The analyser if required must be calibrated, then zeroed and spanned. The enclosure must be purged until a stable hydrogen reading is obtained, and the mixing fan turned on if not already on. The chamber is then sealed and the background hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured. These are the initial readings CH2i, Ti and Pi used in the enclosure background calculation. The enclosure is allowed to stand undisturbed with the mixing fan on for a period of four hours.
At the end of this time the same analyser is used to measure the hydrogen concentration in the chamber. The temperature and the barometric pressure are also measured. These are the final readings CH2f, Tf and Pf. The change in mass of hydrogen in the enclosure must be calculated over the time of the test in accordance with paragraph 2. Calibration and hydrogen retention test of the chamber The calibration and hydrogen retention test in the chamber provides a check on the calculated volume paragraph 2.
The enclosure leak rate must be determined at the enclosure's introduction to service, after any operations in the enclosure which may affect the integrity of the enclosure, and at least monthly thereafter. If six consecutive monthly retention checks are successfully completed without corrective action, the enclosure leak rate may be determined quarterly thereafter as long as no corrective action is required. The enclosure must be purged until a stable hydrogen concentration is reached.
The mixing fan is turned on, if not already switched on. The hydrogen analyser is zeroed, calibrated if required, and spanned. The enclosure must be latched to the nominal volume position. The ambient temperature control system is then turned on if not already on and adjusted for an initial temperature of K. These are the initial readings CH2i, Ti and Pi used in the enclosure calibration. The enclosure must be unlatched from the nominal volume. A quantity of approximately g of hydrogen is injected into the enclosure.
The contents of the chamber must be allowed to mix for five minutes and then the hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured. These are the final readings CH2f, Tf and Pf for the calibration of the enclosure as well as the initial readings CH2i, Ti and Pi for the retention check.
On the basis of the readings taken in paragraphs 2. The contents of the chamber must be allowed to mix for a minimum of 10 hours. At the completion of the period, the final hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are measured and recorded. These are the final readings CH2f, Tf and Pf for the hydrogen retention check.
Using the formula in paragraph 2. This mass may not differ by more than 5 per cent from the hydrogen mass given by paragraph 2. Calculation The calculation of net hydrogen mass change within the enclosure is used to determine the chamber's hydrocarbon background and leak rate. Initial and final readings of hydrogen concentration, temperature and barometric pressure are used in the following formula to calculate the mass change. See paragraph 4. Each of the normally used operating ranges is calibrated by the following procedure.
Establish the calibration curve by at least five calibration points spaced as evenly as possible over the operating range. The nominal concentration of the calibration gas with the highest concentrations to be at least 80 per cent of the full scale. Calculate the calibration curve by the method of least squares. If the resulting polynomial degree is greater than 3, then the number of calibration points must be at least the number of the polynomial degree plus 2.
The calibration curve must not differ by more than 2 per cent from the nominal value of each calibration gas. Using the coefficients of the polynomial derived from paragraph 3. This is to be carried out for each analyser range calibrated. This table shall also contain other relevant data such as: Date of calibration Span and zero potentiometer readings where applicable Nominal scale Reference data of each calibration gas used The real and indicated value of each calibration gas used together with the percentage differences Calibration pressure of analyser 3.
Alternative methods e. In some cases there may be interaction of parameters. These effects must also be taken into consideration to ensure that only vehicles with similar hydrogen emission characteristics are included within the family. To this end, those vehicle types whose parameters described below are identical are considered to belong to the same hydrogen emissions. Traction battery: - Trade name or mark of the battery - Indication of all types of electrochemical couples used - Number of battery cells - Number of battery modules - Nominal voltage of the battery V - Battery energy kWh - Gas combination rate in per cent - Type s of ventilation for battery module s or pack - Type of cooling system if any On-board charger: - Make and type of different charger parts - Output nominal power kW - Maximum voltage of charge V - Maximum intensity of charge A - Make and type of control unit if any - Diagram of operating, controls and safety - Characteristics of charge periods.
Infolge der Wirtschaftskrise ist die Branche jetzt aber unter besonders starken Druck geraten. Ihre Exportleistung zeigt, dass sie die Produkte anbietet, die der kontinuierlich wachsende Weltmarkt verlangt. Die besondere Situation der Automobilbranche Europa verdankt einen erheblichen Teil seines Wohlstands der Automobilindustrie. Nahezu jeder dritte auf der Welt hergestellte Pkw stammt aus Europa.
Der Automobilbau ist mit vielen anderen Branchen eng verflochten. Die Automobilindustrie ist sehr international orientiert. Der innergemeinschaftliche Handel mit Kfz-Komponenten erreicht deshalb ein erhebliches Volumen. Manche Unternehmen bekommen keine Kredite mehr zu akzeptablen Bedingungen. Drittens: langfristige strukturelle Probleme, deren Ursprung vor der Krise liegt. Die Automobilindustrie stand schon vor der Krise in einem scharfen Wettbewerb. Auch die Zulieferbranche hat sich erkennbar konsolidiert. Auf einem informellen Treffen vom Besonders wichtig ist dies im Automobilsektor, wo die private Nachfrage weitgehend kreditfinanziert wird.
Der im Dezember angenommene und am Euro in Vorbereitung sind. Entsprechend den Vorarbeiten im Rahmen des 7. C 16 vom C 10 vom Translation - English The European automotive industry is one of Europe's flagship industries. It is a key driver of growth, exports, innovation and jobs. Its impact filters down across a wide variety of other sectors. And it has a particularly important cross border reach, with suppliers, manufacturers and sales and servicing downstream creating a web of mutual interest that touches every one of the EU's Member States.
The Commission believes that the EU needs a dynamic and competitive automotive sector. The economic crisis has put the automotive sector under particular pressure. Properly targeted support is needed to help the industry and its workforce through the downturn and to address structural problems by making the sector more competitive and more in tune with the needs of the future.
The European automotive industry has a strong future. Its export performance shows it can make the right products for a global market that will continue to grow. Its workforce has the skills to maintain its technological edge. And it is already working to produce the new generation of motor vehicles needed for the low carbon age. This communication sets out how the EU can bring policy levers into play to support the automotive industry. It represents a European framework for action: a framework which sets out how both the EU level and Member States can take the decisive measures needed.
Different Member States will use different mixes of action to address the needs of manufacturers, suppliers, retailers and their workers. All can be most effective working with the confidence provided by a common EU framework. The internal market has been a major cause of the vitality of the European automotive industry, the competitiveness of its manufacturing and the scale of its sales.
It will be critical to the recovery phase. It is therefore essential that state aids and other measures are well directed, working to build the future strength of the industry rather than introducing short-term distortions that will damage long-term competitiveness. That means cooperation and working upstream of national decisions to ensure they fit in well with the EU's overall ambitions.
At the same time, the EU can offer a variety of other steps to build a platform to stabilise the industry and help it to recover. This includes measures to invest in strategic technologies. It includes steps to help workers whose jobs are at risk to retrain and find new work, as well as safeguarding and developing the key skills of some of the most valued technicians in Europe. It includes a determined and concerted effort to combat any move towards protectionism in global markets. And of course, the industry will benefit directly from the core measures of the European Economic Recovery Plan to get credit moving again, as well as from specific measures like the European green cars initiative.
This European framework for the automotive sector shows how the intelligent application of EU and national policies can not only offer a cushion for the automotive industry in a time of intense pressure, but a springboard for the future. The common goal is a dynamic, competitive and sustainable automotive sector in the EU for the coming decades. The particular situation of the automotive sector The automotive industry is central to Europe's prosperity. The EU is the world's largest producer of motor vehicles, producing over 18 million vehicles a year and almost a third of the world's passenger cars.
It is a huge employer of skilled workforce, directly employing over 2 million people but responsible for some 12 million jobs. In addition, the sector plays a central part in tackling many of the key economic, social and environmental challenges faced by Europe today, such as sustainable mobility and safety. Automotive manufacturing is closely linked with many other sectors. Electronics, mechanical and electrical engineering, information technology, steel, chemicals, plastics, metals and rubber are all key suppliers.
It also has a very significant cross-border dimension in Europe and globally. Within the EU, the production lines are split between 16 Member States, and every single Member State is involved in the supply chain for manufacturing and the downstream chain for sales. Any downturn in the automotive sector therefore strongly affects other sectors and all EU Member States. The current economic crisis is being marked by a sudden downturn for manufacturing. EU industrial production slumped by 8.
The difficult situation of the European automotive industry has three major reasons: First, there has been a sharp and uniform drop in demand for passenger and commercial vehicles both in the EU and worldwide. Tight credit conditions, declining share and asset prices, and the uncertainty created by the global economic environment are translating into very low consumer confidence and declining purchasing power.
New passenger car sales fell by 1. The producers of commercial vehicles were even harder hit with orders for heavy duty vehicles falling from The situation varies between individual Member States but the downturn has now reached every market in the EU, and all major producers on the European market are severely affected. Second, parts of the automotive industry are reporting problems with access to credit financing and fears of liquidity shortages.
Some companies are unable to get loans on reasonable terms, with credit ratings downgraded in light of market outlook. In addition, suppliers are expressing an additional concern about money not moving down the supply chain. The situation is particularly difficult for smaller lower-tier suppliers which are less capitalised and diversified than their larger counterparts. Third, the industry suffers from longer-term structural problems pre-dating the crisis.
Automotive companies already faced a very competitive business environment. High fixed costs, structural overcapacity and intensive price competition has meant that many automotive companies were already focusing on reducing costs and improving internal efficiency.
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There has also been significant consolidation in the supply sector. Globally, vehicle production capacity is currently at ca. The situation is aggravated by the rising risk of protectionism , threatening reduced access to third country markets for European producers who have thrived on the export market. The first cases have come in the form of new import licensing requirements, e. Current forecasts for are not encouraging.
This is likely to put further pressure on the whole automotive value chain particularly in terms of production volumes, capacity utilisation, employment and research investment. Falling production levels and subsequent cost-cutting by automotive firms has already led to reductions in employment.
Up to now it has mainly affected temporary workers. Negative employment effects could be magnified as a result of regional impacts because of the clustered and geographically concentrated nature of the automotive industry. Additional pressure comes from potential spill-over effect from restructuring of GM and Chrysler. For example GM has announced that out of However, the long term global outlook for the automotive industry is promising: world-wide demand for vehicles is projected to double or even triple in the next 20 years as a result of motorisation in emerging markets.
The imperative of a "greener" car fleet will bring new opportunities for innovative technology. And since the current decline in demand in mature markets such as Europe and U. This makes it particularly important for the EU automotive industry to be able to weather the downturn and be ready to take advantage when demand returns. A key priority for the future is to ensure that European industry is able to respond to the current crisis and emerge from it in a stronger position to compete globally once market conditions improve. This will be notably the case if the automotive industry will master the triple challenge of technological leadership with an environmental and safety performance that is world class.
The Recovery Plan emphasises the importance not only of addressing the causes of the current problems of the automotive sector, but doing so in a way which will secure and further reinforce the longer-term competitiveness of the industry. Such an approach will in turn make a major contribution to make industry fit for the low-carbon economy and thus to achieving Europe's ambitions in reducing CO2 emissions and improving energy security.
Primary responsibility for dealing with the crisis lies with industry , individual companies and their managements. Industry itself is called upon to address the structural problems of production efficiency and capacity utilisation in a way that improves its long-term competitiveness and sustainability. In addition, as part of the overall industrial policy approach, the EU and its Member States can contribute to creating framework conditions in which industry can thrive. They can also promote fair competition in open global markets. This public support should preferably be covered by horizontal policy instruments applicable to industry as a whole and should be met through a combination of European and Member State level action.
At an informal meeting with Ministers on 16 January, Member States shared these views and agreed to a number of key principles to guide their responses to the current situation, such as the need for open global markets, fair competition, respect of better regulation as well as cooperation and transparency. It will be important to ensure that measures taken at Member State level be coherent, efficient and co-ordinated. As much of the importance of the European automotive industry is derived from its knock-on impact for the broader EU economy, it is particularly important to ensure the proper functioning of the internal market, and retain competitive neutrality and a level playing field, thus also ensuring solidarity between the Member States.
In the European Economic Recovery Plan, the Commission has set out the key elements of the public support relevant for the automotive sector. Some of these measures are general, while others target specifically the automotive industry. The main objectives of the proposed approach are: 1 to support demand in order to assist with remedying the effects of the credit squeeze; 2 to facilitate the adjustment by cushioning the costs associated with restructuring, in particular for workers and upgrade their training 3 to encourage the modernisation of the plants with a view to ensure a sustainable competitiveness of this industry at world level and 4 to assist industry to implement the radical technological change required by the climate change challenge.
While some progress has been achieved already, it is important to ensure that the objectives are fully met in an efficient and coherent way. In the current economic climate, a clear orientation towards long-term competitiveness, based on innovation, safety and environmental performance, is even more important. The Commission therefore reconfirms its commitment to fully take into account the recommendations of the CARS 21 process see Annex 1 , fully respecting the principles of Better Regulation. The Commission will ensure that a coherent and co-ordinated forward-looking approach to future road transport and sustainable mobility requirements is adopted through the follow-up to CARS Given the impact of the current crisis the Commission will weigh up the costs and benefits of any new legislative initiative and seek, as far as possible, to avoid creating new economic burdens.
Ensuring that the financial system starts operating properly remains the first priority in steering the economy towards recovery. This is particularly important in the automotive sector, characterised by capital intensity and credit financed private demand.. The car industry will have to finance research and innovation in particular to design new engines that meet the ambitious European legislation on the reduction of CO2 emissions, starting from The new vehicles will also have to comply with stricter thresholds for pollutant emissions and tougher safety requirements.
It is therefore imperative to assist companies to access finance. The issue of financing is not only relevant to the future of the European automotive industry, but to the economy as a whole. In this respect the Commission has already taken important initiatives, with the adoption of the Communication concerning the application of State aid rules for the banking sector and the Communication on recapitalisation of financial institutions in the current financial crisis.
With specific regard to the automotive sector, it should be noted that the financial branches of car makers may also qualify for aid under the schemes adopted by the Commission for the banking sector. In addition, the Commission is conscious of potentially damaging liquidity problems, in particular in the supply sector and will, together with the European Investment Bank EIB and the Member States, seek ways to improve the flow of credit to SMEs, including automotive suppliers. From the State aid perspective, the new Temporary Framework for State aid measures adopted in December  slightly adapted on 25 February was designed to allow Member States to provide aid to companies facing problems of acess to liquidity.
Typical instruments authorized under this framework are subsidised loans, subsidised guarantees and subsidised loans for the production of "green" products including cars. In this context it needs to be stressed that aid granted on the basis of these frameworks fully respect internal market rules in order to avoid distortions and fragmentation. This framework only applies to companies whose difficulties do not pre-date the crisis. For companies whose difficulties are mainly due to structural problems rather than the current crisis, any State aid must be supported by a restructuring plan that ensures long term viability, in line with the objectives of promoting the competitiveness of this industry.
The wide range of "traditional" State aid instruments see list in Annex 2 available to Member States for supporting their industries can also be an important tool for promoting research and innovation, environmental development and restructuring, where this appears necessary, for the automotive industry, while maintaining a level playing field within the internal market.
The Commission, together with the European Investment Bank and the Member States, will support industry in their efforts to maintain investments into future technologies particularly green technologies such as fuel efficiency and alternative propulsion throughout the economic downturn. This will be done primarily through the European Investment Bank as well as through the 7 th Research Framework Programme. Loans granted to automotive industries can also draw on horizontal programmes, in particular those targeting SME's, convergence or safety.
The Commission and the EIB will continue working together closely to ensure that the financing provided is as effective as possible. The possibility to further front load the lending planned for and is being kept under permanent review. Procedures for granting support have been streamlined allowing the shortest possible processing for decisions following a request for support while maintaining strict appraisal procedures to ensure the viability of investments in the long term.
In line with preparatory work done under the 7th Research Framework Programme and the relevant European Technology Platforms, the main focus of this partnership will be on the development of "green" vehicles including passenger cars, buses, urban vehicles and trucks, but also addressing related issues such as infrastructure and logistics. Finally, the Commsssion is working on establishing the necessary standardisation required to ensure that future technological solutions are provided with legal certainty and can be applied throughout the internal market.
As nine Member States have already established vehicle recycling and recovery schemes "scrapping schemes" and more are considering doing so, the Commission invited Member States experts for the first time on 16 February in order to ensure transparency of all initiatives and provide for an exchange of best practices.
The Commission has discussed with the Member States common principles which shall allow smooth adoption of such scrapping schemes see Annex 3. The Commission invites Member States to make full use of public procurement to boost demand for cleaner and more fuel efficient vehicles in the short term, assessing the possibility to advance investment into infrastructure and into the renewal of the public transport fleet including heavy duty vehicles. Member States will have to face substantial challenges and several regions may be hit very hard.
In line with this, the European social partners and industry organisations of the sector have launched in October a " European Partnership for the anticipation of change in the automotive sector". A comprehensive two-year work programme is being carried on to anticipate and mitigate the social impact of restructuring.
Various EU funds and policy instruments can be mobilised to support the social cost of adjustment and to ensure that necessary skill levels required for the future competitiveness of industry are retained in the industry. This should be done in ways which support moves over time to new forms of production and should not preclude necessary restructuring. Such measures apply to all sectors; they are particularly relevant for the automotive sector with its supply chain as it will have to tackle significant overcapacities.
The Commission has also proposed an increase of advance payments from the European Social Fund ESF , and simplification of the criteria. This can be used to support to implementing measures to retain jobs and combat unemployment in the automotive industry, such as: i supporting short-time workers by financing training and a part of wage and non-wage labour costs; ii supporting company and sector restructuring; iii financing retraining; iv anticipating change requirements and matching skills. There are already successful examples of how the ESF has supported restructuring in the automotive industry in the past, which can be drawn on for inspiration.
The EGF has already intervened in four automotive sector cases with a fifth in the pipeline. This will allow the Fund to intervene more swiftly and, for a limited period of time, will allow interventions to be justified by the current economic crisis, irrespective of any link to globalisation. Fair competition in open markets can help to fight the current crisis, whereas any protectionist measures threaten to deepen it. The EU is committed to avoid any new trade restrictions being created towards third countries. It expects the same attitude from its trading partners and will not tolerate a revival of protectionism.
The Commission will follow closely international developments and encourage international dialogue , in particular with its main trade partners including the US, Japan, Korea and China. Together with them it will work to keep world markets open and to ensure fair competition.
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It will keep progress under constant review. The Commission suggests that the CARS 21 process should be strengthened, with a round table with Member States, automotive industry producers and suppliers and trade unions. Its main aims should be to provide a platform of mutual information, dialogue and best practices. It should support the efforts of the sector to restructure so that it can compete in world markets with a strong focus on retaining skills in the industry, retraining workers for future tasks and for new jobs in this and other sectors. The round table should also monitor the development in the following areas: - Reviving private demand and frontloading public demand : - Financial support for research - Active support for reducing overcapacity while maintaining skilled workforce via the European Social Fund and the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund; - Strict respect of CARS 21 recommendations , in particular as regards Better Regulation and the need to weigh up costs and benefits of any new legislative initiative with a view to avoid, as far as possible, creating new economic burdens; The Commission stands ready to make full use of the potential of the TEC to intensify the dialogue with the US with regards to the situation of US automotive producers and its spill-over to the EU.
German to English: Glossary - Subject Names. Konversation Akt. Arbeitsvorbereitung Arbeitswiss. AVT Aufbau- und Verbindungstechn. Werkzeugbau Automat. Kunststofft, Werkz. Schaltungen Bauelem. Bautenschutz Bautenschutztechnik Bekleidungstechnik Berechn. Konstruktionslehre Berechn. Anlagen u. Betriebliche Kostenrechnung Betriebsfestigkeit Betriebskostenr.
Fertigung Betriebskostenrechnung Betriebsl. Betriebslehre Betriebslehre u. Betriebsorganisation Betriebsplanung und Org. Betriebsplanung und Organisat. Betriebspsychologie Betriebspsychologie 1 Betriebspsychologie 2 Betriebssoziologie Betriebssysteme Betriebssysteme 1 Betriebssysteme 2 Betriebsw.
Arbeitsvorb Bilanz und Steuern Bildverarb. Simulation in Autom. Engin Com. VisualWorks Einf. Internet u. Aktoren und Sensoren El. Ausl El. Maschinen Vertiefungsf. Energietechnik Labor Elektr. Maschinen und Anl.
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Maschinen und Anlagen Elektr. Messen mech. Elektronik 1 Energiemaschinen Energiesysteme Energietechnik und techn. WPF Energieumwandlung Energieversorg.
- American Prophecy: Are You Prepared for What Lies Ahead?.
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Englisch English for Mechanical Engin. Halbleiterschaltungen Entwurf integr. Schaltkreise Erg. Bauteile Fertigung und Werkzeugmasch. Fertigung warmfester Bauteile Fertigungs- und Automat. Elektrot,3 u. Aufbau- und Verb. Wasser- u. Innovative Fahrzeugkonzepte Instr. Analytik u. Instrumentelle Analytik Int. Marketing 1,2 Int. Finanz12 Interdiszipl. Projektarbeit Internat. Kostenrechnung Investitions- u.
Kostenrechnung Investitions-u. Mechanik 2 Konstruieren mit Kunststoffen Konstrukt. Farbe Kosten- u. Regelsysteme Labor Dig. Regelungstechnik Labor Dig. Signalverarbeitung Labor Digitale Signalverarb. Aktoren und Sensoren Labor Elektr.
Labor Elektr. Elektrotechnik Labor Grundl. Elektrotechnik 1 Labor Grundl. Elektrotechnik 2 Labor Grundl. Umwelta Labor Kar. Intelli Labor Meth. Realit Labor Nachrichtentechnik Labor Objektorient. Lackherstellung Labor Prakt. Werkstoffe Labor Prakt. Lack Labor Prakt. Kunststoffanalyse Labor Prakt. Kunststofftechnik Labor Prakt. Kostenrechnung Labor Qual. Labor Systeman. Labor Technol. Labor Telekom. Rechnernetze Labor Telekomm. Vertrieb Marketing-Sem.
Elektronikentwicklung Methoden d. Signalverarbeitung Methoden d. Fort Obj. C Objektor. Programmierung Objektorient. Programmieren Objektorient. Optoelektronik Optoelektronik 1 Optoelektronik 2 Organ. Chemie polymerer Werkst. Physik Physik 1 Physik 1,2 Physik 2 Physik der elektr.
Sensoren Physik der elektr. Sensoren Physik el. Bindemittel Planung u. Operations Research Planung u. Lack Praktikum Applikationst. Lacke Praktikum Bauten-u. Lacke Praktikum Werkstoffp. Produktionswirtschaft Produktionswirtschaft-Seminar Prodwirtsch. Automatisierung Rechnergest. Konstruktion, CAD Rechnergest. Rechnertechnik Rechnertechnik 1 Rechnertechnik 2 Recht Recht in d.
Verbindungst Seminar Automatisierungstechn. Seminar Business and Engineer. Care Servicet. Schaltungen Simulat. Fertigung Spezielle Makromoleku. Studienschwerpunkt Kon. Studiertechniken Systemanal. Simulation Systementwurf: El. Betriebssysteme2 Systemprogram. Betriebssys1 Systemtechnik Techn. Festigkeitslehre 1,2 Techn. Vertrieb 2, Vertr. Mechanik und Konstr. Physik und Math. Methoden Techn. Mikroelektronik Technologie d. Rechnernetze Telekommunikation u. Thermische Energietechnik Thermische Masch.
Wertanalyse Windows u. Programmierung Windows-Programmierung Wirtschaftlich-techn. Stg WPF Anwendungsfach and. WPF aus and. WPF betriebswirtsch. WPF fertigungstechn. WPF Fertigungsverfahren and. St WPF Fremdsprache and. WPF Gruppe A aus and. WPF Gruppe B aus and.
WPF Informatik and. WPF Konstruktion and. WPF math. WPF Methodenfach and. WPF nichttechnisch and. WPF Prod. WPF technisch and. WPF versorgungstechn. Stg WPF wirtschaftswiss. WPF wirtschaftswiss. Computer-Aided Automation Lab:. Translation - English not mandatory waste settlement fiscal charge, tax, levy, duty tax code delegate redress descendant, scion redemption delegation selling co-operative-society brit.
English to German: Glossary - Project Management. Source text - German 1. Eine Einigung auf gemeinsame Mindestnormen bei diesen Verfahrensrechten erleichtert die Anwendung des Grundsatzes der gegenseitigen Anerkennung. Mai gebilligt wurde. Jede Person hat das Recht auf Freiheit und Sicherheit. Jede angeklagte Person hat mindestens folgende Rechte: a. Artikel 1 - Geltungsbereich Artikel 2 — Recht auf Verdolmetschung Artikel 6 - Regressionsverbot Preview — Logistiknetzwerke by Richard Vahrenkamp.
Dirk Mattfeld. Die methodische Unterst tzung von Entscheidungen hinsichtlich Standortwahl, G terfl ssen und Tourenplanung ist ein wichtiger Baustein zum Erhalt der Wettbewerbsf higkeit in komplexen Wertsch pfungsnetzwerken. Dieses Buch beschreibt Modelle zur Planung von Logistiknetzwerken und stellt praxisrelevante L sungsmethoden vor.
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To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Logistiknetzwerke , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Here, constraints and changes of the external environment are explored; the ties or connections between forces to be examined Ringland, , Bood and Postma, Moreover, this study might add a further example to the academic literature for theorists and researchers within the field of scenarios as well as strategic management of a shipping firm.
In addition, information from this work may spark and facilitate debates due to the topicality of anticipative strategic decision- making in the general shipping industry Maritimes Kompetenzzentrum PricewaterhouseCoopers AG, The principal research and sub research questions cover the areas of industry analysis, scenario approach, economic models and theories and strategic decision-making. They are as follows:. How can the liquefied natural gas LNG shipowners and the surrounded industry prepare for the uncertainties of the future which the global marketplace creates? Sub research question 1: In which framework of global and business environment is the LNG shipping industry embedded in?
Sub research question 2: What are the most salient factors having an impact on natural gas shipping? Sub research question 3: What are future scenarios the LNG shipowners and other market participants of the natural gas industry could possibly face? Sub research question 4: How do these scenarios affect the natural gas shipping industry? And how can these influences be analyzed, demonstrated and drawn from the macroeconomic level to the microenvironment of the natural gas shipping industry? Sub research question 5: Which steps of strategic decision-making could be taken in order to prepare accordingly for the potential scenario outcome?
The study is limited to the natural gas shipping industry and its side businesses only, meaning that other interconnected parts and industries of the supply chain will not be covered. In terms of data collection, the application of secondary sources will lay the foundation of researched information. As part of this paper, no interviews and neither surveys were conducted Johnson and Christensen, Finally, it should be pointed out that the study does not claim to offer best practice solutions to managers of the relevant industry.
It does not fully grasp the entire dimension of all the circumstances and the influencing factors the natural gas shipping industry copes with. However, this research attempts to identify the most salient forces affecting the natural gas shipping industry and to address them accordingly in a scientific analysis. It is an extract of the subjective perception of the author. Subjectivity is given due to the fact that the author chose the scenarios depending on personal perceptions, however multiple futures are possible.
The following chapter shall provide an overview of the methodology applied in this study. This includes the research design and strategy as well as the line of action, a description of the methods applied, followed by the limitations and research ethics, and finalized by the trustworthiness. Greater attention, academically and professionally, in the scenario planning approach in general emerged after the oil price crises in the s.
Past these demanding times, i. With the Shell-phenomena happening and the experiences made, planners have moved from forecasting to foresight. The procedures of planning based solely on forecasts, which had experienced a frequent utilization, were then seen as too rigid and obscuring strategic thinking Mintzberg, The distinguishing contribution which the scenario approach makes in comparison to, for instance, forecasts is that it recognizes multiple views displaying the inevitable uncertainty in order to anticipate more cautiously.
Scenario analysis, on the contrary, is permitting flexible reaction to structural change. Further, Ringland argued that if a scenario was a forecast, then one could anticipate that it will happen, which is not the case. This paper will only apply scenario planning as a methodology. Uncertainty is a state of affairs which causes discomfort. The term refers to unknown outcomes in the combination of certain factors, yet their coming out is indeterminate Postma and Liebl, Examples of uncertainty are, for instance, whether the oil price will continue to decline or the relationship development between Cuba and the United States to draw near.
Considering the uncertain factors especially within the fast moving and interdependent markets of today, it appears precarious to navigate a firm successfully, aiming for outpacing competition, sustainable growth and continuous development. In the ideal world, business managers would like the future to be largely predictable instead of encountering unforeseen happenings challenging their strategic plans. It is not possible to create a contingency plan for every conceivable occurrence; yet, the way of looking into the future can be approached by applying scenario planning as a strategic management method Wilkinson and Kupers, It can be seen as an alternative and an extension to forecasting.
To a certain extent visualizing the future might be able to be grasped with forecasting, yet once uncertainty increases the data assisting in foreseeing prospective happenings, trends and events diminishes. Scenarios do not imply guessing what precisely will happen in the future, they instead head for the opposite and look for uncertainties. Scenarios can be defined as a number of stories which are generated in order to project knowledge and potential happenings or events into the future.
These are conducted viewing a long-term scale of 25 years or for a short-term period of 3 to 10 years to come van Notten et al. Visualized in the center of the graph, scenarios rather serve as a collection of futures that outline the boundaries set to uncertainty and predetermineds.
Yet, they need not to become true, they need to be useful, lead to discussion and intellectual agility. No matter if for small or large businesses, it can provide a viable method across industries and firm sizes in finding better guidance in case of the emergence of a scenario.
It has been proven worth by many companies that by applying scenario thinking as a way of developing recommendations for, in a way, best practices of the future. Through picturing various future outcomes, the resulting act of taking action is made visible and explicit, easier to visualize in a non-threatening way and eventually ready to be implemented, if applicable Wack, Consequence Assessment: assessing the implications of present actions, decisions, etc. Among the afore-mentioned learning effects of using the scenario approach are also the development and enhancement of capacities and capabilities of an organization to make considerate decisions Schwartz, Initiating preventive and proactive methods are parts of addressing uncertainty, improving cautious decision-making and adding strategic strength to a firm instead of being compelled to take reactive and curing steps in the aftermath.
By doing so, they move towards understanding longer term uncertainties which is sometimes left behind the day-to-day organizational thinking Fortes et al. In accordance with Schwartz , scenarios go even further than being a powerful vehicle for challenging and broadening the horizon of management thinking. This method may enable and facilitate strategic conversations as well as enlarge organizational learning towards selecting key decisions and priorities, which have become increasingly more important and more difficult Godet et al.
Since the future by its nature cannot necessarily be predicted, this investigation is done by using the abstract scenario approach in order to model a complex world Malaska, , Postma and Liebl, As a methodology the scenario approach is exerted by creating or taking existing scenarios which can provide a decent instrument for imagining the world. The scenario planning methodology has its foundation in a qualitative approach which, however, contrasts the quantitative forecasting methods that take the predicted futures in consideration. Already from the emergence of the first scenario planning approaches, the definite allocation between the use of qualitative or quantitative research techniques was discussed in accordance with Kemp-Benedict The quantitative research method is generally represented in the traditional forecasting approach, since it rested upon the circumstances that tomorrow will not much deviate from the circumstances of today Bryman and Bell, Based on past and current trend data, the chance of an occurrence in the future and its eventual ramifications are extrapolated.
In addition, the impacts of this event form ground for considering whether it affects the future direction of a trend, possibly proceeding then with a different course. Surely depending on its purpose, organizations choose this technique in order to enlarge the breadth of possible futures. However, forecasting shows is limitations once major events in the environment challenge this view Huss and Honton, , and once the interplays of underlying relationships come into force.
Once the outline of the future becomes too complex and imprecise, quantitative techniques have limits to display these serious business information Schwartz, , Armstrong, Yet, on the other hand merging these two methods might as well be viewed as challenge. And generally speaking, the usage of a quantitative scenario research may be seen as meaningful in rather narrowly focused, short-term projects which as well are nourished with profound information Wilkinson and Kupers, When it comes to qualitative scenario research, their methods are adequately applied in projects with long-term horizons and less certain futures as per Amer, Daim, and Jetter , which bring along the advantage of being malleable to complexity and uncertainty.
Due to the constraints provided by applying only quantitative methods, scenario planning has emerged further towards qualitative techniques in the s. Even though, quantitative among other various tools are used in order to complement scenario planning methodology, futures studies remain a highly subjective phenomena struck by complexity and, therefore, scenarios continue to be qualitative in nature Martino, All in all, this study takes a qualitative, intuitively-led approach, where words are provided with a greater meaning than data Wilkinson and Kupers, , yet minor quantitative data in numerical form provides complemental background information.
The research design of this study is based upon the collective case study research. This method allows for describing and analyzing multiple scenes of complex key information which take place within a certain framework of its environment. Usually this scene is composed of elements which are interrelated, interconnected or even reciprocal which act within a bounded system. Within the context of this paper, the cases are given by the various scenarios which are studied and analyzed upon the application of economic models and theories. Each single case scenario is explained and surveyed by means of the internal and external environment, thus the context within the scenario is embedded in.
Despite its intention of comparison among the different cases and their outcomes, this research study chooses to view and examine the scenarios individually and refrain from commenting on similarities and differences, the cross-case analysis Johnson and Christensen, The data analysis of the collective case study research applies a holistic approach, meaning looking at each individual scenario situation in its entirety.
To a certain extent, the underlying interdependencies will be considered, however in many cases these hidden activities remain unknown to the general public as well as to the author. Additionally, it appears sensible to set a frame bounded system around each case- created scenario in order to not overload the scenario with information, to focus on the main influencing factors, to reduce the intake of complexity to a manageable and comprehensible amount, and to shed light on the information which is crucial to the scenario story. The data derives from various sources, the eclectic approach through desk research, in order to enhance the richness and understanding of each scenario.
In addition to the multiple-case design research, the grounded theory research is seen as a viable method in order to complement accordingly. Due to the fact that the to-be-applied- theories and explanations are generated and developed once the data collection and scenario construction have taken place, an inductive approach is developed. This traces appropriate theories while data and information of all kind is gathered and analyzed resulting in understanding for the phenomena p.
The activity of data collection for grounded theory research is conducted in a concurrent mode throughout the entire data research, gathering and analyzation process through desk research p. In total, three scenarios are illuminated and analyzed within this entire research. The deriving models and theories, mainly of economic origin out of grounded theory research, are then applied for the analysis of the scenarios. The execution of the research has followed a path of certain consecutive phases in order to achieve a substantial reply to the research questions posed.
At first, the process of a background study as well as data collection was performed. The corresponding extensive research of literature was mainly focused on articles from the research catalogues, i. In addition to that, books were used to complete the information and when comprehensive information was required. Further on, an additional research was conducted in order to academically support the economic models and theories applied to each scenario setting.
Secondly, in the next phase the analysis of the data took place. Here, the results of the literature review were surveyed. The data was selected upon validity, content and context, importance to the topic by quickly skimming the abstract and reading further in case of proven relevance. The methods for analysis of the data were done by taking the whole picture of the topic in consideration and categorizing it to the different segments of need in accordance with the thesis structure.
Afterwards and thirdly, the design action was carried out which included the construction of new scenarios, the adoption or amendment of given scenarios as well as the application of the appertaining models and theories. By trying to model a complex world, the right and most remarkable parameters had to be found projecting as well as influencing the future of the natural gas shipping industry. Based on these, the scenario approach was used to create scenario plots which are, eventually, challenged and analyzed by the frameworks of mainly economic models and theories.
The latter provided ground for argumentation of strategic management behavior afterwards. This study includes two consecutive methods applied in order to represent and analyze the researched data. The following scenario planning methodology provides the foundation for the creation, adoption and amendment of scenarios undertaken in part 3. Then, the analysis of the economic models and theories is described thereafter. The main and first named method applied in this research is the scenario planning methodology. As per van Notten , scenarios bring along two principal purposes: the exploration as well as the pre-policy research.
The exploration scenarios aim at stimulating the creativity senses towards enhancing greater strategic capability and wider strategic thinking.