Diciembre de Asuntos Despachados. I, De reform. Matrim, pp. Expedientes matrimoniales. Expedientes Matrimoniales. Letra B. Letra B, Baltasar Gil, Sevilla, Memorial de Folio suelto. El Imperio Romano se encuentra al borde del abismo. Un libro con gotas de amargura del que uno sale alegre.
Early Modem Period graphy. Dietrich Briesemeister's comments have 2. Generaciones and its modem critics shaped this book in a way he probably never imagined. Wulf Oesterreicher My special gratitude goes to Helmut 3. Crist6bal de Santisteban, editor of Mar de istorias: an unreliable Zedelmaier who accompanied me in writing this book, as a critical reader, 16l1Lcentury reader of Generaciones y semblanzas mentor and friend.
The chronicles of Pero L6pez de Ayala The structure of Generaciones Generaciones, chronistry and polemics..
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Registro o memorial As an undergraduate neophyte in Spanish with only a trifling It was, to say the least, a difficult reading. The subject My understanding of the text and Part 2: Semblanzas and medieval Castilian genealogical historiography its contexts grew in the process, yet the initial impression of dealing with Chapter III: Alfonso de Cartagena's Liber genealogie an unwieldy and "strange" text did not change. I made it a heuristic and In this sense, Chapter IV: Semblanzas and early Castilian this book is a protocol of a prolonged research project and an attempt to historiography 12th to 14th century open new perspectives on Generaciones in particular, and Iberian medieval 1.
Lzber regum and Cr6nica de Contrary to the opacity the ordinary modern reader perceives when Memory, genealogy and Pero L6pez de Ayala' s semblanzas threshold to Renaissance, it is claimed, a representative of the highest Although Perez de Guzman was a man with a conservative, moralistic, shall we say, medieval outlook, his work excels in 1. Semblanzas in 15th-century chronicles psychological perspicacity and stylistic purity, paving the way for the A The chroniclers of Juan Il Spanish Renaissance and the apogee of Castilian literature of the Golden Driven by moralist zeal, we read, the author conceived a sober piece B The chroniclers of Enrique IV of historiography as a reaction to the corrupted chronicles of his time; Fernando deI Puigar' s Claros varones de Castilla century.
On closer scrutiny it becomes clear 1. Manuscripts and unpublished transcriptions that the intelligibility of Generaciones y semblanzas in scholarship is the Literature and sources "cut out" from a messy intertext along the lines provided by the teleologic It can be graphically represented as: porary texts are identified and pieced together to establish a genealogy of te ts. The problem regarding this approach is not primarily methodological, nor are the results necessarily flawed.
The past horizon of expectations is, as Paul de De Man b. Hence what is at stake is not the structuring L6pez de Ayala A! Libc gtnmlogit '' -- Ouonicles '" 13lhlh c. Yet, as Gabrielle Spiegel persuasively argues, the aim of recovering "the social logic of the text, its location within a This trajectory is generated by a combination and overlapping of two broader network of social and intertextual relations" Past as Text 26 , is methodic principles of New Historicism In part one, represented in my worth the risk. Few are truly peripheral in most historiographical texts of the 13lh to 15lh texts in Castilian literature have been as misconceived as Generaciones - in centuries.
Applying what Steven Greenblatt and Catherine Gallagher call spite of the interest and advances in cultural history, new historicism, and the "Method of Luminous Detail," 3 I use semblanzas in part two, repre- the theoretical groundwork of historians like Gabrielle Spiegel in the last sented by the broken arrows, as "interpreting details" In tracing the two decades. In my own work, then, I am walking on the thin red line wandering of semblanzas over three centuries, I hope to provide insight in between history and criticism in an attempt to deconstruct a historical text the epistemological aspects of Castilian historiography, the impact of encrusted with layers of scholarship and to use the debris in the project of mnemonic culture and the transformation of its pragmatics.
In a prelude a , I reconstruct the prevalent premodem model of the I suggest investigating loci for the recuperation of contemporary workings of perception, cognition, and memory, the so-called faculty psy- horizons of ex:rectations in a triangle constituted by the "context of chology, and review basic principles of artificial memory. This preliminary review of readings of Generaciones. The second circle includes conception involves a rather complex trajectory of this study, which d and e. Centered in the chronicles of Pero L6pez de Ayala, the third consists, against the backdrop of premodem faculty psychology and complex circle encompasses c, d, e, f and g.
The fourth and concluding 2 Exemplary in this respect is Gabrielle M.
Spiegel's work on medieval historiography. J They adapt an expression coined by Ezra Pound. The results of part one are the background for the analysis of the Gene- I consider premodern epistemological and cognitive models and related raciones y semblanzas, which is the core of my study c. A quantitative cultural practices paramount for an understanding of the alterity of the structural and semantic analysis of Generaciones reveals the principles of texts under study.
Hence the preliminary review of faculty psychology and coherence and textual ruptures. A chronistic part, related to the historical ars memorati. The critical information this register history of the readings and readers of the text. I will show that early conveys is not biographical but genealogical. Perez de Guzman, indeed, used an Ystoria troyana as a model, as he clearly Modern scholarship, on the other hand, is predominantly interested in states in his prologue 4. I show that in various vernacular versions of Generaciones as a reliable prosopographical source and as a testimony of the Guido de Columnis's Historia destructi.
The narrative expositions of these catalogues istorias, a compilation erroneously attributed to Perez de Guzman, and the point to the mnemotechnical function of semblanzas.
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As indicated above, in this case, the Having recontextualized the Generaciones by relating it to L6pez de insertion into this modem llberlieferungszusammenhang is equivalent to a Ayala' s and Guido' s chronicles, a new interpretation of Generaciones be- decontextualization. This will be accomplished by orienting the herme- comes conceivable e.
As the semantic analysis of an extensive corpus of neutic "pre-conceiving [Vorgri. Silhouetted against medieval faculty psychology, semblanzas 90 according to the "prescribed readings" in the prologue of Generaciones: appear as non-pictorial mnemonic imagines. Semblanzas are transcripts of the author labels his text a "registro" or "memorial" 4 ,4 thus concurring the author's formation of mental "images," which enable the reader to with near-contemporary readers who essentially interpreted Generaciones recreate them. In Generaciones, Perez de Guzman' s remembrance of his as a text authenticating genealogical memory.
From this perspective, Mar de istorias can be discarded as a "model" or However, the crucial pragmatic aspect of Generaciones is the preser- crucial subtext a. I argue that Perez was not the translator, but the com- vation of genealogical memory. Perez de Guzman perceives the status of piler of a translation of Colonna's Mare historiarum, known as Mar de Las the emerging Grandes de Espana as being threatened by royal negligence, ystorias.
His first editor, Crist6bal de Santisteban, willfully misread Genera- the corruption of "authentic ating " institutionalized chronicles and a ciones. Associating Mar de istorias with Generaciones, he eclipsed original deficient knowledge about the origin of noble lineages " origen e nas9- horizons of expectations and adequate interpretive frames. In L6pez de miento de los linajes de Castilla"; Emulating the model of Guido's Ayala's chronicles, on the other hand, we find short "portraits" in the vein.
Historia destructi. These allow a provisional formal and functional "registro" of important families, a "memorial" which claims noble titles, definition of semblanza: Semblanzas combine a list of physical features with a prerogatives, offices and status. His sources are exclusively "estorias moral, idiosyncratic description of a person duplex descripti. In L6pez de autenticas" 33 , reliable informants and, particularly, his own experiences Ayala's writings, they establish a narrative closure, epitomize the chronicle, and memories.
Thus he became an auctor for future genealogists. As seminal texts for the histories of noble families his semblanzas could be prolonged by the generations to come and be projected back into a foun- 4 If not indicated otherwise, all quotations are taken from Tate's edition. Barrio's recent edition is not substantial progress in Generadones scholarship and Having clarified the complex mnemonic pragmatics of the Guzmanian textual criticism.
A critical edition on the basis of all relevant manuscripts has not yet been accomplished. See my semi-paleographic transcription of MS. Regarding the complex and unexplored intertextual relations of memoration, I use Generaciones as an interpretive horizon for Alfonso de Generadones with 15th.. On this basis, I examine the graphical narration. Part three of this study, genealogy, Perez de Guzman's Generaciones prefigure the transformation of therefore, goes beyond the monographic nucleus of the analysis of Ayala's semblanzas in the chronicles of the next generations.
Generaciones Generaciones y semblanzas. The earliest testimonies of vernacular Iberian became a pretext for Hernando del Pulgar, who composed his Claros va- historiography are lists of names of kings nomina regum. They bear rones de Castilla G in the s. Pulgar wrote as the official chronicler of the structural and pragmatic resemblance to lists included in early liturgical Catholic Kings. His Claros varones are incarnations of virtues; their sem- commemorative texts.
Texts like the Liber regum from the end of the 12th blanzas are an appeal to the descendents to rival the fathers' achievements. Genealogical series are prone to "absorb" historical the preservation of genealogical memory and commemoration. The charac- data. In some cases, as in the Liber regum, we find only chronological terization of the personality is subordinated to the presentation of exem- references and short portraits.
This is the locus of emergence of semblanzas. Moreover, the writing of Claros varones is for Pulgar a means to display The chronicles of individual kings of the first half of the h century are literary mastery. Appropriation of the text in the form of mnemonic ima- inscribed into a genealogy of texts, with its foundation in the Alfonsine gines in Generaciones is supplanted in Claros varones by the attempt to secure chronicles.
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Structurally, they can be described as expanded entries of list the correspondence between authorial intention and the reader's interpre- type nomina regum. Commemoration and genealogical memory, however, tation. The adaptation of the Generaciones in the Claros varones marks an are only of secondary importance. The chancellor's Feman Perez de Guzman's work is the key text of this study: a crossroads, portraits highlight submerged mnemonic elements of traditional, genea- as it were, of different lines of analysis and reasoning. Furthermore, logical historiography.
It is a central objective of this chronicles. Ayala' s semblanzas are the basis of mnemonic imagines, which study to trace its structure and pragmatics in specific contexts from the late enable the memorization of extremely condensed synopses of the chron- h century to the end of the h century.
Generaciones, on the other hand, icles and commemorate the kings. The ideal reader, familiar with the total- expresses the crucial importance of genealogy and memory in the text ity of chronicles, is capable of forming a mnemonic, genealogical series of under scrutiny.
Generaciones y semblanzas, then, is not only the title of a 15th.. The its "social logic," but an emblematic lemma for an important aspect of chronicles of the times of Juan II and Enrique IV pick up the model of Castilian historiography in the formational stage of the Early Modem Ayala's chronicles i. Nevertheless, the functions and pragmatics of the Period. It is also an appeal for a project to undo the modem bias for semblanzas experience a significant change. In the so-called cronicas particu- narrative forms of historiography to the detriment of other forms of pre- lares, a tendency to detailed description and eulogy is apparent; semblanzas serving or construing the memory of knowledge which contemporaries cease to be epitaphs and become part of the narrative exposition of the accepted as historically "authentic" Fleischmann , Regardless of formal continuities the mnemonic functions are weakened.
The portraits of Enrique IV and the Catholic Kings in the official s My interest, therefore, is neither a genealogy of the Writing of History in Certeau's chronicles of the second half of the h century are not conceived as links understanding nor the exploration of the epistemological and narratological in a chain of mnemonic genealogy. Partisan characterizations of the kings dimensions of historiography in general, as explored in the Geschichte - Ereignis und Erztihlung volume of the Konstanz Poetik und Henneneutik series.
I have tried to find a middle ground between fidelity to the orginal and preserving its flavor and Prelude: Faculty psychology and principles of readability, always emphasizing comprehension. Tate 1 Enrique Ill de Castilla Pre-modern psychology, the interplay of external senses, inner wits and 2 Catherine of Lancaster higher spiritual powers, has been the subject of thorough investigation by 3 Fernando de Antequera Harry Wolfson, Murray Wright Bundy, E. Ruth Harvey, and others. Homer Herriot was 6 Pero L6pez de Ayala the first to point out a comprehensive classification of the external senses 7 Diego L6pez de Sttlfuga 16 "sentidos de fuera" and the internal senses "de dentro" in a h-century 8 Diego Hurtado de Mendoza manuscript of the Siete PartidaS British Museum Add.
Castilian medical writings of the h and 16th centuries, 11 Juan de Velasco like Francisco L6pez de Villalobos's Sumario de la medicina, translations of 12 Sancho de Rojas 20 older Latin texts like Lanfranc of Milan' s Chirugia maior fol. Baldwin , confirm that on 14 Juan Alfonso de Guzman the Iberian Peninsula basic assumptions of scholastic faculty psychology 15 G6mez Manrique were shared and accessible to a non-latinate public in a period that 22 16 Lorenzo Suarez de Figueroa stretches at least from the 13th to the 16th century.
The terminology and 23 19 Garci Gonzalez de Herrera phenomenology varies from author to author, and even within the writings 20 Juan Hurtado de Mendoza of one author or a particular text we find inconsistencies. Bernardino Mon- 24 21 J? It can also be 23b Diego Fernandez de Quinones considered representative of "popular" medical lore,6 since the author pro- 26 24 Pero Manrique poses not only to be "vtil y necessario a los medicos y cirujanos que quie- 27 25 Diego G6mez de Sandoval ren ser perfectos en su arte [ For a comparison with Avi- 34 Alvaro de Luna cenna' s influential writings see the analysis of Wolfson The similarities with Lanfranc fol.
The "forms" of the objects perceived are also imprinted in the phan- Luis Hurtado de Mendoza, the Marquis of Mondejar. The physician inter- tasy "fantasia" , or vis formalis Carruthers, Book Though he and his inquisitive patron agree that this the sense impression temporarily after the object is no longer sensed by matter is "escura y muy confusa [ The third interior wit, the "ymaginatiua," represents the external everybody, "si tiene algunos principios de filosofia The Doctor explains no como presentes ni passados, sino como possibles entendiendo aqui por pos- that the exterior senses "draw" " debuxa" without categorizing the "figura sibles los que no implican contradicion y mediante esta virtud podemos ima- de algun objecto exterior sensible como es el color; el olor, y el sabor, y ginar qualquier cosa possible aunque sea disparate, o como dizen chimera.
They have the function of "representing" the "formas," [not as present or past but as possible, meaning here with possible those which do not imply contradiction. And by this faculty we are able to imagine any pos- or species, to the inner wits. The question of how the external senses, sight sible thing even if it is nonsense or, as they say, a chimera.
Against the Galenic idea of "blood rays," i. It is a com- accepted notion of the species in medio, i. Thomas Aquinas gives us this example: Ima- "fil6sofos antiguos" knew only three wits,n i. Abutting imagination, in the very middle of the brain, is judgment. By means of exegesis, this mnemonic grid is superimposed onto the human te, o en tiempo passado, o en tiempo possible que esta por verur, del qua!
The former concept was revived by neoplatonic Re- naissance theorists Couliano From this knowledge stems the sensitive appetite of unaginative faculties. Thomas Aquinas, for example, argues in the Summa against animals to obtain a thing or flee it. Albert, on the other hand, The estimativa is truly central in the working of the brain, inasmuch as it is differentiates in De anima between the two imaginative faculties, precisely in the same way Monserrate does pp. I use the spelling "phantasy" to refer to the mental faculty. Its function is to extract from the species significat intentionem quamdam circa formam, ideo convenienter Avicenna dicit what Latin texts call intentiones.
In a treatise with the title Kitiib al-najiit quod memoria respicit intentionem, imaginatio vero formam per sensum appre- Avicenna defines "intention. Also the intellect is considering its relation to universals. If, however, the sense. Rahman 30; bk. And be- In De anima Avicenna specifies that the external senses are incapable of cause an image assigns an intention to a certain form, Avicenna rightly says that comparison and that it is, therefore, the function of the estimativa to extract the memory receives the intention, and imagination the form apprehended by "intentiones non sensatas, quae sunt in singulis sensibilibus" ["un-sensed the senses.
There- thing," and appetitus irascibilis, which provokes the opposite inclination "to fore, the intentiones are saved together with the image"] p. Furthermore, as Mary Carruthers points out, Latin scholastics which assigns an "intention" to the perceived and recollected species, the distingwsh between the estimativa in animals, i. Et ideo qua:?
Si autem en la fantasia por passadas, en la ymaginacion por possibles, por manera que esta virtud sirue para acordamos de lo que aprendemos. Hence this faculty [sc. The counterpart to the sensory appetitus is the intellectual In this passage Montana de Monserrate seems to conflate the internal appehtus or voluntas. On the other hand, the efficacy of artificial and he alludes to memory as the recipient of the knowledge accumulated memory systems naturally depended on the quality of the images used.
This is Ancient rhetoricians advised the formation of so-called imagines agentes why Aquinas regards memory as part of prudence: " unde multa qua:! Folger, Images, In his commentary to Rhetorica ad Herennium pertinent ad partem sensitivam requiriuntur ad prudentiam, inter qua:! Admiramur autem nova praecipue et insolita [ We admire, however, what is He thus points to the central importance of memory in premodem think- new, unusual and exceptional"] De memoria et reminiscentia, 96; He ing.
All of the internal wits are mnemonic tools with a different temporal draws here on common psychological lore: since mental images have, as dimension: they "recall" the present sensus communis,vis formali s , the we have seen, an emotional ingredient, memory best grasps what is of future imaginativa and the past memorativa. This was the mnemonists, was the first and most notable aspect of memory to attract the theoretical foundation of the so-called "artificial memory. In Helga Hajdu was intertwined with a comprehensive set of cultural practices which made reconstructed a fairly comprehensive genealogy of the architectural mne- the Medium Aevum truly an Aevum Memoriae.
Millier : the anonymous Rhetorica ad Herennium III, 16, until the rise of the "modem mind" closed this chapter of intellectual 40 ; Gcero' s De oratore II, , and Quintilian' s lnstitutio oratoria Xl, 2, history. The classic ars memorativa, designed as a tool for the forensic orator, memory became firmly established as areas of research. In Paolo Rossi involves the creation of two sets of mental images. First a system of or- investigated the evolution of mnemotechnique and ars combinatoria from dered loci, preferably an architectonic structure, must be firmly fixed in the the Late Middle Ages to the Early Enlightenment.
Six years later Frances mind by repeatedly "visiting" the sites that comprise it in correct order. Yates published her influential study, The Art of Memory, which studies The contents of a speech, or any other complex data broken up into discrete artificial memory from antiquity to the 17th century. Both books opened units, are transformed into a second set of images associated with the res.
These become attached to the places: the image associated with the first While Rossi's Clavis universalis inspired a series of studies on the shift argument is superimposed on the first locus, the one associated with the toward ars combinatoria and topical encyclopedism and polimatia in the 16th second argument on the second locus, and so on. This method not only cultural context.
The interest in the What distinguishes the artificial memory from rude memory, then, is ancient ars memorativa was instigated by the Aristotle commentaries of carefull crafted spatial organization It is eminently notable that both scholastics do not consider mnemotechnique as a rhetorical tool but as an aid for the memory, which they defined as part of ethics. Following the authority of Gcero De inventione II, , they consider it Hermnium also proposes to method 21 Glossing on the Rhetorica ad Herrennium, Albert the Great expresses this principle most which Quintilian rejects.
Middle Ages and the importance of memory in general IV, 2, , p. This is an indicator that mnemotechnique must be seen in a broader cultural context. Consequently, scholarship has departed from the issue of artificial memory and turned its attention to memory as a multifarious phenomenon of crucial importance for medieval culture. On the contrary, liturgical and monastic commemoration were at the very heart of culture, and indispensable for social structuring and coherence, and, not the least, the exercise of power.
Carruthers demon- semblanzas strates that Yates's architectonic art of memory is "only one subset of 11 many" "Poet as Masterbuilder She shows that the 13lh-century revival took place in an environment where monastic circles cultivated other sorts of "locational memory. These mnemotechniques reflect a "set of learned mental techniques, habits of thinking, that build upon at least, it was thought so natural procedures of human memory and learning" In her recent The Craft of Thought , Carruthers studies memoria in its aspect as a compositional art 9 , stressing the cognitive use of mne- monic schemes and practices.
My fundamental contention in the first part of the following book is that Fernan Perez de Guzman's Generaciones y semblanzas materialize at the intersection of individual memory, mnemotechniques, historiography, "vita memoriae" according to Cicero's famous dictum De oratore II, 36, pp. Patricia E. Burke "Interior journey" , studying Juan de Mena's Laberinto de For- tuna, provide examples of how the horizon of medieval mnemonic culture structured Castilian medieval texts. He and his peers profited from the so- called "mercedes enriqueii.
He was rewarded with the office of "notario mayor de Toledo" and the sefiorio manor of Batres Salazar y Castro, Historia [ He grew up in the house of his uncle Pero L6pez de Ayala, whom he accompanied in on a diplomatic mission to the papal court at Avignon. Foulche-Delbosc, I, A topographical desc. His heir, Pedro Guzmfo y Avellaneda was born of his first marriage. The famo us Renaissance poet Garcilaso de la Vega was a great-great-grandson of his.
Rosell Among them he lists his uncle In the wake of Luna' s attempt to suppress the opposition in the Consejo Feman Perez de Guzman, "cauallero docto en toda buena dotrina" The decades following the composition of the text present a partic- are no indications that he participated after this date in the turbulent ular problem. Two manuscripts of the second half of the 15lh century have political affairs of Juan II's reign. Vicente Beltran's research indicates that at least one more ting, authoring Generaciones y semblanzas in the s.
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Sixteenth- died toward the end of ; he was interred in the family chapel, San century copies show that, in the lsabeline epoch, the text was combined Pedro Martir de Toledo. Beltran, "Transmisi6n"; Avenoza. Generaciones was, in short, of interest for a partisan history of 15th-century Castile. Adding some commentaries of his own, the "censor" of Carlos V 31 The Conde de Haro was released the same day. Rosell Juan II, ed. COOOlN 99, Disappointment over the lack of support from his peers may have contributed to his 36 See also Pedro Dfaz's introduction to G6mez Manrique' s Coplas in the Cancionero retirement Carrillo de Huete In his poner, como a Ja sustancia de!
Cent6n epistulario, ed. FoulcM-Delbosc, J, , p. According to the dubious letters of Feman G6mez de Cibdareal, Batres was involved in further greater authority Folger, "Crist6bal de Santisteban". Diego G6mez de Sandoval, one of the personalities of Generaciones, died in de Juan 11"; Terracini In spite of the work of Carriazo and Lore Marichalar Terracini, this " knot" is, like many others in this area of research, yet to be resolved.
Generaciones regularly appear in modem historians' works as "reliable doc- Galindez, in his annotations to Generaciones Cr6nica de Juan II, ed.
Hispania. Volume 75, Number 1, March 1992
Dominguez Bordona ; as a canonic work Generaciones Guzman' s work as "claros varones. In addition, as Vicente Beltran and Saskia von Hoegen have dedicated to the text in their theses. Never- "Transmisi6n" and Gemma Avenoza point out, the descendants of Gene- theless, the number of specialized studies is relatively few in comparison raciones's "illustrious men" commissioned copies of the text, altering it in with other 15lh-century "masterpieces. Castilian noble viousness of Generaciones scholarship to advances in literary criticism and houses, then, used Generaciones to forge a genealogical history of their lin- cultural history in the last decades has erected serious obstacles for a full eage chapter II.
A review of the early modern readings of Generaciones y semblanzas The two main aspects of Generaciones which have attracted considerable shows that the text was interpreted and used as a supporting account of interest are: first, the cultural, philosophical, and anthropological outlook, Castilian history under Enrique III and Juan II, as a register of important weltanschauung and menschenbild, which underlie the Generaciones, moti- lords of the time and as a source for aristocratic family history. These ge- vating the author to compose the "biographies" of his contemporaries; and neric and pragmatic aspects and interpretive clues were, by and large, second, the Greco-Roman rhetorical patterns and models which influenced neglected by modern scholarship.
Regarding the weltanschauung that inspired Perez de Guzman, three positions can be distinguished.
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Older studies, such as Eduard Fueter and 2. Generaciones and its modem critics Marcelino Menendez Pelayo, and more recent ones, like Franco Meregalli "Generaciones" , Nicolas del Castillo Mathieu and Lia Noemi Uriarte Fifteenth-century Castilian historiography is still a widely unexplored field Rebaudi "Feman Perez de Guzman"; "Modelos literarios" , emphasize the of research Tate, "Cronista"; Garcia, "Cr6nica"; G6mez Redondo, "Cr6nica originality and realism, even verism of the Generaciones, relating these particular"; Agnew.
Generaciones y semblanzas, however, has had good qualities to the author's "modem" psychological perspicacity. Virtually every historical study es original [ Beltran, original but it was also the first biographical gallery which the modem lit- "Transmisi6n manuscrita" Collating his model with MS. Tate's editions follow the Escorial manuscript. Compare Beltran "Transmisi6n manuscrita" Claros varones de Castilla 3. Yet he refers here clearly to Loores de los claros varones by 43 Regarding views on the Generadones in older scholarship see Amador de los Rios the same auth.
See also chapter IV. Kein humanistisches Werk kom. He, in turn, figures as a precur- sor of and pioneer for modem, more "advanced" forms of biographical [Italian biographical writing cannot compete with Femm Perez de Guzmm's history. The historicist framework manifests itself in the notion of Prerrena- Generaciones, Semblanzas e Obras. The problem is obviously that Generaciones scholarship has eclipsed Most scholars, like Francisco L6pez Estrada, Juan Marichal , Carlos contemporary horizons of expectations and disregarded markers that relate Oaveria, Franco Meregalli, Robert B.
An exception to gado and Merce L6pez Casas, hold that Generaciones y semblanzas is an this general picture are the studies of Vicente Beltran "Transmisi6n"; expression of an essentially medieval aristocratic mentality in transition to "Transmisi6n manuscrita" and Avenoza. They earn the merit not only to Renaissance attitudes. It is thus the more unfortunate that most recent Generaciones research is Countering this view, L6pez Estrada linked Generaciones to the descriptio of apparently unaware or negligent of their work.
Von Hoegen's call 'rhetoricism"'] Reviewing L6pez Estrada's arguments, L6pez chiefly descriptive analysis of Generaciones aims, once again, at zeitgeist Casas comes to the conclusion that "despues de toda esta exposici6n parece and menschenbild. Barrio's edition is, in terms of interpretation and claro que las Generaciones y semblanzas no siguen las teorias que se forjaron textual criticism, not superior to Tate's edition.
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Part of the reason is seems clear that Generacianes y semblanzas do not follow the ideas forged in that it has approached the text with traditional tools of criticism. This does the schools of Orleans and Paris"] In light of the On the other hand, it is today universally accepted that the roots of interpretive hints early readers have provided us, I will, therefore, reexam- Perez de Guzman' s technique of portrait are to be found in Greek and Ro- ine the most important "influences" on Generaciones which modem schol- man biography Uriarte Rebaudi; Claveria; Tate, "Pr6logo"; L6pez Casas.