Geology — CrossRef Google Scholar. Fitzgerald PG The Transantarctic Mountains of southern Victoria Land: the application of apatite fission track analysis to a rift shoulder uplift.
Macrophages control the retention and trafficking of B lymphocytes in the splenic marginal zone.
Tectonics — CrossRef Google Scholar. Fitzgerald PG Thermochronologic constraints on post-Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica. Fitzgerald PG Tectonics and landscape evolution of the Antarctic plate since Gondwana breakup, with an emphasis on the West Antarctic rift system and the Transantarctic Mountains. Proceedings of the 8th international symposium on Antarctic Earth Science, vol Chem Geol — Google Scholar.
Fitzgerald PG, Stump E Cretaceous and Cenozoic episodic denudation of the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica: new constraints from apatite fission track thermochronology in the Scott Glacier region. Science — CrossRef Google Scholar. Tectonics Foster DA Chapter Fission-track thermochronology in structural geology and tectonic studies. Gallagher K Transdimensional inverse thermal history modeling for quantitative thermochronology.
- The Claiming of Anahita, the Submissive Angel of Fertility (Angels of the Light Book 2)?
- Journal metrics.
- Map of the Invisible World?
- Deception From Within.
- Your Answer;
- AppsFlyer's Retention Report?
- Her First Delicate Piercing!
Gleadow AJW Fission track thermochronology—reconstructing the thermal and tectonic evolution of the crust. In: Summerfield MA ed Geomorphology and global tectonics. Wiley, NY, pp 57—75 Google Scholar. A qualitative description. Quantitative modelling techniques and extension to geological timescales.
Haeussler PJ An overview of the neotectonics of interior Alaska: far-field deformation from the Yakutat microplate collision. American Geophysical Union Monograph, pp 83— American Geophysical Union Monograph, pp — Tectonics 26 CrossRef Google Scholar. Hurford AJ Chapter 1. An historical perspective on fission-track thermochronology. Ketcham RA Forward and inverse modeling of low temperature thermochronometry data. Ketcham RA Chapter 3. Fission-track annealing: from geologic observations to thermal history modeling.
Lock J, Willett S Low-temperature thermochronometric ages in fold-and-thrust belts. From cooling to exhumation: setting the reference frame for the interpretation of thermochronologic data. Application of thermochronology to geologic problems: bedrock and detrital approaches. Mancktelow NS, Grasemann B Time-dependent effects of heat advection and topography on cooling histories during erosion.
Meesters AGCA, Dunai TJ Solving the production-diffusion equation for finite diffusion domains of various shapes part II : application to cases with a-ejection and non-homogeneous distribution of the source. Naeser CW Fission track dating. Naeser CW Thermal history of sedimentary basins: fission track dating of subsurface rocks.
Naeser CW The fading of fission-tracks in the geologic environment—data from deep drill holes. Naeser C, Faul H Fission track annealing in apatite and sphene. Parrish RR Some cautions which should be exercised when interpreting fission track and other dates with regard to uplift rate calculations. Perry S Thermotectonic evolution of the Alaska Range: low-temperature thermochronologic constraints. USGS Misc. Schildgen T, van der Beek P Chapter Application of low-temperature thermochronology to the geomorphology of orogenic systems.
Valla PG, Herman F, van der Beek PA, Braun J Inversion of thermochronological age-elevation profiles to extract independent estimates of denudation and relief history—I: theory and conceptual model. Collectively the plots are the concentration profiles; ideally they are Gaussian normal , bell, or error curves. The signal intensity may also be digitized and stored in a computer memory for recall later. Solute behaviour is reported in terms of the retention time , which is the time required for a solute to migrate, or elute, from the column, measured from the instant the sample is injected into the mobile phase stream to the point at which the peak maximum occurs.
The adjusted retention time is measured from the appearance of an unretained solute at the outlet. The dependence of these times on flow rate is removed by reporting the retention volumes, which are calculated as the retention times multiplied by the volumetric flow rate of the mobile phase. The spots on the developed planar bed, the series of peaks on the paper produced by the recorder, or the printout of the computer data are various forms of chromatograms. Classification in terms of the retention mechanism is approximate, because the retention actually is a mixture of mechanisms.
If the partition coefficient is constant as the amount of solute is varied, the separation is referred to as linear chromatography.
Improved: Retention rate metrics now adjust for timezones
This condition is highly desirable because solute zones approach symmetrical Gaussian distributions. If the system is nonlinear, solute zones are asymmetrical.
In adsorption chromatography solute molecules bond directly to the surface of the stationary phase. Stationary phases may contain a variety of adsorption sites differing in the tenacity with which they bind the molecules and in their relative abundance. The net effect determines the adsorbent activity. Partition chromatography utilizes a support material coated with a stationary-phase liquid. Examples are 1 water held by cellulose , paper , or silica, or 2 a thin film coated or bonded to a solid. The solid support ideally is inactive in the retention of solutes, but it actually is not; retention is mostly due to solute solution in the stationary liquid phase.
As mentioned above, the stationary phase in size-exclusion chromatography consists of molecules of the mobile phase trapped in the porous structure of a solid. Solute molecules are retained when they diffuse into and out of these pores. The time they remain in the pores is a function of their size, which determines the depth of penetration. Molecules of this size and larger are excluded from the pores and are not separated.
They appear first in elution chromatography.
At the other end of the size spectrum, there is a certain size for which all molecules of this magnitude and smaller penetrate all the pores. These molecules also are not separated; they elute last. Gel-filtration chromatography refers to size-exclusion methods employing water as the mobile phase; gel-permeation chromatography makes use of an organic mobile phase.
Examples include enzyme- protein , antigen - antibody , and hormone - receptor binding. A structural feature of an enzyme will attach to a specific structural feature of a protein. Affinity chromatography exploits this feature by binding a ligand with the desired interactive capability to a support such as a gel used in gel-filtration chromatography. The ligand retards a solute with the compatible structural feature and passes all other solutes in the mixture.
The solute is then eluted by a mobile-phase change such as incorporating a competing solute, changing the acidity, or changing the ionic strength of the eluent.
There is no stationary phase in field-flow fractionation; the different-velocity streams or layers of the mobile phase with the solute distributed between them produce the separation. Classification by phases gives the physical state of the mobile phase followed by the state of the stationary phase.
Gas chromatography employing a gaseous fluid as the mobile phase, called the carrier gas, is subdivided into gas-solid chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. The carrier gases used, such as helium , hydrogen , and nitrogen , have very weak intermolecular interactions with solutes. Molecular sieves are used in gas size-exclusion chromatography applied to gases of low molecular weight. Adsorption on solids tends to give nonlinear systems. Gas-liquid chromatography employs a liquid stationary phase where solution forces provide retention.