In its quest to appear respectable and refined, the Dresden court actively looked to Italy for its artists and musicians, even before the conversion of its elector in Throughout the second half of the seventeenth century, under the rule of Johann Georg, high baroque art spread rapidly through electoral Saxony.
One final example will demonstrate that this recourse to Catholic forms did not, however, constitute a weakening of Lutheran confessional identity: the Dresden Frauenkirche , completed in Figure From its prominent pulpit to its confessionals and communion gallery, which enabled congregants to walk behind the altar after receiving the host on the north side to receive the wine on the south, the Frauenkirche provides a remarkable setting for Lutheran piety. From the early decades of the evangelical movement, Lutheran reformers valued images not only as teaching and commemorative aids, but also as signs of order and moderation.
In a number of German territories, however, it is clear that the threat of Calvinist iconoclasm embedded images more deeply than ever in Lutheran religious culture, not only at the level of the theological elite, but also at the level of popular piety. Images, like liturgy, became an important confessional marker. The strength of Lutheran attachment to images—the extent to which they had become embedded in Lutheran confessional culture—was manifest in the flourishing of religious art after the era of the Thirty Years War.
In Saxony in particular, with its rich, Italianate court culture, the Lutheran baroque blossomed. The elaborate altarpieces and other furnishings that adorned not only court chapels but also numerous parish churches should not be understood, despite their affinities with contemporary Catholic visual culture, as a blurring of the confessional boundary between Lutheran and Catholic. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. I: Introduction. II: Lutheran Uncertainty. III: Reformed Challenges. V: Conclusion. University of St Andrews bmh6 st-andrews. Oxford Academic.
Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract This article argues that Lutheran images moved from being adiaphora , matters of indifference to salvation, to being confessional markers under the pressure of Calvinist iconoclasm. View large Download slide.
Dresden, interior of the Frauenkirche pre Zwickau, Marienkirche , Wolgemut Altar, Polemical, anti-Calvinist image Spottbild , c. Stadtgeschichtliches Museum Leipzig. Schneeberg, altar of the Wolfgangskirche pre On the Wittenberg iconoclasm, see J. Koerner, The Reformation of the Image London, , pp. For a discussion of Wittenberg as a centre of artistic production both before and after the Reformation, see G.
Pelikan and H. Lehmann, vol. Koerner, The Reformation of the Image, p. See also K. Bulisch, D. Klinger and C. Geburtstag Beucha, , pp. On the Cranach school altarpieces and the memoria of Luther, see S. Lindemann ed. See A. Spicer ed. See W. Jaspert ed. On Lutheran ritual, see also S. For a general overview, see B. Kaufmann focuses in particular on the debates surrounding the Calvinist Reformation in Anhalt The term was used by the Gnesio-Lutheran Nikolaus Gallus in his Disputatio de adiaphoris et mutatione praesentis status pie constitutarum ecclesiarum Magdeburg, ?
See B. For a full discussion of this dispute, see O. For a brief discussion of materiality and the ambiguity of Lutheran attitudes towards precious metals, see J.
Fritz ed. Schilling and I. Rudersdorf and A. Schindling and W. Nischan, Lutherans and Calvinists , especially pp. On the Kaisertreue of Electoral Saxony, see also A. Rublack ed. For a discussion of the Prague iconoclasm, see Kaufmann, Konfession und Kultur , p.
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Gedicke, Calviniana Religio oder Calvinisterey Leipzig, , p. Brecht and R. On the conflict in the Wettin territories in particular, see E. Dingel and G. In Ernestine Saxony, the political heartland of the Gnesio-Lutheran cause, altar panels were removed, so that communion could be dispensed from behind the altar, as Luther had wished. Nieden and M. For a full discussion of the adiaphora debate and its implications for the arts, see Reimund B. The issue emerged again in disputes between orthodox Lutheran theologians and Pietists, ibid.
See also Kaufmann, Konfession und Kultur, p. Allgemeiner Teil Halle, , p. Kaufmann, Konfession und Kultur, pp. Gedicke, Von Bildern und Altaren, Tii. Taurer, Hochnothwendigster Bericht , Mii. See S. Straeter ed. Brecht ed. Bulisch et al. Poscharsky posited a relationship between Pietist spirituality and the appearance of later Lutheran altarpieces, which has yet to be fully explored. See also J. Lehmann ed. Further study of surviving artefacts including illustrated prayer and hymn books , probate inventories and other sources such as Leichenpredigten will, I hope, reveal more about the domestic use of images in a Lutheran context.
On Anhalt see, most recently, Kaufmann, Konfession und Kultur , especially p. For a fuller discussion of the events in Schmalkalden, see W. Harasimowicz, Kunst als Glaubensbekenntnis , pp. Bahlke and A. Jahrhundert in Staat, Gesellschaft und Kultur Stuttgart, , pp. For a recent discussion of an image of this epitaph, see M. See also Harasimowicz, Kunst als Glaubensbekenntnis , p. Maria Deiters has made an extensive study of the furnishings of both St Nikolai and St Marien, and suggests that a number of the epitaphs created during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries express views on the confessional debates of the period, and provide evidence of a pronounced Eucharistic piety.
Zur nachreformatorischen Ausstattungen von St. Marien und St.
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Wetter ed. V, I: Luckau Berlin, , pp. Bartsch and J. Meiner eds , Kunst: Kontext: Geschichte. Geburtstag Berlin, , p. Bulisch and F. For a discussion of this debate, see I. Kolb ed. Beyer, M. Teubner and A. Scribner, R. Isaiasz et al. For a discussion of the concept of sacrality in relation to Lutheran churches, see R.
Schlegelmilch, Descriptio Templi: Architektur und Fest in der lateinischen Dichtung des konfessionellen Zeitalters Regensburg, , pp. Seyderhelm ed. Jacob in Freybergk Freiberg, , Eii. Des Altars 3. Des Tauffsteins 4. On this altar, see H. Beyer et al. Jacobsen ed.
On genuflection, see B. Jussen and C. Beyer, A. Jahrhundert: Regionenbezogene Identifiationsprozesse im konfessionellen Raum Leipzig, , p. See, for example, Gedicke, Calviniana Religio , pp. For a discussion of the conflicts within Lutheranism over the role of works, see I. Jahrhunderts Regensburg, , p. Meltzer, Historia Schneebergensis Renovata. Stuttgart, , pp. Ephorie Schneeberg Leipzig, , col.
For a recent account of the Wolfgangskirche and its furnishings, see M. Jahrhunderts in Sachsen Dresden, , pp. For a full discussion of the gloriole as a motif, see C. See, for example, H. On music, see M. Fidelio Table of Contents from Fidelio Table of Contents from present.
Beautiful Front Covers of Fidelio Magazine. Dialogue of Cultures. Writings of Other Great Thinkers. Biography of Friedrich Schiller. Books and Videos. This transmission of immortality takes the form of ideas: Such as, ideas of principle, which are transmitted from generation to generation, so that people who do good, real good, can die with a smile on their face, not because of pleasure, but simply because of confidence that their life has meant something.
It has brought honor to their ancestors and brought benefits to their posterity. And this benefit is chiefly, the transmission of ideas which have been discovered, or products of ideas which have been discovered, to coming generations.
From Humanism to Nazism: Antiquity in the Work of Houston Stewart Chamberlain
As we benefit, today, from the discoveries we re-enact, of the greatest discoverers in physical science, over thousands of years before us. When you sense that your life, is brief, as between the bookends of birth and death, but the book goes on; the book you represent, goes on, is a benefit and honor to your ancestors and your descendants: You can be happy in being a human being. Not one of these fake ones, these fundamentalists. Because you see yourself as caring for your fellow human being. You are here, to do for the dead, what they can't do for themselves, they wish they could have.
You are here, to make your grandchildren possible. And things beyond that. When you have that, you have the strength to say, as Jeanne d'Arc did, for example, to accept a mission, even if it means death, because the mission is your identity, not your possession of that fragile thing called "mortal life. As has been explained by the youth and others, many times, the Jesu meine Freude came into existence as a Lutheran hymn, in Germany, under conditions following the great, terrible, Thirty Years' War, the genocidal Thirty Year's War, of that century.
It was a simple hymn, which Bach used, as he did many other things, as part of the process of creating music, a principle of music. But, the idea of modern polyphony, modern, Classical polyphony, which was sought by people like Leonardo da Vinci, in his largely lost work De Musica. Which was practiced in the Renaissance, 15th-Century Renaissance, in Florence. As we sculptures on the wall of the Cathedral of Florence, which show, Florentine bel canto voice training, in practice there. And from looking at the stones themselves, the carvings themselves, you can know what they're singing.
So, this became, a part of what? It's an outgrowth of the greatest characteristic of language, which is called poetry, Classical poetry. It is through Classical poetry, that, before the extent of writing, that the communication of ideas by peoples over thousands of years was made possible. The art of being able to create with a poem, a clear communication of an idea, which did not exist in the vocabulary of the language before then. Now, this is done by certain rules, which are natural rules of the human mind and body, which we can call "musicality.
There's another aspect to that, which is expressed by the fact that these young people did the presentation under John's direction here, today. From the start, the performance was not perfect, by any means. They started singing, and singing competently according to rule. But, you know, the idiot thinks that a chorus is a bunch of people, each singing their own part.
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Now, if you've ever heard that process, it's pretty bad: Because choral music, which is the essence of all competent music, is the singer of one part, hearing his or her voice within the performance of all of the parts. Which means, that there has to be a moderation in pitch, a tuning process, of tuning the individual voices to perform within hearing the total effect of the chorus as a whole, as they sing their part; and to adjust their singing of their part in that place, according to the effect of that upon the whole.
Jean-Sebastien, who led a pedagogical at the recent conference, showed, in the case of this "Trotz" section of Jesu meine Freude , that you have a dissonance buried in there: But, the dissonance is there, but resolved by Bach in the performance. And the most powerful aspect, the pivotal aspect of the entire motet, is that pivot, where Bach introduces a dissonance, but resolves it at the same time, so that when you hear the performance, you don't hear the dissonance. But, if you don't know the dissonance is there, you don't understand the performance. So, what has happened is more. So, John has done what I asked him to do, and he was willing to do it and happy to do it, was to go a deeper level: And what we did, is we concentrated on a group of people who had been a core of the singers in the Boston Convention operations.
And thus, is to try to perfect the process of doing the motet by going into these kinds of problems, these kinds of deeper problems; and getting a consciousness, through a kind of program which does require about two hours a day, of daily training, of daily reliving of the process, to come to a perfection of the composition. Let's take another example of this: You have the case of the Negro Spiritual, which is an integral part of American culture. Without the Negro Spiritual, and understanding it, you don't know anything about the United States. Now, what came along, was, Antonin Dvorak, a great composer, came to the United States, after having worked on folk music in the footsteps of Johannes Brahms in Europe.
And he came into the United States. And he was looking for what he would call a basis for study of possible American folk music in situ. And he picked two areas to look At: some of the music of the American Indian, the folk music ofthe American Indian; and the folk songs of the descendants of American slaves.
Now, this is not simply an arbitrary art form. This is a form of song, which was condemned by the Grand Inquisitor of Spain to become property. And slavery in the Western Hemisphere came from Spain and Portugal, under the influence of this fascist gang, headed by the Grand Inquisitor of Spain, of that century.
So, we brought into the Americas, people who were hunted down and herded, like wild animals, in Africa. Just like wild animals, who've been rounded up, herded, selected, and so forth, and turned into property. But, they weren't property. They were treated as property, but they were human beings.
And human beings have within them the quality of a human being. By calling them "property," you can not make them un-human beings! So, the human beings developed a means of culture, including that of slaves in the field, out of which came a distillation of exposure to the Bible, largely by oral tradition, and ideas which existed among the slaves, who came out of slavery, remember, only something like odd years ago!
That, in my time, we knew people who had been slaves, who were still living. Many people are descendants of slaves, two or three generations, today, in the United States. You have a similar thing, as I've emphasized, from Mexico: The same Spaniards, who classified the African as "animals," classified the native, indigenous population of Mexico as "animals," or "semi-animals," with touches of humanity.
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And said, therefore, they had wild passions and they had to be treated as if they were animals and herded as peons. We have, in the Americas today, in Mexico and in the United States, the right-wing tradition of the Spanish, who classified the Mexican indigenous population as semi-animals. So, we have, in the United States today, a legacy of a disregard for the quality of man which distinguishes man from the beast.
We have a revolt against that in the United States, which was passed down to people like Burleigh, and into the work and studies of Dvorak, called the Negro Spiritual. And it works! It works, because, just as Bach took Jesu meine Freude , a hymn reflecting what had happened to Europe, under the Habsburg influence, of the slaughter of the Thirty Years' War, and the freedom from that slaughter, expressed in joy as this simple Lutheran hymn, is now transformed by Bach, in the same way, that Burleigh and Dvorak looked at the Negro Spiritual and some of the Native Indian music: Is to realize, that buried within this music is an expression of the aspiration of humanity, which is a part of our culture.
Because something from inside the slave, which is human, asserts itself in its aspiration, in a way which is resonant with us today. And that's the significance of this Bach. The taking, through music, through the weapon of music, through the art of music, and taking that which is a most intimate expression of ideas, which is the musical expression of ideas, the musical choral expression of ideas, and bringing that into modern society, to establish our viable links to the generations that have gone before us, and to give us a sense of immortality!
To give us a sense of the immortality of the slave! The immortality of the peon, subjected to fascist conditions by the Spanish monarchy, and that sort of thing to this day. Now, this also happened here: It happened, because the young people, who were in Boston, who remained in this part of the program, particularly the Jesu meine Freude featured program, also have undergone steps of improvement, in going more deeply, and deeply, into the deeper implications of this particular motet and how it has to be performed, what you have to take into account, what Bach took into account.
You have the same thing in great music, generally. You have the case of a great conductor, Wilhelm Furtwngler. And then, I understood it. It was what he referred to, as "performing between the notes. And that's the secret, here.