While facing the death penalty his words to the court at the end of his famous "Speech from the Dock" on 20 April became immortalised:. Goldberg was sent to Pretoria Prison because he was white, while the others went to Robben Island. He was not allowed to attend their funerals. Kathrada joined them in October. When he returned to the prison in November after prostate surgery, Mandela was held alone.
Justice Minister Kobie Coetsee visited him in hospital. Later Mandela initiated talks about an ultimate meeting between the apartheid government and the ANC. On 12 August he was taken to hospital where he was diagnosed with tuberculosis. After more than three months in two hospitals he was transferred on 7 December to a house at Victor Verster Prison near Paarl where he spent his last 14 months of imprisonment. He was released from its gates on Sunday 11 February , nine days after the unbanning of the ANC and the PAC and nearly four months after the release of his remaining Rivonia comrades.
Throughout his imprisonment he had rejected at least three conditional offers of release. Mandela immersed himself in official talks to end white minority rule and in was elected ANC President to replace his ailing friend, Oliver Tambo. True to his promise, Mandela stepped down in after one term as President.
Nelson Mandela never wavered in his devotion to democracy, equality and learning. Despite terrible provocation, he never answered racism with racism. His life is an inspiration to all who are oppressed and deprived; and to all who are opposed to oppression and deprivation. Nelson Mandela's father died in when Mandela was 12 and his mother died in when he was in prison.
While the autobiography Long Walk to Freedom says his father died when he was nine, historical evidence shows it must have been later, most likely In fact, the original Long Walk to Freedom manuscript written on Robben Island states the year as , when he was Nelson Mandela top row, second from left on the steps of Wits University. Nelson Mandela on the roof of Kholvad House in The Treason Trial Mandela was arrested in a countrywide police swoop on 5 December , which led to the Treason Trial.
Madiba travelled with his Ethiopian passport. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. A picture captured during a rare visit from his comrades at Victor Verster Prison. Release from prison On 12 August he was taken to hospital where he was diagnosed with tuberculosis. He died at his home in Johannesburg on 5 December A gallery of images from the life and times of Nelson Mandela.
Continue reading Nelson Mandela today celebrated his 94th birthday with members of his family at his home. Main article: Treason Trial. We, the people of South Africa, declare for all our country and the world to know: That South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white, and that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of the people.
We of Umkhonto have always sought to achieve liberation without bloodshed and civil clash. We hope, even at this late hour, that our first actions will awaken everyone to a realization of the dangerous situation to which Nationalist policy is leading. We hope that we will bring the Government and its supporters to their senses before it is too late, so that both government and its policies can be changed before matters reach the desperate stage of civil war. Main article: Rivonia Trial. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons will live together in harmony and with equal opportunities.
It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to see realised.
Nelson Mandela’s Childhood and Education
But if it needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. The inside of Mandela's prison cell as it was when he was imprisoned in and his open cell window facing the prison yard on Robben Island, now a national and World Heritage Site. Mandela's cell later contained more furniture, including a bed from around Main article: Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa. Main article: South African general election. Main article: Presidency of Nelson Mandela. Gracious but steely, [Mandela] steered a country in turmoil toward a negotiated settlement: a country that days before its first democratic election remained violent, riven by divisive views and personalities.
He endorsed national reconciliation, an idea he did not merely foster in the abstract, but performed with panache and conviction in reaching out to former adversaries. He initiated an era of hope that, while not long-lasting, was nevertheless decisive, and he garnered the highest international recognition and affection. Main article: Death of Nelson Mandela. A friend once asked me how I could reconcile my creed of African nationalism with a belief in dialectical materialism.
For me, there was no contradiction. I was first and foremost an African nationalist fighting for our emancipation from minority rule and the right to control our own destiny. But at the same time, South Africa and the African continent were part of the larger world. Our problems, while distinctive and special, were not unique, and a philosophy that placed those problems in an international and historical context of the greater world and the course of history was valuable.
I was prepared to use whatever means necessary to speed up the erasure of human prejudice and the end of chauvinistic and violent nationalism. The significance of Mandela can be considered in two related ways. First, he has provided through his personal presence as a benign and honest conviction politician, skilled at exerting power but not obsessed with it to the point of view of excluding principles, a man who struggled to display respect to all Second, in so doing he was able to be a hero and a symbol to an array of otherwise unlikely mates through his ability, like all brilliant nationalist politicians, to speak to very different audiences effectively at once.
Main article: List of awards and honours bestowed upon Nelson Mandela. Biography portal Socialism portal South Africa portal. Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 April Retrieved 17 December Peter Mtuze notes that the orthography of Xhosa names has changed since the time of Mandela's schooling, and that it would now be written Rholihlahla.
Biography of Nelson Mandela
Mandela's Long Walk to Freedom: the isiXhosa translator's tall order. South African Communist Party. Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 29 June Business Day. South Africa.
Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 7 December The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 20 May Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory. Nelson Mandela Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 16 December Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 28 October Wren 8 December The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 February Retrieved 13 February Archived from the original on 26 February Archived from the original on 28 July Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 25 March Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 26 May BBC Sport.
The Daily Telegraph. Children's Institute. Archived PDF from the original on 26 February Retrieved 15 May Archived from the original PDF on 31 March Retrieved 11 February South African Government Online. The Observer. Peninsula Peace and Justice Center. BBC News. The Body. Retrieved 25 February Archived from the original on 18 July The Globe and Mail.
Retrieved 11 May Retrieved 3 October CBS News. Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 13 December Retrieved 27 October Archived from the original on 26 June Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Fox News Channel. The Independent. Archived from the original on 16 March Retrieved 13 September Archived from the original on 9 July The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 27 January News Retrieved 30 January Retrieved 15 December CTV News. Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 5 July Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 27 June Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 1 September Al Jazeera.
Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 5 December Retrieved 6 December Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 4 December Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 13 July Archived from the original on 3 February NBC News. International Business Times. The Cape Times. Retrieved 14 February — via Questia Online Library.
The White House. Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 24 October Retrieved 14 February London: Independent Print Limited. Retrieved 7 June African National Congress. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 2 January Spanish Official State Gazette. Queen's Printer for Canada. CBC News.
Royal Insight. November Archived from the original on 5 January Gauteng Provincial Government. Archived from the original on 21 June Media Club South Africa. Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 23 December Retrieved 11 November United Nations. Retrieved 23 January Barber, James Barnard, Rita In Rita Barnard ed. The Cambridge Companion to Nelson Mandela. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Battersby, John In Anthony Sampson ed. Mandela: The Authorised Biography.
London: HarperCollins. Benneyworth, Garth South African Historical Journal. Benson, Mary Nelson Mandela. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Boehmer, Elleke Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bromley, Roger Broun, Kenneth S.
Nelson Mandela - Quotes, Biography & Death - HISTORY
Ellis, Stephen Journal of Southern African Studies. Cold War History. Forster, Dion Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae. Freund, Bill African Political Economy.
Glad, Betty; Blanton, Robert Presidential Studies Quarterly. Guiloineau, Jean; Rowe, Joseph Berkeley: North Atlantic Books. Herbst, Jeffrey In Theodore K.
Rabb; Ezra N. Suleiman eds. London: Routledge. Houston, Gregory; Muthien, Yvonne Democracy and Governance Review: Mandela's Legacy — Hutton, Barbara Robben Island: Symbol of Resistance. Bellville: Pearson South Africa. Kalumba, Kibujjo M. Journal of Social Philosophy. Lodge, Tom Mandela: A Critical Life. Lukhele, Francis Canadian Journal of African Studies.
Mafela, Munzhedzi James Indigenous Biography and Autobiography. Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 15 June Mandela, Nelson Long Walk to Freedom Volume I: — Little, Brown and Company. Mangcu, Xolela Meer, Fatima London: Hamish Hamilton. Meredith, Martin Mandela: A Biography.
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Book Category. Links to related articles. Plaatje — R. Thema — S. Msane — H. Bud-M'belle — T. Mweli-Skota — E. Khaile — E. Mdolomba — James Calata — W. Sisulu — O. Tambo — P. Nokwe — A. Nzo — M. Ramaphosa — K. Motlanthe — G. Mantashe —present E. Dube — S.
Nelson Mandela: a life in pictures
Makgatho — Z. Mahabane — J. Gumede — P. Mahabane — A. Xuma — J. Moroka — A. Lutuli — O. Tambo — N. Mandela — T. Mbeki — J. Zuma —present M. Mandela — O. Mandela — W. Sisulu — T. Zuma — K. Motlanthe M. Ramaphosa present D. Heads of State of South Africa.