In most cases he or she may return to his or her usual activities at home. However, it should be noted that sometimes more than one surgery is required. Amblyopia lazy eye is another frequent condition, occurring in about three or four of every children. When a child is born with normal eyes, he or she has the potential for good vision in both eyes, but must learn to see with each of them. If for some reason, the child prefers to use one eye more than the other, the preferred eye learns to see well but the other suffers from lack of use.
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It does not learn to see as well, even with glasses. The non-preferred eye is said to be lazy or have amblyopia. One of the common causes for lazy eye is strabismus. When the child's eyes are pointed in different directions, the child has to use one eye at a time to avoid seeing double. If he or she uses one eye more than the other, the other eye becomes lazy. Children without strabismus can also develop a lazy eye. Even though their eyes are straight, one eye is preferred more than the other. This non-preferred eye becomes lazy and does not learn to see.
Amblyopia does not bother the child because there are no symptoms. It is found only by checking the vision in each eye. This can be done fairly accurately in any child three years or older. For this reason, all children should have their vision tested by age four. The treatment for amblyopia involves forcing the lazy eye to be used more often. Usually this is accomplished by patching the preferred, or good eye. This may have to be continued for several months until each eye sees equally well. Fortunately, it is usually successful in restoring good sight.
Sometimes the patching must be continued intermittently until age nine. If the lazy eye is out of focus, eyeglasses may be required, in addition to patching the good eye, to obtain the best sight.
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Many children enter the world with less than percent of their expected visual capacity, a deficiency that is not always obvious to parents or medical professionals. One sign of possible eye problems, however, is eye movement. Eye movements tell a lot about vision, even if a child is pre-verbal. How well a child follows faces or large objects is a clue to his or her visual abilities. Another indication of a possible disorder is unusual jiggling of a child's eye s , called nystagmus.
These eye movements can be constant or intermittent. They can be horizontal, vertical, oblique, torsional circular or combinations of the above. Thus, the study of eye movement can provide important information regarding sight. The testing is conducted with sophisticated computer technology and video recording equipment. The specially designed tests can record eye movements in thousandths of a second and fractions of a degree that show the slightest irregularity and patterns of the jiggling.
By using electro-oculograms, where small electrodes are placed on the skin around an infants eyes, eye movements of children under one year of age can be recorded. This test is not painful or harmful to the child. Patients are routinely videotaped for further analysis. The general behavior of the child at the time of the test is also assessed. This system has enabled our researchers to describe and document the different types of eye movements in infants — something that no other center had previously been able to do.
For more accurate recordings of adults and older children, special contact lenses containing fine hairline wires are placed on the eyes and then connected to recording devices. A computer-controlled target is directed onto a screen so that precise areas of the retina can be stimulated, even in randomly moving eyes.
The special contact lenses provide horizontal, vertical or torsional recordings with a precision and range not usually available, affording measurements on eyes that cannot accurately track a target. The vision of infants, preverbal children and certain adults is measured by a spatial frequency sweep VEP visually evoked potential. During this test a patient watches a television screen filled with lines, the sizes of which are changed by computer.
As the lines are reversed, the brain waves that are generated by vision are recorded until the widths of the lines are too small to be seen. After analyzing these waves, the computer provides highly accurate estimates of the patient's visual acuity. Another type of VEP uses flashes instead of lines.
This test is particularly helpful in determining which nystagmus patients have albinotic traits - those that occur in albino children — and whether the child has any potential for binocular vision. Because children are always growing and developing, the Foerderer Center provides ongoing testing as the child's condition evolves.
Children with eye movement disorders are monitored closely with repeat testing while they are young. Genetic testing and counseling is available to the parents of children with eye movement disorders that are linked to heredity. The Foerderer Center staff take detailed family histories in these cases to provide for the genetics counseling and to further study family members.
This information is not only helpful to parents but also to the research of these conditions. Nystagmus is a condition where the eyes make repetitive movements. The eyes can jerk exclusively in one direction, or make back and forth movements. With nystagmus, the eye can look jittery and can affect both eyes or just one eye. The information contained in this online site is intended to provide accurate and helpful health information for the general public. It is made available with the understanding that the author and publisher are not engaged in rendering medical, health, psychological, or any other kind of personal professional services on this site.
The information should not be considered complete and does not cover all diseases, ailments, physical conditions or their treatment. It should not be used in place of a call or visit to a medical, health or other competent professional, who should be consulted before adopting any of the suggestions in this site or drawing inferences from it. The information about drugs contained on this site is general in nature.
It does not cover all possible uses, actions, precautions, side effects, or interactions of the medicines mentioned, nor is the information intended as medical advice for individual problems or for making an evaluation as to the risks and benefits of taking a particular drug.
The operator s of this site, and the publisher, specifically disclaim all responsibility for any liability, loss or risk, personal or otherwise, which is incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, of the use and application of any of the material on this site. Find a Doctor.
Eye Movement Disorders
Brown, Stuart I. Camp, Andrew Chao, Daniel L. Freeman, William R. Goldbaum, Michael H. The American Optometric Association provides doctor-reviewed, doctor-approved information about the most common eye conditions. Find out more below. If you are having vision or eye problems, see an AOA-member optometrist today. When infection, called Acanthamoeba keratitis, does occur, it can threaten your vision. The best defense against Acanthamoeba keratitis infection is proper contact lens hygiene.
Accommodative Dysfunction An eye focusing problem that is unrelated to changes in the lens of the eye due to aging. Anterior Uveitis Anterior uveitis is an inflammation of the middle layer of the eye. This middle layer includes the iris colored part of the eye and adjacent tissue known as the ciliary body.
Glossary of Eye and Vision Conditions
If untreated, glaucoma, cataract or retinal edema can develop and cause permanent loss of vision. It usually responds well to treatment, but the inflammation tends to recur. Astigmatism A vision condition that causes blurred vision due either to the irregular shape of the cornea the clear front cover of the eye or sometimes the curvature of the lens inside the eye. Blepharitis An inflammation of the eyelids and eyelashes causing red, irritated, itchy eyelids and dandruff-like scales on eyelashes.
Cataract A cloudy or opaque area in the normally clear lens of the eye located behind the iris. Chalazion A slowly developing lump that forms due to blockage and swelling of an oil gland in the eyelid. Color Vision Deficiency The inability to distinguish certain shades of color. The term "color blindness" is also used to describe this visual condition, but very few people are completely color blind. Computer Vision Syndrome A group of eye and vision-related problems that result from prolonged computer use.
Conjunctivitis A swelling or inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, transparent layer of tissue that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and covers the white part of the eye. Causes may or may not be infectious. Convergence Insufficiency An eye coordination problem in which the eyes drift outward when reading or doing close work.
Corneal Abrasion A cut or scratch on the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye. Crossed Eyes Crossed eyes, or strabismus, is a condition in which both eyes do not look at the same place at the same time. It usually occurs in people who have poor eye muscle control or are very farsighted. Diabetic Retinopathy A condition occurring in people with diabetes. It causes progressive damage to the retina, the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye. Dry Eye A condition in which there are insufficient tears to lubricate and nourish the eye.
Eye Coordination Eye coordination is the ability of both eyes to work together as a team. Each of your eyes sees a slightly different image. Your brain, by a process called fusion, blends these two images into one three-dimensional picture. Good eye coordination keeps the eyes in proper alignment. Poor eye coordination results from a lack of adequate vision development or improperly developed eye muscle control. Farsightedness Hyperopia A vision condition in which distant objects are seen clearly, but close objects are blurred. Glaucoma A group of disorders leading to progressive damage to the optic nerve.
It is characterized by loss of nerve tissue that results in vision loss. Hordeolum Sty An infection of an oil gland in the eyelid. Keratitis An inflammation or swelling of the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye. Keratoconus An eye disorder causing progressive thinning and bulging of the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye. Lazy Eye Amblyopia Also known as lazy eye, the loss or lack of development of clear vision in just one eye not due to eye health problems. Eyeglasses or contact lenses can't fully correct the reduced vision caused by lazy eye.
Learning-related Vision Problems Vision disorders that interfere with reading and learning. Macular Degeneration An eye disease affecting the macula the center of the light-sensitive retina at the back of the eye , causing loss of central vision. Migraine with Aura A type of severe headache accompanied by various visual symptoms. Myokymia Myokymia of the lid is a unilateral and uncontrollable lid twitch or tic that is not caused by disease or pathology.
It is thought to be brought on by stress and other similar issues and resolves on its own with time. Nearsightedness Myopia A vision condition in which close objects are seen clearly, but objects farther away are blurred. Nystagmus A vision condition in which the eyes make repetitive, uncontrolled movements, often resulting in reduced vision. Ocular Allergies The abnormal response of sensitive eyes to contact with allergens and other irritating substances.
Ocular Hypertension An increase in the pressure inside the eye above the range considered normal without any detectable changes in vision or damage to the structures of the eye. Ocular Migraine Visual disturbance similar to what can occur with a migraine but without the headache. This visual disturbance can be alarming. Pinguecula An abnormal growth of tissue on the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white of the eye. Presbyopia An age-related vision condition in which the eye gradually loses the ability to focus on near objects.
Pterygium An abnormal growth of tissue on the conjunctiva the clear membrane that covers the white of the eye and the adjacent cornea the clear front surface of the eye. Ptosis A drooping of the upper eyelid. Retinal Detachment A tearing or separation of the retina the light-sensitive lining at the back of the eye from the underlying tissue.