A short lived greyhound racing track operated from until Kilrush has two primary schools and one secondary school. Kilrush is about 30 minutes from Ennis. The nearest airport is Shannon Airport. Kilrush was once one of the twin termini of the West Clare Railway from Ennis , the neighbouring town of Kilkee being the other see Irish railway history ; the railway closed in but a short section of the railway has been re-opened at Moyasta as a tourist attraction. One of the original steam engines on the route, the Slieve Callan has been lovingly restored.
Kilrush Creek Marina is at the Atlantic Ocean end of the Shannon Estuary , with its lock gates providing protection from the tidal estuary. Senan's; the foundation stone was laid in November The magnificent St. Senan's Church was erected under the stewardship of Fr. John Kenny, whose family lived at Tirmana in Kilmurry Ibrickane and completed under the guidance of Fr. Tim Kelly, who is commemorated on the centre aisle; the church was sufficiently complete for it to be opened on 29 November Theobald Mathew, who had been invited by Fr.
Kelly, preached on 7 December at this, the largest church in the County. Kilrush was filled by an estimated 20, people, including many from County Kerry who had crossed on the steamer, the 'Garryowen'. Funds were raised for improvements over the years that included plastering the walls, improving the ceiling, altars, floors and seats, and building a wall and railing outside the church.
The church was completely restored in , with the addition of the wooden pulpit. There are 40 townlands in Kilrush civil parish. The settlement is at the junction of the N67 and R roads, which lies between Gort and Clarinbridge ; the village is near the site of the Galway Bay drowning tragedy. Tyrone House, a ruined manor house Kilcolgan Bridge, late 18th-century stone bridge Kilcolgan Castle , Gothic Revival country house St Sourney's church and well, a religious site dating from the 6th Century with a fine 11th-century gothic carved doorway, a 19th-century mausoleum and adjoining graveyard.
Moran's Oyster Cottage , historic restaurant located in a traditional thatched cottage, established in the s, operated by seven generations of the same family. Kilkee Kilkee is a small coastal town in County Clare, Ireland. It is in the parish of Kilkee Kilfearagh. Kilkee is midway between Doonbeg on the N67 road; the town is popular as a seaside resort. The horseshoe bay is protected from the Atlantic Ocean by the Duggerna Reef.
During the early part of the 19th century, Kilkee was just a small fishing village but in the s when a paddle steamer service from Limerick to Kilrush was launched, it began to attract visitors, it has been a resort since and was featured on the front page of the Illustrated London News as the premier bathing spot in what was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
As the town was more accessible to people from Limerick rather than Clare , holidaying in Kilkee became more of a Limerick custom, due to steamboats travelling daily up and down the River Shannon ; the town grew as wealthy merchants from Limerick wanted holiday homes by the sea, resulting in a building boom in the s. As demand for lodgings in Kilkee grew, several hotels were built.
Along with these, three churches were built, a Roman Catholic church in , a Protestant church in and a Methodist church in , reflecting the cosmopolitan feel of the town in that era. On 30 January the Intrinsic, a ship from Liverpool bound for New Orleans , was blown into a bay near Bishops Island in Kilkee; the ship was dashed against the cliffs and sank along with her crew of 14, of whom none survived. The shipwreck site is now called'Intrinsic Bay'. A chartered passenger sailing vessel named the Edmond sank at Edmond Point on 19 November ; the ship was driven into Kilkee Bay by a storm.
As the tide was high, the ship was driven all the way to Edmond Point, where it split in two. Of the on board, 98 drowned in the disaster. The ship was a cargo vessel transporting coal from Troon in Scotland to Limerick, but never reached its destination. Of the 17 crew members aboard only one body was recovered. Between 28 and 29 December , the Inishtrahull went missing somewhere near the Kilkee coast. At the time of the disappearance the ship was transporting a consignment of coal from Glasgow to Limerick but never reached its intended destination; the ship was only confirmed to have sunk on 3 January , when a section of a port bow from a ship with a brass plate marked "Glasgow" was picked up by the Kilkee coastguards.
In the s, Kilkee had yet again another boom, when the West Clare Railway opened up to goods transport, improving commercial life in the area, as well as providing a fast means of travel to and from the town. Although it has become more developed and modern in recent years, the town retains some of its 19th-century Victorian feel.
Kilkee has been awarded the Blue Flag by the European Commission. Over the more recent years, during a period of rapid economic growth in Ireland known as the'Celtic Tiger', Kilkee underwent considerable expansion with the development of hotels and other forms of housing.
After the last weekend of August the town empties and many businesses close until the next summer, creating a much slower pace of life compared to the hectic summer months. This means that if the local businesses do not have a good summer in terms of sales, they might suffer financially for the rest of the year.
Summer holidays in s Kilkee are evocatively described in Rathcormick. Along with bathing on the strand, swimmers can choose from the Pollock Holes, New Found Out and Byrnes Cove; the Pollock Holes, known as Duggerna Reef, are three natural rock-enclosed pools, with water, changed by every tide. This not only brings in fresh water, but replenishes the marine life in the many rock pools surrounding it; the diving boards at New Found Out allow for dives of up to 13 metres into the open sea. The annual diving competition is held at these boards; every year there are many participants in the Bay Swim, a race of a mile from the east end of the town to the west across the bay.
The race starts at Byrnes Cove, a sheltered cove situated close to George's Head, a prominent headland in the town. In nearly people took part in the swim. There is a mini bay swim for children under fourteen, from Sandy Cove to the Pier. The last weekend in June sees an influx of triathletes as Kilkee hosts the "Hell of the West Triathlon ", the longest-running triathlon in the country.
This is one of the biggest and toughest triathlons on the Irish Triathlon calendar with upwards of athletes taking part in a metre swim, 45 km cycle and finishing with a 10 km road race. The island is home to a lighthouse, a ruined monastery, an Irish round tower and the remains of an artillery battery; the Irish name Inis Cathaigh was anglicised Iniscathy, which became Iniscattery and Scattery. Senan was born at Magh Lacha, County Clare, ca.
His parents were named Comgella, his birth was prophetically announced by St. Naul at Kilmanagh, County Kilkenny. Senan commenced his missionary career by founding a church near Enniscorthy , in either or ; the parish is still known as Templeshannon. He visited Cornwall , founding a church at Sennen's Cove, another was founded in Brittany at Plouzane. He is believed to have visited Menevia and Tours. He returned to Ireland around Inis Cathaigh became not only a famous abbey but the seat of a bishopric with St. Senan as its first bishop; this event may be dated as somewhere between and Senan's jurisdiction extended over the existing Baronies of Moyarta and Clonderalaw in Thomond , the Barony of Connelo, Limerick as well as a small portion of Kerry from the Feal to the Atlantic; the legend of "St.
Senanus and the Lady", as told in Tom Moore's lyric, is founded on the fact that no woman was allowed to enter Inis Cathaigh, yet St. Senan founded two convents for nuns, was on a visit to one of them when he died. Legend has it. To stay true to his own edicts, Senan waited until low tide to bury her in the inter-tidal zone, not part of the "island", thus fulfilling his sister's wish while not breaking his own rules. Senan was buried in the abbey church of Iniscathay on 8 March, on which day his feast is observed. Senan; the Vikings first raided Inis Cathaigh in The monastery was plundered until the Vikings came to settle there themselves in the mid-tenth century.
This, in turn, led to attacks by Irish kings. Inis Cathaigh was a part of the Norse Kingdom of Limerick , which included not only Limerick itself but several other bases in western and northern Ireland. Given its strategic location at the mouth of the Shannon estuary, it controlled all maritime traffic up the Shannon to Limerick; the Annals of Inishfallen record that during the s, Norse kings of Limerick were resident at Scattery Island.
In , Maccus mac Arailt, King of the Isles captured Ivar of Limerick , but he "escaped over sea" the following year. Scattery Island Cathedral and monastery is an early Christian place of pilgrimage , where St Senan and confessor , founded a monastery, in the Shannon estuary, 5 km southwest of Kilrush, County Clare, Ireland. There are the remains of his oratory and house and of seven rude churches or chapels, together with a round tower and a holy well still in repute, it is marked by a lighthouse.
At an early period the abbot-bishop of the monastery was considered to exercise authority over what became the dioceses of Killaloe and Ardfert. In its possessions were divided, the island remained a portion of the Diocese of Killaloe, being subsequently merged into the parish of Kilrush. Inis Cathaig is now listed among the titular sees of the Catholic Church. As such, different places along the estuary were considered for establishing a defence.
Scattery Island is one of 6 batteries in the estuary. There would have been 6 separate guns on the edge of this D shape; these could fire out over the estuary. Though they by themselves would not have been powerful enough to stop an invasion they would have been able to cause a lot of damage to any enemy fleet. Bottlenose dolphin Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops , are the most common members of the family Delphinidae , the family of oceanic dolphin. Molecular studies show the genus contains three species: the common bottlenose dolphin , the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin , the Burrunan dolphin.
Bottlenose dolphins inhabit warm and temperate seas worldwide, being found everywhere except for the Arctic and Antarctic Circle regions. Bottle-nosed dolphins live in groups, they live in tropical seas. Numerous investigations of bottlenose dolphin intelligence have been conducted, examining mimicry , use of artificial language, object categorization, self-recognition, they can use tools and transmit cultural knowledge from generation to generation, their considerable intelligence has driven interaction with humans.
Bottlenose Dolphins gained popularity from aquarium shows and television programs such as Flipper , they have been trained by militaries to locate sea mines or detect and mark enemy divers. In some areas, they cooperate with local fishermen by driving fish into their nets and eating the fish that escape. Some encounters with humans are harmful to the dolphins: people hunt them for food, dolphins are killed inadvertently as a bycatch of tuna fishing and by getting caught in crab traps.
The deepest dive recorded for a bottlenose dolphin was meters; this was accomplished by a dolphin trained by the US Navy. Nellie, the longest-lived Atlantic bottlenose dolphin in human care, died at age 61 on April 30, Nellie was born on Feb, at Marineland. Bottlenose dolphins have the third largest encephalization levels of any mammal on Earth, sharing close ratios with those of humans and other great apes, which more than contributes to their high intelligence and emotional intelligence.
Scientists were long aware. Molecular genetics allowed much greater insight into this intractable problem; the IUCN acknowledges two species, although a third distinct species was described in the common bottlenose dolphin is found in most tropical to temperate oceans, it has a grey color, with the shade of grey varying among populations, but it can be bluish-grey, brownish-grey, or nearly black, is darker on the back from the rostrum to behind the dorsal fin.
The two ecotypes of the common bottlenose dolphin within the western North Atlantic are represented by the shallower water or coastal ecotype and the more offshore ecotype. Their ranges overlap, they are not described, however, as separate species or subspecies. In general, genetic variation between populations is significant among nearby populations; as a result of this genetic variation, other distinct species considered to be populations of common bottlenose dolphin are possible.
Old scientific data do not distinguish between the two species, making it useless for determining structural differences between them; the IUCN lists both species as data deficient on their Red List of endangered species because of this issue. Some recent genetic evidence suggests the Indo-Pacific bottlenose belongs in the genus Stenella , since it is more like the Atlantic spotted dolphin than the common bottlenose.
Bottlenose dolphins have been known to hybridize with other dolphin species. Hybrids with Risso's dolphin occur both in captivity. The best known is a false killer whale-bottlenose dolphin hybrid.
The wolphin is fertile, two live at the Sea Life Park in Hawaii ; the first was born in to a female bottlenose. Wolphins exist in the wild. In captivity, a bottlenose dolphin and a rough-toothed dolphin hybridized. A common dolphin-bottlenose dolphin hybrid born in captivity lives at SeaWorld California. Other hybrids live in captivity around the world and in the wild, such as a bottlenose dolphin-Atlantic spotted dolphin hybrid. Bottlenose dolphins appeared during the Miocene.
Known fossil species include Tursiops osennae from the Piacenzian coastal mudstone , Tursiops miocaenus from the Burdigalian marine sandstone , all in Italy ; the bottle-nose dolphin weighs an average of pounds. It can reach a length of just over 13 feet, its color is dark gray on the back and lighter gray on the flanks. Older dolphins sometimes have a few spots. Bottlenose dolphins can live for more than 40 years. Females live 5—10 years longer than males, with some females exceeding 60 years.
Bottlenose dolphins can jump at a height of 6 metres up in the air , their elongated upper and lower jaws form what. In Ireland, the Standard Time Act established that the time for general purposes in the State shall be one hour in advance of Greenwich mean time throughout the year; this act was amended by the Standard Time Act , which established Greenwich Mean Time as a winter time period. Ireland therefore operates one hour behind standard time during the winter period, reverts to standard time in the summer months; this is defined in contrast to the other states in the European Union , which operate one hour ahead of standard time during the summer period, but produces the same end result.
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Strikingly, Irish emigration to Australia in the 19 th century was to achieve a gender balance. But in the famine, and years immediately following, many more women than men arrived as government assisted immigrants. Dr Reid emphasises that it is a mistake to think of these young women, or the young 8sons and daughters in a family, being thrust into the unknown. They were often supported by an extensive and intricate network of family, friends and neighbours, sometimes stretching back to earlier convict days or bounty emigration schemes, sometimes needing a network to be established anew, set-up from scratch.
We might ask did daughters play as important a role as sons in establishing these networks, not just for their own nuclear family but for their extended family and other members of their local community as well? Or were they less likely than men to nominate family and friends or manipulate Remittance regulations to their own advantage?
If I might illustrate the complications of this family emigration planning further, with an example form the work of an excellent family historian in Victoria, Anne Tosolini. Siblings and cousins sons and daughters of the Frehan and Gorman families came here from the parish of Lorrha in Tipperary between and , some of them to Port Jackson and some to Port Phillip. They were to regroup in Melbourne during those years, the men renting and purchasing properties in neighbouring streets in Richmond, close to people who had been their neighbours in Lorrha.
The women, however, settled some distance away, in Geelong. When they married, and their husbands later selected land, they were scattered throughout different parts of Victoria, —their strong bonds of kinship thus becoming slowly and perhaps more easily weakened. Did the women adapt more readily? Were women more willingly acculturated?
Were they more independent in their choice of marriage partners? My third example of Irish-Australian Famine women is the circa thousand young women who sailed into Port Adelaide in , and The Famine had opened the floodgates. Like the Earl Grey female orphans, they too might be considered famine refugees. Lucky for us they did so. In the minutes of evidence to their report we hear the voice of some of the young women themselves. The women called before the enquiry were asked why they came here.
Their answers were what we would expect;—ambitious, independent, hopeful, banal. What induced you to come out here? Had you received letters from friends? Did you think you would benefit yourself by coming to this Colony? Some of these women were part of a network already here, and soon left South Australia to join their family and friends in Sydney and Melbourne. But my general impression is that the majority did not belong to such a network.
Still, until there is an in-depth and thorough study of these women, our conclusions should remain tentative. This surely is a tempting research project for someone living in Adelaide. After acknowledging the initial troubles these young women had, —some walking 16 miles in the heat of the day, barefoot, to go to a situation, others returning to depot sunburnt, blistered, overworked and cast out after harvest was finished, some found crying, disappointed, despondent and depressed at their prospects—the view of most Australian writers is that these Irish women were generally well cared for and absorbed successfully into South Australian society.
The Seven Hills marriage registers demonstrate just how quickly they were accepted. Other writers, outside Australia, are less upbeat. Who exactly were these young women? Which parts of Ireland did they come from? Where did their confidence, —or desperation, come from? What became of them? Were they being realistic in their expectations? Were they disillusioned? In fact, the same sort of questions may be asked of all of our Irish-Australian famine women, whether family emigrants, workhouse women, foundling orphans, convicts or convict families.
Is it possible to view them through the lens of their famine experience? Or at least try to view them from their own perspective? Look at their history through their own eyes, follow in their footsteps? This is my third challenge. It especially means our not accepting official sources at face value.
They provide only a limited and slanted view of things —which is not that of the women themselves. Dig deeper. Finally , our challenge is also about taking care with the language we use. Language is a loaded gun. My first full-paid university appointment in the s was in the West Indies. But at its core is the 12 million people bought and sold like chattel, bought and sold like pieces of farm machinery or livestock, people denied their humanity.
One of the last courses I taught at Macquarie University before I retired included the Holocaust, the industrial mass murder of 6 million Jewish people. It was a subject that troubled me greatly. Without that recognition of our common humanity, it can happen again and again, as it did in Cambodia, in Rwanda and in the former Yugoslavia. It carries a class interpretation. It implies that some immigrants are of less value than others, and hence, as human beings. Many of the young famine orphan girls who came here were bilingual, especially those from the west of Ireland.
They spoke both Irish and English. X] does not. As those young women accommodated themselves to their new Australian circumstances they lost that language, and that world view; they lost that way of looking at the world. It is a phrase which many Irish people find insulting. Why is that? Sure, failure of the potato crop is a very important part of what happened but as I said in post no. In that post I mentioned the work of Amartya Sen. Even if you do not agree with his theory of entitlements applied to the Irish case you will realize how complex famines are.
Let me put this another way. Irish Famine orphans in Eastern Australia in I wonder how difficult it would be to create an interactive map? Could we do something simpler instead, such as clicking on the dots in the map above to bring up all the information we have about the orphan who resided there at that particular time? Rose Sherry per John Knox. Or a record of her marriage. Maybe there are some probate records. I wonder how common it was for an orphan or her husband to make a will.
These are from Victorian records. Re the family of an orphan from Leitrim.
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That was a sad story. The orphan, Jane Liddy, from Leitrim, married well but she and her husband died at a young age. Their considerable estate vanished in the maintenance and medical care of their nine children. Interesting effects. Let me demonstrate how this map business might work. Here is a map of the orphans in Queensland c.
If we had an interactive map , what might appear if we clicked on numbers 1 and 2 , at Ipswich? It may only be a family reconstitution , no other material being available. If you click on the images you can make them larger. So, number 1 is for Cicely Moran per Thomas Arbuthnot,.
Buy for others
Cicely Moran from Galway. Number 2 is for Mary Casey per Digby. Mary Casey from Longford. Bridget Murray from Roscommon. Number 4 is for Jane Duff per Earl Grey. Number 5 is for Celia Dempsey per Digby?
She is in Dalby. Number 6 is Margaret Plunkett per John Knox. Now where is number 7? Bridget McQueenie from Leitrim. Margaret Smith nee Stack from Ennistymon Co. It looks as though she was at Baramba Station in ? My thanks to her ancestor who sent me this information. Mary Ann Prendergast from Galway. Probably nowhere near as much as they would like. Maybe one could invent an app. Scroll down that page for information. The Guest speaker is Tim Costello , a brilliant choice. There is no reason this cannot be done on a larger scale. Does it exist already? There may be a lot of work involved?
They are still useful I hope. Location of the orphans in c. The first is of Queensland in c. Orphans in Queensland c. The next is of New South Wales in c. See post 12 for maps showing the location of orphans in Victoria. You may wish to compare these with the ones in post 6.
Armagh workhouse in Enniskillen Workhouse in South Dublin Workhouse in Catherine Grady per New Liverpool. Maria Maher per Thomas Arbuthnot and her granddaughter. Mary Healy per Elgin and her husband. Mary Doherty per Eliza Caroline. Eliza McDermott per Tippoo Saib. Catherine Moriarty per Thomas Arbuthnot.
Honora Haydon per Lady Peel. In the last post I mentioned a possible use for completed family reconstitutions viz.
This one is based on the birth records of their children. The second one is the location of the orphans in Victoria at the end of their lives c. Obviously the more information is gathered about the orphans the more these maps will need redrawing. Anyways, for your perusal…perhaps you can see the influence of the Victorian gold rushes?
Earl Grey orphans in Victoria c.