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So it is with crannogs. At different times a crannog could have been a homestead, a workshop, a storehouse and a place of occasional refuge. Crannogs are still used today for fishing and duck hunting. I suggest that this problem is an opportunity because it enables this new cartographic project to think down into the crannog and attempt to categorise its fundamental personality, the thing that keeps people returning to it. The map concludes that they were for removing oneself from movement. This kind of thinking is not archaeological. Chris Lynn, who suggested the division between cranno g and proto-crannog , might shudder at a map subtracting down to basic forms rather than establishing nuance and diversifying across time.
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The Map of Watchful Architecture is an attempt to roll all this back. Multiple forms are plainly lumped together into one. The map seeks to create relationships, even across many centuries. As far as she was concerned, they were all crannogs. Her reasoning is partly why The Map of Watchful Architecture sticks with the 12 th -century name and tries to make the 21st century bend to it.
Lough Gara, in the North-West, was her case study. She was disappointed by the common disinterest. To the locals, crannogs were ancient history and irrelevant. Fredengren saw her work as an attempt to reverse this trend. She wanted to put some wonder into crannogs. To cast some historical light on recent structures and, at the same time, re-enchant some old stones. As part of this mission the map represents certain structures, perhaps built centuries apart, as fundamentally the same.
Not just crannogs. This is to encourage the map-reader to see perhaps unobvious relationships, throwing fresh light on both old and new. Take for another example, the Dorsey, close to the border in Southern Armagh, is a 1 st -century earthwork. Steep banks funnelled travellers toward a narrow entrance point where they could be checked and perhaps taxed Buckley, , p. It seems to have operated as an official entrance into northern territory.
Dorsey means door or gate.
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To distinguish them chronologically textual labelling is used but the symbol is the same. In this way immigration control is revealed as the inheritor of a long tradition, while at the same time an ancient site is drawn into the contemporary dynamic. When Brigadier Peter Morton was sent to head up 3rd Para in South Armagh there were cross-border routes traversable by vehicle. As part of his duties Morton was overseeing H1 to H43, forty-three cross-border routes.
Source : Crown Copyright, www. But what do they mean? The border corridor has few serious natural impediments. Farms straddle it and it runs down the middle of communities.
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The Irish border could not be sealed without a wall and a massive operation. Clearly that is unacceptable … Morton, , p. It would have been expensive but it was possible to have built a properly-defended border. The problem was perhaps as much ideological as practical. Morton notes that any such construction would have been against democracy Morton, , p.
Churchill did. Operation Banner watchtowers were often used to indicate something amiss in the standards of British democracy. Photographs of them were ominous enough to illustrate, and export, an image of oppression and injustice. Their location on hilltops, starkly contrasting what would be generally considered an attractive landscape, may have reinforced this image.
Even a soldier stationed in south Armagh watchtowers seemed troubled by the contrast. He meets the man rapt in admiration of Slieve Gullion. This is a south Armagh peak that, unlike many of its neighbours, never had a watchtower built on it. As both parts of Ireland evolve in their attitudes to each other, the handling of the borderland has also changed and the architecture of its security has softened. Nationalist parties in Northern Ireland led the attempt to have the watchtowers removed yet when, in , the removal began, a Nationalist politician suggested one tower should be left in place.
It could be suggested that the propaganda value of those oppressive structures would, it was suddenly realised, be badly missed by people whose ultimate aim, a united Ireland, was still unattained.
The watchful eye over Mooloolaba beach is back
The only watchtowers on The Map of Watchful Architecture still standing are an ecclesiastical round tower in Clones and the Eleven Ballyboes signal tower north of Derry. The former was built in the Early Christian period to defend against raiders. The latter was built in the 19 th century in case of French incursion.
An historical phase unrepresented among the various defensive structures left along the border is, in fact, a most recent one. The relics of two thousand years are there to be seen but the installations of Operation Banner, , have been erased. Efforts to make southern Co. Armagh, Co. Down and the north of Co. Meanwhile many groups and collaborations have appeared to foster cross-border activity.
For example, the International Centre for Local and Regional Development is currently engaged in an attempt to twin the towns of Dundalk and Newry, across the border from each other, and to encourage town planners to share their services ICLRD, , online.
Aspects of the Schengen Agreement that cover border control, and allow for the police to cross into other jurisdictions when in pursuit of suspected criminals, have not yet not been applied to the Irish border, but an increasing amount of political pressure is being used to make it so McAleese, , Belfast Telegraph.
It seems that it is only a matter of time until it comes to pass. Despite the amount of borderland activity the map might seem to imply, the immigration control checkpoint marked in north Co. Louth is in fact the only map element currently actively managing the border. Perhaps we are now entering a time when the Irish border could be demarcated on a map by charting connections rather than defensive elements.
Dig down and back through time and almost everything on the map seems to have had a precursor. Such towers, in their turn, are often built on the sites of older structures, cashels or ring-forts. Underlying all this building we can detect a constant drive to claim high ground.
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Even more fundamentally, we may come to suspect that the landscape itself was one suited to the formation of mental borders. Much of the borderland is hilly and much of the rest is water. There was something of the frontier right there in the land itself, sometime that history reinforced. The Map of Watchful Architecture charts the points that were planted in this borderland and helped narrow it to a borderline.
Buckley V. In The Borderlands. Clinton M. Souterrains of Ireland. Wordwell, Wicklow. Edwards N. The Archaeology of Early Medieval Ireland, c. Fredengren C. Graham R. Heritage Officer, Louth County Council, Cross-Border geopark. Local control speaks to pilots in the air, separates aircraft within the tower's airspace, and clears aircraft for take off and landing; and local control has jurisdiction over the runway unless released to ground control.
Ground control communicates with vehicles and aircraft on the ground. Overseeing those positions is the tower watch supervisor. The watch supervisor must be at least a staff sergeant with a year of upgrade training and must be rated in all ATC positions. We get a position brief to see what's happening at each position, all following the checklists we use.
Donald Mills, 39th OS tower watch supervisor. Coordination, cooperation key to ATC Working seven stories above ground, controllers have a far-reaching view of the airfield and air space; but their reach also extends to various agencies on base that work together to ensure airfield operations at Incirlik run smoothly.
A pilot will check in with the tower "30 minutes to an hour before their proposed departure time. They run through their pre-flight checklists and make sure their diplomatic clearance is good. They'll request engine start, go through their checklists and start their taxi. Depending on how clear of a day it is, it could be zero to 15 miles out when they can contact us for clearance to land," he explained.
Airmen make their way to their first duty station upon successful completion of the course as 3-level apprentices ready become certified as an air traffic controller by the Federal Aviation Administration. You have to be certified at least once by the FAA. There's not as much time to train, so we need people who are qualified," said Rowles. When you go overseas, we operate following International Civil Aviation Organization rules.
For each permanent change of station, prior-rated controllers must accomplish on-the-job training, hours of self study and numerous tests to become rated at that location. This is to learn the new airspace and location-specific rules and regulations. We get something called a PCG - a position certification guide - that has tasks with objectives that must be met, and there are references that you have to read per objective," Rowles explained. It's a lot of memorization.
The point of it is, though, to be able to apply the rules to live traffic.
Once the on-the-job-training and self study time is complete, controllers take a written test and conduct a live certification with the chief of standardization and evaluation who ensures the controller in training can handle tasks such as sequencing, traffic advisories, wake turbulence situations and emergencies. To become a watch supervisor, the controller must be certified in ground, local and flight data positions before being certified.
Along with technical school and base-specific training, controllers must also take a monthly, question proficiency test to ensure they are current on all rules and regulations. To pass, they must answer 80 percent of the questions correctly. Adjusting to life overseas Operating in an overseas location requires adjustment as rules and regulations differ in international airspace. In the U.