A reading of Las Vegas is provided in this paper using an optic of critical theory and the heuristic power of Homer's tale of Odysseus and his crew's encounter with the sea creatures called the Sirens. This paper also argues that the present glitz, glitter and newness of Las Vegas appears all the more meaningful in the light of the archaic. The juxtaposition affords us an opportunity to see ourselves in spite of ourselves, or to be decentered from our historical position of privilege.
The article considers the discourse surrounding culture change programmes in two British manufacturing organisations. The analysis of organisational discourse is pursued as a means of revealing the indeterminacy of organisational experiences and the problems inherent to the introduction of generic change approaches such as TQM Total Quality Management and BPR Business Process Reengineering.
Organisational actors from all hierarchical levels are shown to be "disciplined" by the change discourse to various degrees. The outcome of these movements is a contested set of stories, full of contradiction and ambiguity. If the change discourse is to be embodied in local practices it cannot remain purely monologic, but has to engage in a dialogic relationship with existing and emerging concepts and meanings. Vol22 - 1 Maintenance and creation of roles during socialization processes in entrepreneurial small firms: An institutional work perspective Emilie Bargues , Bertrand Valiorgue.
Entrepreneurial small firms ESFs are characterized by a permanent dynamic of innovation not only regarding their commercial offers, but also their organizational processes. Potentially, newcomers play a key role in the maintenance of this innovation dynamic, but there is a lack of knowledge regarding their socialization. In this research, we develop an understanding of socialization processes in ESFs by taking an institutional work perspective.
Through a qualitative, longitudinal and inductive research design based on two case studies, we make several contributions. First, we identify different socialization activities enforced jointly and separately by newcomers and insiders. Second, we explain the dynamics of these activities with the achievement of two socialization outcomes: maintenance of institutionalized roles and the creation of new ones. Our results enrich the organizational socialization literature by introducing a new field of enquiry and by showing that role creation can be a major distal outcome of socialization processes.
We also develop new perspectives on institutional work by demonstrating the importance of newcomers and the dimensions of agency at play during socialization processes. The aim of this article is to study how ambiguity, defined as the inability to clearly interpret a phenomenon or set of events, can affect the forms of cooperation developed within a team and make a project succeed. First, we tried to prove that the structuring of a project could generate ambiguity, called internal ambiguity, in a team. Second, we examined how the level of internal ambiguity felt by a project team could impact the shift from one form of cooperation to another.
In order to test these two assumptions, we studied the merging of two medical units within a hospital, following a longitudinal analysis and an abductive approach. The level of ambiguity of the project does not systematically constitute a factor of evolution of the form of cooperation because other factors, such as the ability of the team to distance itself from the parent organisation and the will to support or stabilise change, play a role in outlining a form of cooperation.
We want to offer more conversations, interpretations, arguments, even disputes. The Interpreters is a nexus where academics invite colleagues and friends to analyze and discuss freely an argument, raw data, cases, qualitative materials. Storytelling organization is transforming. Epic stories of lived experience are no longer communicable in corporation, schools, or government; it is only discourse that matters. It has taken a long time. Slowly, the invention of the printing press gave birth to the novel and the newspaper, which convey discourse as text with hardly any epic story wisdom at all.
We become like the wisdomless lemmings following one another over the cliff. This study of asymmetric supplier-customer alliances examines how different tensions and dimensions within the alliance shape value creation and value appropriation. This question would appear to be fundamental—as for many startups, successful launch and growth hinge on the ability to build lasting alliances with key industry players. The authors use resource dependence theory to carry out an analysis of two polar cases—one success story, one failure—involving tech startups and large customers.
L’invisibilité du tort et le tort de l’invisibilité.
By analyzing the elements that impact value creation and value appropriation, we contribute to identifying: 1 the sources of asymmetry in vertical alliances—relative supplier-customer characteristics 2 two conditions of success when it comes to overcoming the tensions and problems brought about by asymmetries—learning with large customers and customer-specific investments and 3 positive results—dual value appropriation when the conditions for alliance success are properly implemented. In this paper, we shed light on this novel concept of dual value appropriation—where both firms aim for superior joint value creation as the basis for their own competitiveness.
Startup and customer firms may fully appropriate jointly generated value, in a relationship of symbiotic interdependence. We discuss the implications of these findings and compare them with existing resource dependence studies which delve into the subject of asymmetries. It should be noted that this research considers points of view from both supplier and customer sides of the alliance. This research aims at understanding how executives and managers interactively accomplish authority relationships through their communicative practices and how these processes give rise to power relationships in conversations.
We analyze in depth three conversations in which executives of the French car manufacturer Renault accused three managers of having sold proprietary data to a foreign company. The conversations were recorded by Renault and later were leaked to the press. Following Discursive Psychology, we identify the pattern of discursive devices on which the executives and the managers relied to co- construct authority.
UMR Développement & Sociétés: UMR Développement & Sociétés
Four main contributions are outlined. First, the study shows how the enactment of authority actually relies on the power struggles that unfold during the conversation. Second, the authority accomplished during the interactions may mean different configurations of rights going from speaking in the name of the organization to interrogating, accusing and even sentencing the subordinates. Finally, the accomplishment of authority relies on a palette of discursive devices, the effects of which cannot be interpreted without taking into account the actual reactions of the participants.
This paper shows how strategic initiatives in the context of well-established open strategy processes at two producer co-operatives reveal four tensions related to inclusion and transparency at the level of both the firm and the individual actor. We address theoretical and practical implications regarding the open strategy content, process, and context interplay, including a range of management tactics required in different participation zones.
Remaining in the same job or with the same employer for a long time, or even an entire career, is not viewed favorably in the dominant managerial discourse. Yet this is the reality for many employees in Europe. What are the mechanisms used by employees to assume this stability in the face of career norms that favor mobility?
What is new in this research, with regard to the existing literature, is that it explains the career stability of employees in terms of identification mechanisms, in particular identification with the content of their work. Several results were obtained using the coding method to process the data collected in an association operating in the social sector.
We began by distinguishing between four modalities of work content identification: normative, cognitive, emotive and performative. We went on to highlight two effects of work identification: the free will of agents, made possible by the argumentative resources they provide, and dependence on their work through the integration of structural constraints. We suggest, however, that due to the many conflicting demands on their work and to their public role, where direct expressions of innerness are deemed inappropriate, Chief executive officers CEOs cannot be authentic in the strict sense of the word.
To lift the veil concealing authentic leadership, we look into the role of humor in CEO work through a series of conversations with CEOs of large companies in different industries. We contest the popular notion of authenticity in CEO work. We argue that when authenticity is pursued for strategic or instrumental reasons, its very nature will probably frustrate any efforts to be genuine. In this light, the current quest for authentic leadership can be viewed as a diversion from the difficult work carried out by CEOs rather than a reflection of it.
This article investigates how employees respond to hybrid organizing, that is, organizational settings that are characterized by multiple institutional logics. Our empirical setting is that of a French energy corporation that engages in research partnerships with multiple public and private actors to further energy transition. Their hybrid organizing is informed by a logic of science and a logic of market, which tend to conflict with one another.
Our findings suggest that three types of capital—scientific, social and cultural—shape individual responses to multiple logics. In addition, we found that individuals gain capital from three elements of their structural position: a their professional training, b the type of organizational position they occupy, and c the length and the variety of their work experience in a hybrid organizational setting.
These insights shed new light on how individuals respond to multiple logics, insight that can be useful for addressing the tensions that arise in hybrid organizing and that impact on organizational performance. When and where do social innovations emerge? We address this question using comparative and historical analyses of organizing for palliative care in India.
Although palliative care made in-roads into different parts of India in the s, it evolved as a vibrant sector only in the state of Kerala, through a novel community-based approach. By examining historical and social conditions, we reveal how poisedness, and particularly political poisedness, of time and place manifests in the genesis and propagation of a social innovation. We contribute to the literature on macro-foundations of social innovations by illustrating how an array of organizations and individuals create the very conditions of poisedness that are thereafter leveraged by institutional actors for the construction of novelty and propagation.
Moreover, we specify the conditions of poisedness that are conducive to propagation, thereby contributing to conversations on distinct phases of emergence. The issue of performativity reverse the classical perspective in the social sciences, for they revolve less around describing a pre-existing reality than understanding how reality is produced by intentional interventions. Yet the link between intervention and performativity is by no means automatic.
On the contrary, this approach encourages us to focus on the pragmatic conditions that allow this performation to be constructed. In this sense, the aim of this article is threefold. First, it expands the field of performativity, which is structured around three dominant approaches Austinian, Callonian and Butlerian , to encompass lesserknown research on writing and calculation. Second, it proposes a comparison between theoretical perspectives of research on performativity, and two other research trends in social science and in organizations.
These, without using the term performativity, present strong similarities to it from a theoretical and methodological point of view: Foucauldian approaches and instrument-based approaches to organizations. Based on the concepts thus introduced, this article then proposes an analysis framework for performation processes in organizations, articulated around three levels of analysis: i the study, on an elementary level, of speech acts, acts of calculation, and acts of writing organized around instrumented activities; ii their insertion within the management dispositifs that give them meaning and contribute to defining their boundaries; and iii the putting into perspective of these dispositifs in historical transformations in forms of governmentality.
This analytical framework is applied in the case of the car project referred to as L, an instance of collaborative research in which a crisis situation characterized by the disalignment between the elementary acts studied and the management dispositif implemented by the company was examine.
It also explains the infelicity of certain performative acts. To extend and enrich the debate on critical performativity, this paper proposes that critical management studies should create a strategic link with organisational aesthetics through an alliance with critical artists doing interventions in organisations. These artists produce social change at the margin of organisations and our task as critical researchers is to give a voice to their artistic action in the field of management.
Art performance is presented as a research method and a political action able to give critical performativity a new impulse. The aesthetic tactics used in this art performance are counter-performative: dancers introduce slowness and hesitation of bodies in a context of extreme closure and discipline. Art performance is described as a deed: its only value is that it could be done, which calls for more artistic action in corporate everyday life.
This paper studies how complex field-positions, characterized by combinations of structural and cultural mechanisms, are associated with the non-imitation of dominant field-level practices. Theoretically, the notion of complex field-position complements prior institutional research on field-positions and non-imitation, which focuses primarily on structural mechanisms. Our empirical study looks at 62 Australian fine-wines, using qualitative comparative analysis QCA to identify combinations of structural and cultural mechanisms associated with the non-imitation of Penfolds Grange, a role model in the Australian fine-wine field.
We find three distinct complex field-positions—pioneers, strangers, and insulars—which occurred at different moments in the history of this field. We build on these findings to discuss the importance of complex field-positions as sources of positional opportunities, and their role in the development and persistence of diversity in organizational fields.
Since the field of management science came into existence, many scholars have raised questions about the rigor of the knowledge produced by management research about and the relevance of this knowledge to practice. In this article, we question the causes of the continuation of the rigor-relevance debate within management science. To do this, we build on science and technology studies and on the analytical framework of scientific controversies. Although contradictory, these positions coexist within the debate and are constantly being repeated.
We link these findings to the literature on scientific controversies and discuss their implications for the rigor-relevance debate. This study seeks to explore the limits of the concept of hybrid organization as it is commonly agreed upon in the literature. It tackles the case of French mutual insurance companies and their for-profit counterparts in the property and casualty sector. Distinguishing two approaches to the notion of hybrid organization, it focuses on the tensions and challenges facing mutuals compared to their for-profit competitors.
The evidence, based on the analysis of corporate website data as well as regulatory and professional documentation, stresses the relevance of the concept of hybrid organization as applied to mutuals in view of the external pressures with which they are confronted. Yet, it suggests that the concept has some limitations at the internal level, regarding the articulation of multiple goals.
The evidence further suggests that hybrid organizations may carry or develop their own institutional logic s and not merely borrow and adapt contradictory logics from the public, charitable or private for-profit sectors. Overall, it contributes to a better understanding of hybrid organizations and opens promising perspectives for further theorization of the concept. This article focuses on a specific setting characterized by the strong presence of indigenous enterprises against the backdrop of a wider capitalist system associated with the national economy.
Qu’est-ce que la recherche qualitative
Results show that entrepreneurs interpret indigeneity in flexible ways as they simultaneously pursue both integration and resistance while responding to capitalism. These opposing projects illustrate the performative action of indigeneity as it functions as a flexible tool in the articulation of diverse social formations in the context.
The paper points to challenges and opportunities for the survival of alternate systems at the fringes of advancing capitalist formations. Creative non fiction in journalism uses narrative means from fiction to highlight dramatic tensions of reality and thus put the subjectivity of authors at the heart of the writing process to approach unfolding experience and practice from ordinary people.
Life of academics is punctuated with astonishing, ordinary, ceremonial or dramatics scenes which sometimes take place in liminal spaces but may constitutes a core social piece of the research practice. Lying between two traditions of thought, one of which states that rules must always be respected Weber, , and the other that they can never be respected, this research suggests a third possibility, a contingent approach that distinguishes two types of rules: complex ones that cannot be scrupulously respected, and basic ones that are supposed to be strictly observed.
Since the first type has been extensively studied, most of this article is devoted to basic rules and how they can be managed. After analysing breaches of basic rules for these activities, we propose corrective action of various kinds according to function, level of innovation and level of application. Regarding the latter, we have applied the recommendation of Reason which involves dealing with the problem of non-compliance with rules at three different levels: the organisational, engineering and individual levels.
Whereas interventions carried out at the individual level have been widely discredited by studies of complex technological systems, our research shows their value when the relative simplicity of the situation makes it possible to formulate basic rules. Based on the observations made before and after implementing our proposed actions, we suggest adopting an approach to managing breaches of basic rules that we describe as dialogical, involving two complementary and antagonistic aspects: an enabling aspect and a disciplinary aspect.
In neo-institutional theory literature, studies of decoupling have provided only a binary view of the employees of symbolic structures: ceremonial props or change agents. To obtain a richer view of the working life of these particular individuals, we rely on an instrumental case study to examine how they perceive a decoupling situation and do their job. After four years of participant observation, we conclude our fieldwork by interviewing the seven knowledge managers we have worked with. We initially develop a typology representing the different ways in which these knowledge managers interpret the decoupling situation and accomplish their mission accordingly.
Moreover, as we observe that they all suffer from stress, we use the coping theory to further investigate their working life and eventually transform our typology into a manifestation of decoupling at micro level. Meaning-making, work-level actions and emotions are brought into this picture, illustrating the reciprocal relationships between the decoupling situation and the micro-level employees of the symbolic structures, thereby explaining how decoupling persists from a micro perspective. This result contributes to enhancing the micro-macro link in institutional analysis that has been greatly missing in the neo-institutional theory literature.
The literature regarding the determinants of servitization emphasizes the role of organizational change and usually overlooks the role of technological change. Using an original sample of 1, German manufacturing firms, we reverse the hierarchy: Product novelty is a main driver of product-related service PRS activities. It especially boosts consulting and training services. The structure of the PRS portfolio is dependent on product novelty. Organizational changes toward a more flexible company or the adoption of new advanced manufacturing processes are found, with few exceptions, hardly to influence the decision to offer a product-related service.
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Traduction / Translation
Despret, T. Drumm, E. Hache, D. Haraway, D. Jamar, C. Kolly, B. Latour, P. Montebello, T. Nathan, N. Prignot, C.
Riquier, A. Solhdju, I. Stengers, L. Stroobants, F. Terranova, G. Vella, B. Debaise, V. Glansdorff, A.
Hennion, B. Latour, L. Lawlor, S. Mesturini Cappo, A. Monnin, I.
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