Radiation Stress Tolerance Chapter Book Description Condition: New. This is Brand New. Seller Inventory BV. New Book. Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. Established seller since Seller Inventory IQ Delivered from our UK warehouse in 4 to 14 business days. Language: English. Brand new Book. Under abiotic stress, plant produces a large quantity of free radicals oxidants, which have been elaborated in a separate 'Oxidative Stress'.
This book has been divided into seven major parts- physical stress salt, water stresses drought and waterlogging, temperature stresses heat and cold, metal toxicities aluminium, iron, cadmium, lead, nickel, chromium, copper, zinc etc and non-metal toxicities boron and arsenic, oxidative stress, and finally atmospheric stresses air pollution, radiation and climate change.
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Seller Inventory APC Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants. Bidhan Roy. Publisher: NIPA , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.
View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis Abiotic stresses have become an integral part of crop production. For both formats the functionality available will depend on how you access the ebook via Bookshelf Online in your browser or via the Bookshelf app on your PC or mobile device. Stay on CRCPress. Exclusive web offer for individuals on all book. Preview this Book. Add to Wish List. Close Preview. Toggle navigation Additional Book Information.
Description Table of Contents. Summary Gain a better understanding of the genetic and physiological bases of stress response and stress tolerance as part of crop improvement programs Abiotic Stresses: Plant Resistance Through Breeding and Molecular Approaches explores innovative methods for breeding new varieties of major crops with resistance to environmental stresses that limit crop production worldwide. Experts provide you with basic principles and techniques of plant breeding as well as work done in relation to improving resistance in specific important world food crops.
This book supplies extensive bibliographies at the end of each chapter, as well as tables and figures that illustrate the research findings. Abiotic Stresses is divided into two sections.
Abiotic Stresses: Plant Resistance Through Breeding and Molecular Approaches - CRC Press Book
Abiotic Stresses will help scientists and academics in botany, plant breeding, plant environmental stress studies, agriculture, and horticulture modify and improve breeding programs globally. After being transferred to the screenhouse, only 15 selected BC 1 F 2 plants were retained from each population based on their overall performance. All BC 1 F 2 plants from the first round of selection were progeny tested across all three test environments, whereas the second round of selection was practiced first to select good BC 1 F 3 lines under each condition, and then to select one to three best-performing plants from each selected line.
Under the drought stress, only 47 BC 1 F 3 lines performed better than the HHZ check and comparable to drought check i. IR from which BC 1 F 4 plants were selected. Under normal irrigated conditions, best yield performing BC 1 F 4 plants were visually selected from 73 lines based on overall phenotypic performance when compared with HHZ. Table 3 and S2 Table summarize the yield performance of the HHZ BC 1 F 5 lines developed from nine selection schemes in the replicated yield trials under normal, drought and saline conditions.
Of the nine selection schemes, DS generated most However, different lines within each selection scheme varied considerably in their yield. Of these, 87 ILs Of these ILs, In any breeding program, breeders are particularly interested in the best yield performers because only the best ones are most likely to be released as new varieties.
Table 4 shows the yield performance of the top 14 ILs for best yield performance and five checks under each of the testing conditions. The 14 best lines under normal conditions had great yield advantages over HHZ, ranging from Interestingly, all these high-yielding lines, except for two, had significantly higher yield than HHZ by HHZD1-S2 had the highest mean grain yield of Eight also had significantly higher yield than HHZ under salt stress, but three lines showed significantly lower yield than HHZ under salt stress.
Six of these high yielders resulted from selection scheme YY, four from DS, two from YD and the remaining two were from SY and DD, indicating that the number of best yield performing lines under normal conditions was associated with selection under either normal or drought conditions. The 14 best yielders under drought had a much greater yield advantage over HHZ by Under non-stress control conditions, four of these ST lines were also good yielders equivalent to the high-yielding check and showed a yield advantage over HHZ by Under drought stress, all except two of these ST lines had significantly higher yield than HHZ, five of which showed better DT than the best check.
Thus, the number of best ST lines was not associated with selection under salt stress. In addition, four lines showed a huge yield improvement under one of the three conditions without a yield penalty under the other two conditions and four lines showed significant yield improvement under two of the three conditions but suffered a significant yield penalty under one of the testing conditions.
After one more round of progeny testing and two more seasons of preliminary yield trials across four testing conditions normal, drought, salinity and submergence , many BC 1 F 5 ILs were nominated to the NCYTs of different ecosystems in the Philippines, Pakistan, Mozambique and India from to Table 5. These on-farm trials generated a huge seed demand from the farmers for wide-scale adoption.
The DA and its Regional Focal Units RFUs embarked on a massive certified seed production drive covering more than 5, ha in WS and produced 19, t of seeds of these four new varieties for targeting rainfed lowlands of the Philippines during WS. Because so many promising HHZ lines with good yield potential and greatly improved tolerance of one or more stresses were developed in only eight breeding populations in 6 years, we were wondering what might have happened to the genetic compositions of these selected HHZ BC progenies. However, BC progenies from different populations varied considerably for their mean donor IF.
This result suggested that IF appeared to be a characteristic of progenies from a specific BC population. The segregation of the donor genomic segments in the selected BC 1 F 3 ILs was consistent with the BC 1 F 2 progenies with slightly increased frequency and variation in donor introgression, and reduced heterozygosity in ILs of most populations Table 6. When the donor introgression was compared among ILs derived from different selection schemes Table 7 , the donor introgression in the BC 1 F 2 progenies selected under non-stress irrigated conditions, drought and salinity did not differ significantly, except that selection for high yield under the irrigated control produced progenies with significantly higher heterozygosity than those selected under drought or salinity.
When the two-round selection schemes were compared, ILs from most selection schemes did not differ much in their donor introgression frequency except that the 33 ILs from DY had significantly lower introgression. Similarly, ILs from most selection schemes had similar heterozygosity except for those from selection schemes YY and YD, which had significantly higher heterozygosity. The low rice productivity in most rainfed areas is known to be associated with multiple abiotic stresses, but most breeding programs for rainfed systems are designed and practiced for solving problems of single abiotic stresses.
In our previous efforts, we have demonstrated that BC breeding plus strong phenotypic selection is a powerful way to exploit the hidden diversity in the primary gene pool for improving single abiotic stress tolerance [ 7 — 9 , 11 , 15 — 17 ]. In fact, one of our DT BC 2 ILs, DGI75, derived from the cross between IR64 recipient and BR24 donor , was among the two highest yield performers in 22 trials under non-stress, moderate drought and severe drought conditions in the natural rainfed shallow lowlands in northern India [ 18 ]. In this article, we reported a modified BC breeding procedure for improving multiple complex traits, which resulted in the release and up-scaling of four new rice varieties for rainfed areas of the Philippines with superior yield potential and good tolerance of drought and salinity, two new varieties for the irrigated areas of Pakistan, plus many promising ones in the pipeline to be released from only eight BC populations in 6 years.
Compared with most conventional breeding programs, our breeding approach is highly efficient. Several aspects in our BC breeding procedure that are relevant to improved selection efficiency and overall genetic gain for improving multiple complex traits merit further discussion. When compared with results from our previous study Ali et al. HHZ was therefore chosen as the recipient of our BC breeding program because it is the most widely grown inbred variety in China with high yield potential and many desirable features such as excellent plant type and grain quality.
When evaluated under favorable irrigated conditions, it also showed high yield in more than 13 countries across Asia and Africa in our GSR project the year 1 report of GSR II , indicating its wide adaptability. In classical BC breeding, most breeders tend to use local best varieties as the recipients of their BC breeding programs, which may or may not be suitable ones.
The obvious reason is that a widely adaptable variety must have key adaptive traits and pathways to most environments, in addition to its high yield potential, and it requires minimum numbers of additional alleles for improving specific target traits. Apparently, HHZ meets the requirements as an excellent recipient. Even with one generation of backcrossing, the influence of the HHZ genetic background on the overall performance of its BC progenies was enormous, as most HHZ ILs resembled HHZ phenotypically with short stature, relatively small and erect leaves and compact panicles.
However, we noted that HHZ and most of its progenies were susceptible to Tungro viruses, and this seemed difficult to change. Thus, the recipients of BC breeding programs for complex trait improvement should be widely adaptable superior commercial lines with minimum weaknesses and it is more desirable for a BC breeding program to have two to three recipients with different plant types if the breeding is aiming at broad and diverse target environments. We found that more promising ILs were selected from populations HHZ5 OM and HHZ17 CDR22 than others, indicating that donors did make differences in breeding efficiency, when defined as the number of new varieties and promising lines developed per breeding population, and OM and CDR22 have favorable alleles for the target traits at more loci complementary to HHZ.
This result suggests that BC breeding for improving complex traits should not use closely related donors.
Nevertheless, we did not make any attempt in donor selection because experiences in our previous breeding efforts indicated that donor selection based on target phenotypes was a poor way to identify superior donors for improving complex traits. In fact, the eight donors mostly represent elite materials under irrigated conditions and none of them has good tolerance of drought and salinity, and transgressive progenies, though fewer, were identified in all other populations, indicating that all donors have favorable alleles for the target traits.
Since most favorable alleles for the target traits HY, DT and ST from different donors are unlikely the same ones, introgression of the favorable alleles from different donors into the recipient was expected to broaden the genetic diversity for the target traits in the HHZ ILs. Again, this study provided another piece of strong evidence for the presence of rich hidden genetic diversity for complex traits in the primary gene pool of rice.
In this study, the responses of the BC progenies to phenotypic selection were quite complex. When the nine selection schemes were compared, most selection schemes produced approximately equal numbers of high and low yielders under irrigated and saline conditions. This did not suggest ineffectiveness of the first two rounds of selection for improving yield and ST, nor did it indicate that different selection schemes had the same breeding efficiency because the selected progenies were not compared directly with unselected ones and the two rounds of selection for the same traits practiced in different seasons here, the wet and dry seasons may not act on the same suites of alleles and pathways.
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We noted that all selection schemes resulted in significantly more DT lines. Particularly, 12 of the top 14 best performing lines under normal or saline conditions showed significantly improved yield under drought Table 4 , but the opposite was not true. This type of partial association between yield and DT has been reported in rice [ 16 , 19 ], wheat [ 20 ], maize [ 21 — 23 ] and common beans [ 24 ], but their underlying genetic mechanism remains largely unknown.
Also, it was intriguing to note that most ILs selected under salt stress had significantly improved DT but not necessarily ST. The correlated response of salt-selected ILs to drought could be explained by the common physiological mechanisms and genetic basis underlying both DT and ST in rice [ 25 ].
Interestingly, we found that the first two rounds of selection for ST at the seedling stage did not result in more BC progenies that performed better in the replicated trials under the whole growth-duration salt stress of the field conditions, which could, at least partially, be attributed to the differences between genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying ST at the seedling stage and that at the reproductive stage [ Thus, this result clearly indicated that selection for abiotic stress tolerance such as DT and ST should be best practiced in the target environments at the right developmental stage.
Nevertheless, the selection process in our BC breeding procedure with strong single-plant selection in the early segregating generation followed by one or two rounds of progeny testing across both stress multiple and non-stress environments has two unique advantages: 1 the high selection intensity, particularly under the stress conditions in the first round of selection, could quickly remove most progenies that do not have target stress tolerance; and 2 the second-round progeny testing of all selected progenies across multiple testing environments would not only verify the effectiveness of the first-round single-plant selection for single target traits, but would also allow full exploitation of the residual genetic variation in the progenies selected for a single trait for other target traits under multiple testing environments.
In fact, all selected HHZ ILs had gone through third-round progeny testing across drought, salinity, submergence and non-stress conditions and had been evaluated for grain quality parameters and resistance to several biotic stresses such as rice blast, bacterial blight and Tungro viruses. Using DNA markers, we were able to reveal some interesting aspects of donor introgression in different BC progenies of rice and their responses to strong phenotypic selection. In other words, introgression or segregation in BC progenies of rice line crosses was characteristic of specific crosses, which may or may not follow Mendelian expectations.
Selection did not appear to be responsible because no significant differences in IF were detected among lines from different selection schemes of the same populations. Since all parental lines belong to indica subspecies, the distorted segregation in the eight populations should be at a minimum. Then, a question arises regarding what mechanisms are responsible for the observed segregation distortion in specific BC populations, which should be addressed in the future.
Second, we observed generally reduced heterozygosity in the BC progenies selected in both rounds of selection. In particular, more dramatically reduced heterozygosity was associated with selection for DT and ST than selection for yield under non-stress conditions. This type of greatly reduced heterozygosity was also observed in the BC progenies selected for tolerance of drought, salinity and submergence [ 25 , 28 , 29 ]. Obviously, the superior performance in vigor and yield of these early-generation progenies is due largely to heterosis.
To overcome this, it was suggested that selection for yield potential should be delayed to later generations [ 30 ]. In this regard, screening for abiotic stress tolerance practiced in our BC breeding program appeared to allow simultaneous improvement of one or more abiotic stress tolerances as well as to achieve quicker homozygosity in early breeding generations. However, it remains a major challenge to understand what genetic and molecular mechanisms are responsible for the stress-induced quick homozygotization of early-generation breeding materials.
It should be pointed out that what was presented in this study was part of the GSR breeding technology, which can be relatively easily adopted by breeding programs in developing countries to develop varieties suitable for any target traits in different rice ecosystems.
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However, the real power of the GSR breeding strategy is the full integration of trait-specific ILs with the new genomic technologies [ 28 ]. Currently, HHZ and the eight donors have been completely sequenced. The HHZ BC 1 F 5 ILs have been genotyped by sequencing and phenotyped for yield traits under different stress drought, low input, salinity and cold conditions across many locations in Asia.
They have also been evaluated for quality parameters and resistance to multiple races of rice blast and bacterial blight pathogens. The genetic and phenotypic information of the HHZ ILs is being used for more efficiently developing superior varieties with better performance by designed QTL pyramiding and marker-assisted recurrent selection [ 28 ]. In conclusion, we reported here a highly efficient BC breeding procedure for improving multiple complex traits.
Using this approach, we were able to develop large numbers of ILs with significantly higher yield and tolerance of drought and salinity from eight BC populations in 6 years. Six of these ILs were released as new varieties for the rainfed and irrigated areas of the Philippines and Pakistan. Genetic characterization of selected BC 1 F 2 plants and BC 1 F 3 lines by DNA markers reveals three interesting aspects of donor introgression in rice BC populations: 1 donor introgression varied considerably across different crosses, 2 donor introgression in different genomic regions varied considerably across the genome in the selected ILs resulting primarily from strong selection for target traits, and 3 greatly reduced heterozygosity was observed in the selected BC progenies, particularly for drought- and salinity-selected ones.
Thus, applying strong phenotypic selection under severe abiotic stresses has major advantages by not only improving one or more abiotic stress tolerances, but also being able to achieve quicker homozygosity in early breeding generations. This breeding procedure can be relatively easily adopted by small breeding programs in developing countries to develop varieties suitable for complex target traits in different rice ecosystems. Conceptualization: ZKL.