the main adviser to the project. In addition, Professor Wohlmuth has peer-reviewed articles for international and African journals, such as the prestigious journal Comparative Economic Studies. As the number of African refereed journals increases, the demand for evaluations rises. Work on the volumes 20 and 21 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is progressing.

The Cooperation, which is targeting on issues of "Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Sudan", is advancing towards a separate Unit a collection of papers in Volume Professor Wohlmuth is one of the three authors, a joint work of three development economists working on Africa since decades. Various publications were released by Professor Wohlmuth on the middle class in Africa, on deindustrialization and reindustrialization in Tunisia, on transformative regional integration in Africa, and on guidelines for policymakers in Africa to promote global and regional value chains.

The debate about the role of global value chains GVCs in African development is still ongoing. All international and regional development organizations have something to say on these issues, and there are proposals and demands addressed to African policymakers how they could use the integration into GVCs for income growth, productivity growth, employment creation, poverty reduction, and trade diversification. GVCs are now considered as a major tool to reach inclusive growth in Africa. The list could be continued, as there is a rich collection of guidelines available now for promoting integration of local enterprises into GVCs.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has published a report in the journal "Berichte" to synthesize some of these views. The report is done in the form of a Guide for Policymakers enabling them to exploit by coherent policies the opportunities for African Development of integrating local enterprises into GVCs.

The report draws on recommendations of international organizations and on lessons from case studies which were written for the volumes 18 and 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. The report has two parts. In part one basic issues of global value chains GVCs when interacting with African local economies are discussed.

Major questions are: How can Africa develop capabilities and preconditions for a beneficial integration of its producers into global value chains? What do we know about the depth and the forms of Africa's integration into regional and global value chains? Are the sub-regional and local development impacts of Africa's participation in regional and global value chains gainful? In order to guide the policymakers on GVCs it is necessary to collect information on these issues first. In part two some strategic implications of the analysis are presented, with the purpose to formulate the core elements of the guideline.

Important is the way how these five elements are bundled together in a comprehensive strategy by the policymakers. All these five strategic imperatives have high cost in terms of administrative burden, manpower needs, leadership, and visionary power. So, it can be envisaged that for many African countries integration into global value chains GVCs will remain a dream, not becoming reality in the next few years. Other countries are developing and exploiting such potentials to integrate their enterprises into GVCs, like some North African and South African countries, and some few West African and East African countries, but this will be a select list of countries.

However, even the successful countries in Africa will make progress in regard of GVCs only with regard of some product niches, some tasks, specific sectors and sub-regions, and a select group of enterprises. It will be necessary for all of them to learn from small successes and not to be discouraged. Country cases for Sudan, The Gambia, Ghana, Tunisia, and Botswana highlight the preconditions for a successful integration into GVCs, in terms of macroeconomic policy formation, human resources development, trade and industry policy formation, spatial development policies, and technology and innovation policy formation.

The University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg has an outstanding reputation as a leading university in Africa. This study is based on researches about the growth of Africa's Middle Class and the impacts on the development of Africa's Entrepreneurship. Specifically, the chapter investigates the role of Africa's Middle Class for closing the "Missing Middle", the gap between the few large and the many small and informal enterprises in Africa.

The question is raised if the growth of Africa's Middle Class will contribute to the growth of African enterprises so that the "Missing Middle" development trap can be overcome. An analysis of African enterprises and entrepreneurs is presented, by type of economic characteristics survival versus growth-oriented enterprises and by type of economic motivation necessity-driven versus opportunity-driven entrepreneurs.

The purpose of the analysis is to assess if the growth of Africa's Middle Class will create a viable entrepreneurship sector and a dynamic class of entrepreneurs. Also the role of development policy is investigated in this context; it is asked if and how public development policies can support the growth of African enterprises and of a dynamic African entrepreneurial class.

It is also asked to what extent these new African enterprises and African entrepreneurs are rooted in the growing African middle class. See also the related report by Editor Henning Melber on Africa's rising middle class: time to sort out fact from fiction in The Conversation of May 24, In this study the "Africa Rising" story is critically examined and is also related to the debate about the growth of Africa's Middle Class. See the bibliographic details below:.

Jahrgang, Nr. This extended contribution is accepted for publication in the journal "Berichte" for Number 1, It is a forthcoming publication. He is already in Bremen since , at the invitation of Professor Karl Wohlmuth who is also consultant and senior project adviser to these research projects. He will undertake in the coming years researches on various issues of development in Nigeria:. Volume 20 will appear for , while Volume 21 will be ready for Professor Alabi will also assist in the work for Volume In this context he will also organize a Policy Workshop in Nigeria.

The intention is to inform the policymakers, the civil society, and academia about the policy implications of these researches. Focus is on the role of state level public finances in contrast to analyses of the federal level public expenditures. Also this project will lead to a Policy Workshop in Nigeria. The intention is to inform the policymakers, the civil society and academia about these researches.

As growth has not contributed to employment creation in Nigeria, this project will link directly employment policies for the youth and agricultural development policies to enable young entrepreneurs. Recent researches by Professor Alabi in Bremen have led to important international publications a full list of publications is contained in the Letter of Intentions submitted for the Research Programme :.

Abstract: This study examines the crowding-out or -in effect of organic fertilizers as a result of the inorganic fertilizer subsidy program in Nigeria. We estimate the probability and intensity of organic and inorganic fertilizer use conditioned on the amount of fertilizer subsidy accessed by the farmers using Probit and Tobit IV methodologies. The results reveal that organic fertilizer is being used as an alternative to inorganic fertilizer and that the farmers who are not able to access the fertilizer subsidy rely on organic fertilizer.

Apart from revealing the crowding-out effect of the fertilizer subsidy on the use of organic fertilizers, our findings also bring to the fore the role that transportation and regional constraints play in stimulating inorganic fertilizer application among farmers outside the fertilizer subsidy scheme.

We conclude with some recommendations on how to increase organic fertilizer use and promote integrated soil fertility management among farmers in Nigeria. We examined the pro-poorness of the newly introduced e-wallet fertilizer scheme in Nigeria. We determined the pro-poorness of the scheme by estimating its benefit incidence and concentration index, and estimated the impact of the scheme on fertilizer use, output and yield of the participating farmers using the propensity score matching PSM methodology. We indicated that the concentration indices of fertilizer subsidy before and during the e-wallet schemes were 0.

Since they were positive, it means that their distributions are not pro-poor, but fertilizer subsidy with the e-wallet scheme is more pro-poor than the pre e-wallet scheme because it has a lower concentration index. This may explain the relative pro-poorness of e-wallet over the pre-e-wallet scheme. However, the e-wallet scheme was not pro-poor in absolute terms because the share of the largest farm size group of farmers was higher than the share of the smallest farm size group during the e-wallet scheme. The study demonstrated that the fertilizer subsidy distribution is not pro-poor in the rural area and in the South-South, North-West and North-Central regions of Nigeria.

The study revealed further that the participating farmers in the e-wallet fertilizer scheme used more fertilizer than non-participating farmers in the range of kg to kg per farmer. The output of the participating farmers was significantly higher by kg but there were not significant differences in their farm productivities. This non-pro-poor distribution of subsidized fertilizer has been implicated for non-significant differences in the farm productivities of participating and non-participating farmers in the scheme.

The study concluded that, though the e-wallet scheme is more innovative and transparent than the previous fertilizer subsidy scheme, some factors that limited the pro-poorness of the past fertilizer subsidy scheme are still inherent in the e-wallet scheme. In order to improve the impact of the scheme on food crop productivity and on food security, the study recommended how the pro-poorness of the e-wallet scheme can be addressed with special reference to the rural area, the South-South, the North-West and the North-Central regions.

He also has applied for funding for the projects in the new research period in Bremen — Professor Karl Wohlmuth is advising the research activities of Professor Alabi now since In this year the cooperation started between the universities in Ekpoma, Nigeria and in Bremen, Germany at the occasion of a Research Workshop on African Development. As SDG 9 has great relevance for poverty eradication, the complex issues are discussed in various Global Conferences. Resilient infrastructure and sustainable industrialization are key enablers of poverty eradication and can promote inclusion, connectivity and equality within societies.

However, these sectors can be complex and expensive to develop, especially in countries in Africa and countries in special situations. The Special Meeting will aim to bring the challenges involved to the attention of national, regional and international actors, and to forge solutions to bridge the gaps in infrastructure, industrialization and innovation across countries.

The Special Meeting will bring together high-level representatives of Member States, representatives of the United Nations system, international organizations, civil society and other non-governmental organizations, academia and the private sector. Unternehmen, die in Afrika investieren wollen bzw. Yves Bagna wurde von Prof. Future Markets in Africa: Which countries are particularly interesting for initiating business?

Yves Bagna presents a new study on African future markets and develops a "Porter Competitiveness Index". In this fact-rich book, important theoretical approaches are used to make statements about the attractiveness of African countries to small and medium-sized German and other European companies. Companies wishing to invest in Africa or to establish a co-operation with a local partner can use the analysis framework and the results for their own evaluations.

Yves Bagna was advised by Prof. Detailed abstracts in German, English, and French give the reader a compact overview. Thirty Experts work on Regional Integration In Africa: Professor Karl Wohlmuth discusses the turn from a linear to a transformative regional integration model. This essay is part of the chapter on Regional Experiences, while there are also chapters on African Regionalism and on Economic Policy of Regionalism. About the new Publication from the introduction by the co-ordinators of the edition :.

The journal has published on relevant political economy themes on the organization of the global economy and on regional and national political and economic issues -. Seither hat sich viel in Tunesien getan; die demokratische Entwicklung des Landes wird international gelobt. Doch wirtschaftliche Reformen wurden bislang kaum unternommen. Dabei kommen der Privatsektor-Entwicklung und dem inklusiven Wachstum besondere Bedeutung zu.

Aber auch ein neues Management der De-Industrialisierung ist notwendig, weil in den letzten Jahren viele Jobs im Sektor der verarbeitenden Industrie verloren gegangen sind. Das Launch Event fand vom An dem Band 18 waren u. Links im Bild: Dr. Diese Themen haben beim Launch-Event daher eine besondere Rolle gespielt.

Text from CNBC Africa: "The East African Community is edging closer to an economic union and policy makers are keen on evading mistakes of other regional blocs across the globe. CNBC Africa spoke to Professor Doctor Tobias Knedlik of Fulda University and began by asking him whether smaller economies relinquish their competitiveness amid the looming integration. The three-days-programme started with a Press conference Day 1 , followed by the Launch Event and a Policy Dialogue Day 2 , and a visit to the Universities Day 3 to present the two editions of the Yearbook.

Day 2 started with Opening Remarks. The most important issues and messages of Volume 18 on "Transformative Regional Integration in Africa" were then confronted with the current discussions in the EAC on the future of the relations between EAC and Europe after the Brexit. The discussion after these presentations about "Transformative Regional Integration in Africa" has invited remarks by Dr. Because of differences among EAC member countries about the implications of the Brexit vote and with regard of the EPA agreement the directions of the integration process in the East African Community EAC are under review see the link to the article by James Karuhanga about the speech of Dr.

The discussion on new trade and investment policies centred first, on ways and instruments of building productive capacities as prerequisites for regional and global competitiveness; and second, on opening regional economic communities RECs like EAC further towards tripartite and continental free trade areas. Rwanda is looking with great interest and ambition to such further steps of integrating regionally and globally. Emphasizing the case of the East African Community EAC was seen by the participants as a valuable application of the main messages from the presented Yearbook editions.


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  • Relevant issues of the two volumes were brought to the point by the speakers and discussants. A written statement was presented to the audience by Professor Reuben A. His statement was about his contribution to Volume 19 in which he and the co-author had assessed the relevance of the "trade facilitation" and "aid for trade" tools for trade promotion of Sub-Saharan Africa PDF Statement Professor Alabi. Rwanda and other countries in the region see science, technology and innovation STI as key factors for a successful regional and global economic integration. It was argued that such a theme for the next volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is of utmost importance.

    Day 2 ended with Closing Remarks. Day 3 of the Launch Event was used for Talks with Professors from Rwandan Universities on the issues of the two volumes, but also to discuss about university and research partnerships between Rwandan and German universities. Various Staff from the Ministry will have official functions in the event. Tunisia is five years after the Arab Spring Revolution in the process of reforming its development model and especially so its employment policy and the related institutions.

    High overall unemployment rates and high unemployment rates among the graduates of tertiary and vocational education institutions reveal that the economy is not absorbing adequately its skilled labour force. In demand is in Tunisia unskilled labour and low skilled labour as these groups of the labour force have much smaller unemployment rates. The production system is since decades biased towards sectors, activities and processes which require low skilled and cheap labour. The reasons are that Tunisia has managed rather badly its deindustrialization process, the decline of the manufacturing share in GDP and the decline of the manufacturing share in overall employment.

    Improving the management of deindustrialization would require that the labour market and investment laws and regulations are adapted, that the STI Science, Technology and Innovation system is adjusted, that the tertiary and vocational education systems are reformed, and that the social security system is streamlined. Intentions to reform the development model and its institutions are there, but the political process prevents concrete actions. Also, in order to increase the demand for skilled people who are unemployed or working under precarious conditions, the country needs to initiate a reindustrialization process.

    In the Research Report four paths of reindustrialization are discussed and contrasted: First , reindustrialization via the promotion of competitive value chains in other economic sectors than manufacturing agriculture, services, mining, etc. Obviously, the sector policies are not employment-promoting. Second , reindustrialization via exploiting the potential for manufacturing in remote regions of the country as manufacturing is largely concentrated in some coastal regions is another viable option.

    Regional development incentives have obviously not worked towards creating employment in manufacturing sectors through a new inter-regional division of labour. Third , reindustrialization via new forms of integration into global value chains is a further important option. Fourth , Tunisia has great opportunities to reindustrialize via the development of "green growth industries" as the protection of its natural resources is important for sustainable development.

    In various environment-sensitive sectors employment can be generated through "green growth initiatives". Examples are areas such as organic agriculture, ecotourism and sustainable tourism, sustainable construction, and a better management of solid waste. All these areas offer a lot of opportunities up to new value chains and an increase in the demand for skills.