It is, as Cruz writes, "a town which, in the end, felt that an injustice was being committed and which rebelled against it The municipal elections of April 12, later became a referendum whereby the monarchy was lost. The reformist spark had caught fire and put an end to the monarchical regime.
As in other parts of Spain, in Aragon, the elections of April 12, awarded Republican and Socialist candidates with clear victories councilors against the Monarchists councilors Cenarro, , p. At the same time, this development favored the implementation of a series of local contracting policies and even helped keep security forces under control. I simply refuse. However, what interests us is the reaction against this by Valeriano and Gumersindo, who personify the power and influence of traditionalism.
They describe the elected councilors as "riffraff". Their attitude is one of reluctance to accept change. What it reveals is a contrarian and negative posture. The establishment of the Republic "was not received with the same enthusiasm everywhere" Reig Tapia, , p. In certain disadvantaged social strata, it was thought that the introduction of the new regime would allow "the popular masses to achieve equality through mobilization and participation" Cruz, , p.
But it was not as simple as that, and existing power relations, although altered somewhat by the Republic, remained rigidly in place. Spain might have apparently fallen asleep Monarchist and woken up Republican the next day, but that did not mean that all of society followed suit, in sync or in unison.
This shows the relationship between "political and social Conservatism" and the Church Casanova, , p. Because they fear what might happen, they ask him to talk to Paco. They attempt to mediate with the most publicly-recognized figurehead associated with the reforms to be launched. This meeting succinctly captures the feeling that the Republic was yearning anxiously for reform. These laudable goals, though simplified to a certain extent, are clear at the time of presenting them to a cinema audience as part of a permanent vindication of the peasantry.
Clearly, for this to happen, those long-standing and traditional cacique power structures would have to be demolished and the bases of privilege attacked. Here, we are presented with a contrast between the stark and bleak reality of the bare, gray peasant household, and the living room where Paco and Valeriano have their meeting. This room is furnished with every manner of luxury and comfort and, as such, demonstrates to us the differences in living standards from one social class to another.
However, "the worsening social and economic tensions that, in turn, provoked contradictory processes of modernization" Malefakis, , p. In the movie, despite everything, Paco manages to occupy this land. Furthermore, Valeriano finds himself obliged to get out of the village because of such events. Although, in the film, it seems that they obtain reforms in what is an exaggeratedly idealized version of reality, the real historical reforms did not even address the demands of the peasantry leading up to the Civil War. This fomented a tension between pro- and anti-revolutionary factions, more a product of propaganda and rhetoric than anything else, which resulted in fears and exaggerations that created fertile ground for military uprisings.
In any case, it should be added that, at the end of the Republican period, the question of land distribution had still not been resolved Malefakis, , p. We should not ignore that "the major contribution the editing has made to the filmic narrative structure is that it allows the audience to see parallel and simultaneous acts which happen in different places" Vanoye and Goliot-Lete, , p. The film, constructed around a far-from-accidental gaze on the past, contains significant flashbacks that always finish right at the present moment in history.
This filmic mechanism, besides breaking away from the traditional chronological narrative form because certain stylistic preferences, establishes a close relationship between past and present, both of which are united by memory. It is no coincidence that it took more than three decades to adapt the novel to cinema. Not by chance has the interest in dealing with a guilty conscience been reignited.
This is not exclusive to the priesthood or the final cut of the film, which is haunted by the memory of still-un-exorcised ghosts, but also affects a certain part of society which collaborated with those groups spearheading repression. He ends up sitting, with an air of defeat, on a wicker chair.
The town has regained social peace in exchange for abandoning its conscience. For this reason, their absence represents their disapproval of the way in which the parish and local power have proceeded. However, the metaphor is extremely telling. The populace was highly aware of the barbaric events and openly condemned them. Continuing with the film, the young altar boy heads toward the place where the church-bell rope is situated. Belonging to quite another generation, this adolescent is not aware of the seriousness of recent events — events which have changed the future of the local area.
This is because he has not lived through anything similar before, despite having learnt a song about this tragic sequence of events; this song allows us to assess how such events came to be expressed by people from many towns, such that we should never forget what happened.
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We appreciate this when we hear Paco singing as he rings the bell. At the end of the song, a new flashback is introduced. He is going to be baptized in the church. In a certain sense, the song becomes the collective social memory of a town which is accustomed to remembering events in this way — events in which the town is immersed.
No group of human beings is made up, no action undertaken and no thought communicated without their involvement; this story is as much a product of social memory as a source of it Fentress and Wickham, , p. In the film, a man tosses candies to the children, which are then picked up with great joy. The children are singing a song but stop when they enter the church. The silence of this image in the half-light of the room, punctuated only by the sound of horseshoes against the ground, reveals a quiet, withheld sadness; this, once again, whisks us off to another memory of the young Paco who, still a child, is mulling over his experience in the caves where he sees how many of his neighbors live.
He bows before the altar and his sonorous footsteps reverberate in the ceiling of a deserted church. Away with all those bad feelings!
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Tell me: how much is it? His eyes are bloodshot. He is being consumed by pain. It hurts him. We anticipate a tragic story. He closes his eyes and the memories come flooding back. Another man knocks on the door. Upon hearing him, he looks up and, brusquely observes the arrival of the last of the men who have come to pray for Paco. Enter the altar boy. Yes, a horse! Surely it was her. Crazy as anything but as mischievous as ever.
The horse, free once again, begins to trot. Indeed, "the results of Civil War cut short hopes of agrarian reform and, resultantly, gave rise to a generalized feeling of resignation" Richards, , p. With this forcefulness and conviction, a reality can be revealed through images. Arguing from another perspective altogether, Cervera states that, in the film: "War is presented as the culmination of the confrontation between the ever-powerful and the underprivileged, in the context of rural Spain" Cervera, , p.
The role played by the Church is assessed as being negative. However, when underlining these facts, it is worth clarifying that the film is remiss, once again, in making clear that the Republican regime was of importance in awakening aspirations within the Spanish peasantry: a line which is sketched out, in an implicit way, within both the literary and film narratives.
It is true that "priests, Falangists and landowners instigated murders" Bernecker and Brinkamann, , p. There are examples of priests who were involved in defending and safeguarding lives and not every Falangist committed terrible acts. He does not participate in violence by any means, but rather resigns himself to it because he has no other choice. Those responsible for the executions were those who drafted blacklists. These names could only be given by local residents: not knowing who the accuser might have been "allowed people to point the finger at competitors for work, love rivals, or no-longer-loved partners" Ledesma, , p.
Let us speak then about these accusers: such are the secondary characters Gumersindo and Valeriano, from whom we can best gauge the responsibility of every player in the drama. This, in a way, sums up his old-fashioned mentality, typical of an era characterized by highly rigid social and moral hierarchies.
This, coupled with his fabrications and false accusations, marks him out as a conservative and suspicious soul. In any case, their attitudes — fearful and childlike right throughout the film — establish them as distrusting and not-in-the-least-progressive characters.
Although they have used religion to justify the way they go about things, we are given to understand that their actions have, above all, been driven by another factor of greater weight: the fear of social change. Let us return to the final images of the film. In the same drawer is the old wooden gun that, as a child, Paco so naively tried to hide from the priest. This "becomes a symbol of death along with his personal memories" Faro Fortaleza, , p. Certainly, his attitude was prescient and not-in-the-least coincidental because, after all, his only weapons were reason and the legality of Republican rule, neither of which injured or killed; on the contrary, the others, the rulers of the town and the Falangists, resorted exclusively violence to impose their will.
Leaving the chalice on the altar, he begins Mass. A wide shot reveals the three men who wanted to pay for Mass kneeling in an empty church. Nobody else has attended the ceremony. Nobody else will. Nobody in the town feels able to attend a ceremony commemorating the tragic life of a man who, without committing any crime greater than distributing land among the very neediest, was murdered like other innocents besides him who met the very same end. The absence of the entire town is significant. This demonstrates a public condemnation of what has happened; rather than being because of fear itself, it is because they fear being confronted by their "shame" Bernecker and Brinkamann, , p.
It would not be believable if nobody attended these celebrations. We must not exclude those who, as believers, saw the substantial value of forgiveness and reconciliation in these acts; however, considering the attitude of the regime at the time, we need not conclude that this is the intention of the director in this scene.
Nevertheless, the factor of crucial importance in this scene is the exposition, for the first time and in ever such an illustrative way, of "the loneliness of the Franquista victors" Faro Fortaleza, , p. This is supported by the socio-political reality at the time: "The condition of the citizenry in the thirties was inextricably linked to the struggle for a specific identity whereby people themselves could establish rights for themselves" Cruz, , p.
The image of an empty church is, above all else, the result of cinematographic and novelistic imagination; it is a reminder of a bitter silence and the covert social protest over contemporary events. Without doubt, it creates a cinematic effect which is useful in recovering the symbolic value of a part of history wherein Franquista repression was deemed unacceptable.
Of course, the film eventually indicates to us that those who do not forget these events are the townspeople. Reception, awards and film reviews The film was shot in the villages of and Envid and Codees, not far from Calatayud. Its budget was a hundred million pesetas and the film was funded, in part, by the Spanish Ministry of Culture and by local government in Zaragoza Rovira, According to Gubern, the movie was received unenthusiastically by critics, who considered it a film which belonged to another era Gubern, , p.
Likewise, the director, Francesc Betriu, following some criticism adducing that the film was Manichean because of the characterization of the Falangists engaged in repression, publicly stated that "there can only be a negative judgment regarding the Falangists, as it was they who attacked the Spanish people " Cenarro, , p. These reasons help explain why the Falangists are shown as the only group to lead the repression in the film since they do not figure in the novel.
Certainly, here, the importance that the imagination takes on is clearly manifest: firstly, in emphasizing a singular sometimes functional vision removed from typical historical interpretations and emphasizing the role of the creator-director in this vision; secondly, in revealing the film to cinema audiences. Neither does critic Jesus Ruiz review it well. Then there is the Hoja del lunes which calls it "superficial tragedy" 29 September Jorge de Comminges, however, believes that the film lacks warmth, even if he considers it to have "very neat, formally classical" narrative Comminges, Despite all this, we have seen how the Spanish public had an appetite for historical cinema.
In an interview, the director himself affirmed that, despite the cool reception from Spanish critics, foreign newspapers such as Le Monde, the Herald Tribune and Variety were more positive Llorens and Amitrano, , p. Among its virtues is the value of the social portrait it paints. This criticism holds even if we accept that the purpose of cinema is not to attempt to capture history in images but to tell its own story. In weighing up the strengths and weaknesses of the film, one must consider that there are elements of great interest that simultaneously convey to us and bring us closer to ways of feeling and thinking present in rural Spanish society in the first third of the 20th century.
This is because the film posits the same conclusions reached by the scholar of Hispanic studies, Paul Preston: "The Civil War was a result of the efforts of progressive leaders in the Republic to carry out reforms against the wishes of those within most powerful social strata" Preston, , p. This needs to be qualified with the acceptance that some efforts — not always aimed in the right direction — gave prominence to fanatical groups; a fact that, admittedly, is not explicitly recognized in the film.
The change introduced at the end, portraying the Falangists as cornerstones of the repression, is given greater weight in the film than the novel, given that the Civil War is referred to directly as a framework in which rupture could occur. Also, the fact that agrarian problems are so simply and subtly explained leads us to conclude that it would be redundant to treat the question of social injustice as a primary cause of conflict within the range of problems that beset Spain at the time.
Therefore, indirectly — through the figure of Paco — we reason that he, as a Spanish peasant, personifies the spirit of change and social justice that had been sown deep within the most disadvantaged sections of society. The Republic was the point of departure for such aspirations to take form.
However, as happens in the film Tierra de rastrojos, the Republic remains a mere ideal suppressed by war. It acquires no substantive form. All this said, the subtlety of the message allows for the establishment of the central theme in this social drama, which is clarified in the final scene. The townspeople turn their backs on these characters. The film offers another way of telling the story: tackling it from the present with a critical gaze which focuses on events that so deplorably tainted the future of both the peasantry of this period and the Second Republic.
Another important feature of cinema lies not so much in the stories told, but how it tells them and gives them life and shape in its own internally-credible universe, through imagery. The reviews advise that such credibility was not fully achieved. Bibliography Aguado, A. Madrid: Abada Editorial S. Ya, September 14, La Vanguardia, September 30, Directed by, no. Hoja del lunes, September 29, Godicheau Editors. La Vanguardia, September 14, Figura 1. Las ciudades objeto de estudio en la sociedad del conocimiento. Tabla 1. Tabla 2. Establecimientos de sectores creativos e intensivos en conocimiento , Tabla 3.
Esfuerzo innovador. Tabla 4. Instituto de Comercio Exterior 3. La capacidad innovadora de las empresas. Para analizar la capacidad innovadora de las empresas se han realizado encuestas en las tres ciudades objeto de estudios. Figura 2. Tabla 5. Tabla 6. Agentes socio-institucionales con presencia activa en las ciudades. Figura 3. Se trata en los dos casos de redes establecidas dentro del espacio regional.
Entre los factores que explican tales comportamientos, hay que destacar la capacidad de respuesta de los actores locales ante los problemas y retos a los que deben hacer frente. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, Milieux innovateurs en Europe. Revista Internacional de Desenvolvimiento Local, vol. Approaches, Experiences and Perspectives, Oxford, Elsevier.
Hacia un desarrollo equilibrado y sostenible del territorio de la UE. Valencia, Universidad de Valencia. Territoires apprenants. Caravaca, I. The idea of transformation prevails symbolically over permanence, and that of rupture over continuity, even when, at times, this might create instability and an impression of insecurity.
Theoretical framework and bases of the investigation. The stiff competition to which businesses and territories find themselves subordinated in a heavily globalized economic system conditions their integration within the space of flows and networks, obliging them to remain ever-vigilant in order to make the most of those opportunities which might confer advantages, and moreover, to search out solutions to whichever new problems they must confront. The technological revolution is the force majeure behind such processes, which are closely related with economic globalization and constitute the base of the society of knowledge Drucker, ; Machlup, ; Boisier, ; UNESCO, ; Rohrbach, ….
In this context, the capacity for incorporating knowledge and effecting innovations conditions the way in which businesses and territories insert into an unbalanced and highly changeable world, in which there exist counterposing creative areas capable of successfully responding to those new challenges and of assisting those other businesses left straggling behind because of their structural deficiencies which, in conjunction with their scarce interest in learning and lack of innovatory spirit, impede the reactions necessary for adapting to the logic of the society of knowledge.
It is no wonder, by consequence, that knowledge and innovation have been converted into the point of confluence for different epistemological currents and for scientific disciplines preoccupied with the relations between economic activities and territories Feldman, ; Maillat-Kebir, ; Cating-Lacour-Lung, ….
Understood from an all-at-once economic and socio-institutional perspective, innovation is thereby converted into an important factor which conditions territorial development as well as economic dynamism. In this respect, the conceptual category of the intermediate city Gault, is used to refer to those which, aside from being of a size considered to be medium within corresponding urban systems, are able to act like intermediaries between big cities and rural spaces, thereby contributing to territorial equilibrium.
Such would be the cities which would deserve to belong to the category intelligent cities; these would be recognized as such for their ability to generate or incorporate the necessary knowledge to put their own resources to use in efficient and rational ways which contribute creative, responsible and committed solutions, not only for increasing the competitive capacity of their businesses, but also and above all, for improving the quality of life for the inhabiting populations.
As part of this general context, the object of this article is to create an analysis of the more or less dynamic, competitive or innovatory behaviour of three medium-sized Andalusian cities, observing the unequal capacity of local actors to respond to the new challenges they must confront, and the ways in which they position themselves and integrate in the so-called society of knowledge. As is known, Andalusia is a peripheral region, both in European and Spanish contexts, and is afflicted by a range of structural weaknesses which encumber the developmental process there; a process which demands more effort from its institutions, businesses and society to overcome the inherent difficulties of such circumstances.
As a counterpoint to the above, the process requires a territorial resource of special interest for the approach followed here: a well-balanced urban system which can facilitate the dissemination of innovation and knowledge through a large-scale network of medium-sized cities which are well distributed within the region. To select cities which meet the requirements of the study, diverse criteria relating to their size, the territorial context where they are located, and the functionality of the economic base to which they belong, have been considered.
Figure 1. Object cities of interest in the study of the Society of Knowledge. In close relation with the reflections and newly enlivened debate surrounding the so-called society of knowledge, the studies which have sought to compare the position of the cities in this context by utilizing indicators related to the formation of human capital, the presence of intensive knowledge-based activities, the innovatory efforts made by businesses, or the results of those efforts, are already diverse in range.
Bearing these in mind, the most up-to-date information has been selected, although for some indicators, the only available source was census data from , once more evidencing the deficiencies of local records. One first group of indicators is related with the resources and infrastructures relating to knowledge and innovation. Among these, of special interest is a resource quite as basic as the population with a greater preparation for effecting innovation, as well as their weight in the job market. This demonstrates that in these municipalities, the job market has, compared to other cities in the region, a higher absorption capacity for the more qualified part of the population.
Table 1. Resources and infrastructures for innovation. The specialization of activities particular to the society of knowledge can be measured through the number of business establishments with connections to them. Table 2. Establishments in the creative and intensive sectors of knowledge , For the analysis of the innovatory effort exerted by these businesses, it is useful to consider the number of projects which have received public financing and the investment mobilized for these projects and the help or incentives received, as well as the strategies of differentiation based on the support for good quality.
Table 3. Innovatory effort. Lastly, the results of innovation can be measured from the number of registered patents and the capacity of businesses to insert into external markets. Table 4. Results of innovation. The innovatory capacity of businesses. There is already a great tradition of the analysis of business innovation in scientific literature. For quite a long time, this analysis was identified with the transmission of codified knowledge and, for this reason, it was knowledge which was easily reproducible and therefore apt for exchange and acquisition on the market; besides this, it was considered to be related with the internal factors of the firm itself Lundvall, The emphasis, then, was put on tacit knowledge which, not being codified, is transferred through interpersonal relations.
Agreeing with the aforesaid, Moulaert insists on the deeply rooted character of knowledge and on the prominence that the territory acquires with it. For the above reasons, the more or less innovatory behavior of businesses conditions the extent of integration of cities within the economy and society of knowledge. Surveys have been carried out to analyse the innovatory capacity of businesses in the three cities being studied.
The behavior of Antequera turns out to be very different because the weight of the strategies of differentiation which use brands or emblems of quality is significant. Figure 2. Source: surveys However, the innovatory capacity of the businesses is in good measure conditioned by the collaborative relations they establish with other firms and socio-institutional agents — something which makes this an aspect which deserves attention. Even so, in all three cities, only scarce development of cooperation networks between businesses is observed, while the most common networks are those established with socio-institutional actors.
Table 5. Socio-institutional innovation and networks of cooperation. Confronted by the traditional perspectives which attempt to explain socio-economic and territorial behavior through isolated decisions, a greater attention to collective learning and socio-institutional innovation is now advocated, because it is considered that they constitute an important base for construction processes in innovatory cities. In this way, joined to business innovation, the relationship between other private and public socio-economic and institutional agents is gaining increasing importance; agents which act in each sphere while conditioned in greater or smaller measure by territorial contexts, inherited socio-economic structures and by the presence of those resources which make up their endogenous capital.
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This implies that the characterization of an innovative territory must include, along with the diverse forms of business innovation considered before, those others related with socio-institutional innovation: social mobilization, compromise and agreement, cooperation among distinct institutions with competences in the territory, and the active participation of the society in the determination of its future.
In this way, if the reticular and relational conception of territories reinforces the role of medium-sized cities, the socio-institutional networks of cooperation will contribute to their insertion into the Society of knowledge. In these, physical proximity helps to facilitate the exchange of tacit knowledge and trust among the actors; although for this trust to exist, a great interest in the existence of norms and common values has arisen — that is to say, of cultural proximity.
In order to analyze socio-institutional networks, it is necessary to identify the distinct types of agents that act in each one of the cities under analysis. In this sense, table 6 gathers together those which appear to be more pertinent. Table 6. Socio-institutional agents with an active presence in the cities. Through the use of sociograms, figure 3 attempts to synthesize the fabric of established relations among those actors with a more active presence in the studied urban spaces.
In this last instance, part of the economic and innovatory dynamism is derived from the proceedings of private entities outside the city. Figure 3. This has to do with the two cases of established networks within this regional space. Strategies for action and their relationship with resources.
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The construction of innovatory intermediate cities must be associated with the utilization and intelligent management of the resources available in them, and with the objective of being able to advance development processes in each. In this sense, some strategies of procedure come to be of special interest: those ones carried out in each space with the objective of advancing the construction of a specific city project that can determine the ways in which the cities can be integrated into the society of knowledge.
From the economic perspective, its already cited territorial centrality leads it to continue to bet on a specialization in logistics and distribution and which is transforming its traditional primary-activity-and-industry-based and first-transformation economic structure. Among the changes experienced by Antequera during recent years, the arrival of the high-velocity train AVE should be highlighted; this has entailed the construction of a new station, a long way from the urban nucleus in order to meet the dual-strategy of reducing costs and generating a new focal-point of urban and economic development.
This logic is taken up by a good number of local socio-institutional agents, who continue to bet on economic and urbanistic growth based on the creation of strong transport infrastructure, considered to be indispensable as the base for a strategy for specializing in distribution functions. A fair part of the projected infrastructure is generating support as well as doubts.
The first of these have to do, above all, with improvements in accessibility, as much in the city as in the territorial space that surrounds it, on the understanding that they will assist in dynamizing the economy. Special mention is due for those other strategies directed towards the promotion of knowledge. This is a project which, as well as counting on a course of sensitization within the culture of enterprise, makes an attempt to reduce student failure rates, to educate through values and to foment an interest in learning.
In this vein, its integration in the International Association of Educating Cities, made-up by a significant number of urban centres in thirty-six countries, is explained. Finally, the Proyecto Territorio Socialmente Responsable Socially Responsable Territorial Project , in which business and social institutions, businesses, trade unions, universities and also the regional administration are participating, is being carried to its conclusion.
Its objective is to involve the local society in an economically dynamic, environmentally sustainable and socially cohesive city project. The requirements of this agriculture and the growing push for fruit and vegetable commercialization has fostered a process of business teamwork which has formed a complex productive system created from the standpoint of developing an entrepreneurial fabric consisting in businesses of varying sizes, and which are dedicated to the treatment of garden produce, to the inputs and services in agricultural operations, to businesses which treat the produce, and to the commercialization of production.
In this manner, parallel to the development of greenhouse agriculture, the creation or installation of biotechnological industries, of providers of agricultural machinery, irrigation systems, synthetic substrates and agrochemicals, as well as of plastics for making greenhouses, has been continuing. In turn, the complexity of agricultural operations has required very specific and appropriate activities connected with the provision of IT and telematic services, agricultural consultation, analysis laboratories and tests. This last item should be viewed with relation to the creation of a certain number of centres and institutes for investigation that continue to prove most efficient for generating technology.
Agro-commercial activity and, in smaller measure, tourism, constitute an economic base which sustains a city connected with those other administrative activities characteristic of a provincial capital. One the one hand, it occurs at the expense of traditional agricultural land, and on the other, greenhouses are installed not only in zones which were previously looked-down-upon or rejected for being less productive, but even on industrial land.
These structural disorders owe in good part to a lack of reflection about the urban model and the resultant lack of a city Project. Besides this, no strategic plan has been made and, until very recently, even the diagnostic report which constitutes the base for the Local Agenda 21 was not forthcoming. In this context, civic forums are debating possible development strategies to help to rouse the city from this lethargic state, while some local agents, both public and private, are carrying out certain actions.
Among those actions spearheaded by the Town Council, the endorsement of an integral regeneration project of the historic center within the Urban Initiative, partly financed using European Union funds, is essential. The measures related to tourist development are much more concrete: the organization of theatrical guided visits, the creation of a cinema museum, the management of a Film Office… Some of the infrastructural actions most under demand from businesses and citizens — of which the arrival of the high velocity train and the creation of an aeronautic service to connect the city with the regional capital are worth highlighting — are being carried out by the regional administration.
Knowledge and innovation are gathering growing prominence in territorial development processes as they condition the way with which resources are taken advantage of, as well as the way in which territories are inserted into global space and into the so-called society of knowledge. In turn, this increases the amount of attention aroused by those medium-sized cities which are capable of acting as intermediaries between those greater in size and rural spheres, in this way contributing to territorial equilibrium and development.
This then, furnishes the analysis of the behavior of these medium-sized cities — an analysis undertaken by observing their capacity to innovate, the way in which they utilize their resources and their level of insertion within the society of knowledge — with special interest. Among the factors which explain such behavior, the capacity of local actors to respond when facing-up to the problems and challenges which confront them should be highlighted. This last point is closely related with the strategies carried out by city institutions and city projects which are to be realized in each of the studied cities.
Edited by Craig H. University of Illinois Press. Antonio y David Hurtado Torres — — mescolanza, los aires preflamencos. Todos ellos tienen ritmo ternario, que suele organizarse internamente, de forma muy frecuente, en hemiolia. Por ejemplo, los canarios, son la base evidente de los tanguillos. Los 7 tercios de este fandango de , sin duda, constituyen un rasgo arcaico. Para D. Juan de Miranda. M Biblioteca Nacional, Op. EarlyMusic, Vol. Estos aires musicales no eran solamente formas danzadas, sino que el canto estaba presente en todos ellos.
Fragmento de Zarabanda para guitarra Gaspar Sanz. Los Canarios Danza procedente de las Islas Canarias. Fragmento de Zarambeque, para guitarra. I, 10 The study of Flamenco contrasts sharply with other historiographical disciplines: in archaeology, for example, the investigator has to reconstruct a remote past that moves at intervals of thousands of years through immense geographical spaces; and sometimes with only scant remnants.
When on the terrain of the musicological study of Flamenco, on the other hand, it may be easier to reconstruct the past if one has sufficient historico-musical knowledge. This is because Flamenco dates back to relatively recent times and, up to a certain point, there exist a number of historical sources that allow us to trace a fairly clear and well-documented evolutionary line.
And with precise relation to this point, we should bear a decisively important thought in mind. Inarguably and above all, Flamenco is an eminently musical natural-phenomenon. Therefore, the most centrally important thing is that which leads us to a more intimate, direct and complete acquaintance with Flamenco: the music itself.
This is because the principal objective is the music — an of-itself highly ethereal and abstract thing — which would otherwise continue to be totally unknown, denying us any initiation in its secrets. However, we would remain tied up in the cavern and any information about its true source or the much-cited Pureza would be withheld. We fully agree on this as, when we speak about the study of music, we refer to a study that is all-at-once analytic, historical, musical and literary; or rather, it is a musicological study in which knowledge of musical technique is only the principal tool and in which the history of music which itself includes many other disciplines needs to be thoroughly mastered.
Furthermore, we are not only interested in the broad, general history of music; indeed, the musical styles of Beethoven, Chopin and Wagner bear scarce or zero relation to our objectives. Our principal interest is, rather, the history of the music, forms and key actors from the middle ages, the Renaissance and the Mannerist and Baroque periods. Moreover, if music already seems of-itself wholly abstract to the layperson, as soon we move inside this territory, the mystery becomes utterly huge.
Indeed, it remains daunting even for the many musicians who specialize in other musical fields. Apart from the above, it is necessary for all of this musical knowledge to be governed, guided and unified by a profound, exhaustive knowledge of times prior to Flamenco per se.
Also, one must master and internalize other types of musical knowledge quite apart from the essential things learnt in a broader education in music and related subjects. In summary, if one does not possess sufficient musical knowledge — especially of old music and Flamenco — it is impossible to undertake a rigorous study about its musical origins and evolution, simply because the necessary tools and perspectives are lacking. As a result, every approximation would turn out to be reductivist and superficial. It is therefore indispensable that, before anything else, we depart from this knowledge basis to broach an upright and sensible musical study of Flamenco.
This is necessary to build up a central corpus of knowledge. Afterwards, all other contributions from the other sciences can help to complete the picture with additional details. This could be, for example, knowledge of a piece from the 18th century, such as the Guajira — a type of Cuban folk song. And we could travel back further centuries and still encounter this rhythm.
In this way, we would at the very latest arrive in Classical Greece, the country considered to be the birthplace of the rhythmic concept of the Hemiolia. Needless to say, it is probable that this rhythmic form was used intuitively in some place and at some moment before the Greeks. But if we travel back in time indiscriminately and without any clear criterion, there will come a moment when this remote affiliation bears no relation to Flamenco, even though we might come across similar musical materials.
Equally, the much-talked-of Greek Modes, about which such enormous confusion and ignorance exist, bear no relation to the Flamenco art form. Therefore, if the aim is to undertake a musical study with relation to musical prehistory and the evolution of Flamenco, a number of things are of paramount importance. Firstly, we should refer to the necessary knowledge in this field and then secondly, precisely delimit the chronological and musical context on which our study is centered.
Original Publisher: Madrid : R. Velasco [impresor] Language: spa Pages: 34 Volume: v. More information about this seller Contact this seller 2. Original Publisher: Madrid : Estab. Montoya Language: spa Pages: 68 Volume: v. More information about this seller Contact this seller 3. Published by Distribuidora Jardim. About this Item: Distribuidora Jardim. Capa Mole. Condition: Good. Lang: Portugues. Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller 4.
Published by Editorial Monte Carmelo About this Item: Editorial Monte Carmelo, Condition: Nuevo. Ejemplar nuevo. More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. Published by New York u. About this Item: New York u. XII, p. Chaves, Bennett G. Braun, Clorinda G. Margolis u. Fundierte Edition m. Schutzumschlag u. Einband leicht berieben, Name auf flieg.
Sprache: Englisch Gewicht in Gramm: 0 Gr. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. Published by Bibliotheca Humanidades, La Plata From: Casanova Books Amsterdam, Netherlands. Large 8vo, protected wrps. More information about this seller Contact this seller 8.
From: Gyan Books Pvt. Delhi, India. Leather Bound. Reprinted in with the help of original edition published long back . As these are old books, we processed each page manually and make them readable but in some cases some pages which are blur or missing or black spots. We expect that you will understand our compulsion in these books. We found this book important for the readers who want to know more about our old treasure so we brought it back to the shelves. Hope you will like it and give your comments and suggestions.
Lang: - spa, Vol: - Volume v. Volume v. Seller Inventory LB More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. From: Cosmo Books Shropshire. First Edition. Money always has been a subject of deep concern for religious leaders. In recent decades, however, this perennial concern has taken on a new urgency as a crisis situation is perceived. Financing American Religion brings together short, readable essays representing the best, most up-to-date research and thinking on the intersections of money and religion.
Sociologists, historians, economists, and theologians ask who gives, how much, and why. They investigate how money moves and how it affects religious organizational behavior. And throughout they explore how attitudes toward money have altered over time. Religious leaders and scholars of American religion will welcome this much-needed volume.
Book Description: Money always has been a subject of deep concern for religious leaders. As such, this work will take its place as both a practical guide for religious leaders and laity, and as a brief but thorough introduction to research regarding finance and religion for scholars. Worthwhile for anyone interested in the state of individual giving, the congregational resources available for addressing faith and money issues, or philanthropy in religious institutions. Miller: University of Notre Dame Size: Multiple copies available this title. Quantity Available: 2. Inventory No: X A seller you can rely on.
Seller Inventory X More information about this seller Contact this seller Encuadernacion original. PORTO, , 24 p. Published by Int. Universities Press, About this Item: Int. Condition: Gut. Gebraucht, aber gut erhalten; tls. Sprache: Deutsch Gewicht in Gramm: Published by Coimbra, Coimbra University Press, From: Librairie Le Trait d'Union sarl.
Couverture souple. The free Briton exrtraordinary, or, A short review of the British affairs in answer to a pamphlet intitled A short view, with remarks on the Treaty of Seville, etc. Short view of the state of affairs. Cathedral -- Bibliography. An excellent historical review of the changing structure and appearance of Seville's trademark tower, from Islamic minaret to Christian belltower. Topics: Mudejar, Architecture, Islamic, Seville. Seville; an historical and descriptive account of "the pearl of Andalusia". Gasquoine Catherine Gasquoine , Seville; an historical and descriptive account of "the pearl of Andalusia,".
Some remarks upon a pamphlet entitled A short view of the state of affairs with relation to Great Britain for four years past. Reply to: A short view of the state of affairs London, Topic: Seville, Treaty of, The Treaty of Seville and the measures that have been taken for the four last years impartially considered : in a letter to a friend. Signed: A. B Topic: Seville, Treaty of, This is the only fountain in spain left like this now apparently, was recently restored. On the hour it plays music for about 5 minutes. We kept expecting the fountain to burst into bigger sprays but it spent the whole time just with these little ones.
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The music comes from a machine that is like one of those self playing pianos. When the water is turned on, on the hour, it turns it and the music starts to play. At the end the water is turned off and it stops. Topics: Flickr, video, seville.