Prayer: Lord, thank you for the clear speaking and honest reflection of Dabru Emet. May both Jews, Christians and Messianic Jews welcome one another in friendship and partnership, whilst at the same time recognising differences and longing for reconciliation in the unity and truth that comes from knowing you. We wish to express our appreciation to the Institute for Christian and Jewish Studies for providing the educational setting in which the work of this project has been conducted. The Dabru Emet Heb. It was signed by over rabbis and intellectuals from all branches of Judaism, as individuals and not as representing any organisation or stream of Judaism.
While affirming that there are theological differences between these two religions, the purpose of Dabru Emet is to point out common ground and a legitimacy of Christianity, for non-Jews, from the Jewish perspective. It is not an official document of any of the Jewish denominations per se, but it is representative of what many Jews feel. Eight major themes are expressed:. It marks the occasion of on of the first Messianic groups, or Hebrew Christian brotherhoods, of modern times.
Assembled and led by that indefatigable and controversial character, Joseph Samuel Christian Frederick Frey, it comprised a mixed group of Jewish believers in Jesus, some genuine and faithful believers, others rogues and charlatans. Has anything changed today? I attach my slide presentation from the celebrations, and continue to research what happened to some of the forty-one original members. Some of their descendants have been in contact with me since. But in the 19th century, it was an early forerunner of the Messianic movement of the 20th and 21st centuries, and we have much to learn from this initial attempt.
Prayer: Lord, Thank you for this early expression of a congregation of Jewish believers in Jesus meeting together for worship, prayer, fellowship and mutual support. May the Messianic movement today provide a similar congregational expression of such aims, and in addition show by the character and integrity of its members the true nature of the indissoluble bond between the Church and Israel, and the vital part Jewish believers in Yeshua have to play within both communities. Beni Abraham th Anniversary. Hugh Schonfield wrote :. After protracted discussion and correspondence with the British Hebrew Christian Alliance founded in , a joint letter of invitation was sent to Hebrew Christians in all parts of the world.
In its way, the letter was as significant as that famous epistle to the Gentile believers issued by the first Council of Jerusalem Acts It was dated for March, , and read as follows:. Since the days of the Apostles, Hebrew Christians have been scattered units in the diaspora, ostracized by our unbelieving brethren and lost among the nations.
1915 Errors of Russellism
We believe, however, that the times of the Gentiles are being fulfilled and that the God of our fathers, according to His gracious promise, is about to restore Israel to her ancient heritage. We deem it an opportune time to meet and confer together, seeking Divine guidance by prayer and the Word of God.
We have therefore decided to hold D. England, this year from Saturday, September 5 to Saturday, September 12, and to this we heartily invite you. Many living in distant parts, maybe prevented from joining us by the heavy travelling expenses, but it is hoped that the Hebrew Christians of various towns or countries may be willing to raise the means and send delegates to represent them at the Conference; they will then be able to take back a report of the proceedings.
The Hebrew Christian Alliance of London will, however. September , give themselves the pleasure of providing hospitality to all delegates who will have registered beforehand and will have received cards and badges. To such delegates full particulars, together with the programme, will be sent in due course. Bendor Samuel, Hon. Samuel Schor, owing to illness.
Eighteen countries were represented. At the election of office-bearers Sir Leon Levinson was honored with the first presidency of the newly-formed Alliance, and the wisdom of that choice became at once evident in his presidential address which showed an immediate grasp of the great task to which he had been called and to which he dedicated his service. The first duty which the Executive Committee of the I.
The aims of the Alliance, as set forth in the completed document, are given as follows:. It was also made quite clear that the I. We pray your blessing on its work today, on the national alliances and their members, and on the growing number of Jewish believers in Yeshua who benefit from its activities. Here, he leaves for the Council of Basel, where, as a young man, he made his first big impression. The storm in the background is a western art first. At stake was the greater conflict between the Conciliar movement and the principle of papal supremacy. Pope Eugene IV passed the anti-Jewish legislation.
Amongst the decrees it passed are the following:. Rather, they should frequent our churches and sermons, like other Catholics, and conform themselves in everything to Christian customs. They are to be forbidden to buy ecclesiastical books, chalices, crosses and other ornaments of churches under pain of the loss of the object, or to accept them in pledge under pain of the loss of the money that they lent.
They are to be compelled, under severe penalties, to wear some garment whereby they can be clearly distinguished from Christians. In order to prevent too much intercourse, they should be made to dwell in areas, in the cities and towns, which are apart from the dwellings of Christians and as far distant as possible from churches. On Sundays and other solemn festivals they should not dare to have their shops open or to work in public. The holy general synod of Basel, legitimately assembled in the holy Spirit, representing the universal church, for an everlasting record.
This holy synod following in the footsteps of our saviour Jesus Christ, desires in deepest charity that all may acknowledge the truth of the gospel and thereafter abide in it faithfully. By these salutary instructions it desires to provide measures whereby Jews and other infidels may be converted to the orthodox faith and converts may remain steadfastly in it. It therefore decrees that all diocesan bishops should depute persons well trained in scripture, several times a year, in the places where Jews and other infidels live, to preach and expound the truth of the catholic faith in such a way that the infidels who hear it can recognize their errors.
They should compel infidels of both sexes who have reached the age of discretion, to attend these sermons under pain both of being excluded from business dealings with the faithful and of other apposite penalties. But the bishops and the preachers should behave towards them with such charity as to gain them for Christ not only by the manifestation of the truth but also by other kindnesses.
The synod decrees that Christians of whatever rank or status who in any way impede the attendance of Jews at these sermons, or who forbid it, automatically incur the stigma of being supporters of unbelief. Since this preaching will be more fruitful in proportion to the linguistic skill of the preachers, we decree that there must be faithful observance of the constitution of the council of Vienne, which ordered the provision in certain universities of teachers of the Hebrew, Arabic, Greek and Chaldean languages. So that this may be more adhered to, we wish that the rectors of these universities should add to what they swear to on taking office, that they will endeavour to observe the said constitution.
It should be clearly laid down, at the councils of the provinces in which these universities are situated, that the teachers of the said languages are to be adequately recompensed. Prayer: Lord, have mercy on your church for its oppressive treatment of the stranger and the outsider, and forgive the anti-Jewish and anti-Semitic polemics and persecution of the past.
Cleanse your church of such attitudes and activities, and may your people Israel know your reconciling and healing love. Basel had been designated as the place for this ecumenical council by the abortive council of Pavia — Siena The prospect of re-union with the eastern church provided an opportunity to transfer the council to another city. This move was supported by the council fathers loyal to the pope, who however were in a minority, and in the 25th session they voted for the city of Ferrara. Some historians doubt the ecumenicity of the first 25 sessions at Basel. All agree that the sessions held at Basel after the 25th session until the final one on 25 April cannot be regarded as sessions of an ecumenical council.
The Greek bishops and theologians attended the council of Ferrara from 9 April The council was transferred to Florence on 10 January There, in the session on 6 July , the decree of union with the Greek church was approved.
Subsequently decrees of union with the Armenian and Coptic churches were approved. Finally the council was transferred to Rome on 24 February There other decrees of union with the Bosnians, the Syrians and finally with the Chaldeans and Maronites of Cyprus, were approved. The last session of the council was held on 7 August The decisions taken at Basel have the form of conciliar decrees.
Almost all the decrees of re-union were of little effect. Born in France in , Isaac obtained a degree in History and Geography in and was professor for over 30 years. He fought the accusers of Dreyfus, not because Dreyfus was a Jew, but in pursuit of justice and truth. In he was appointed Inspector General of Public Education.
However it was his history text books that made him famous. His interest in the historical problem of Christian anti-semitism began at the end of In October the Gestapo arrested his daughter, son-in-law, one of his sons and his wife. He alone escaped through an extraordinary piece of luck. Though his son escaped the other three never returned. In spite of having to continually flee and in village presbyteries, he continued to work on this book which he completed after the war in and which was published in Allen, Professor Dr.
Newlin, Rabbi W. Rosenblum, Rev. Jacques Maritain, French Ambassador to the Holy See, sent a letter disowning anti-semitism in the name of the Christian faith. Jules Isaac was a man of action who fought for the truth. He suggested to the Pope the creation of a sub-commission to study the necessary correction of Christian teaching. Encouraged by the very positive reception he received from the Pope, he was confirmed in his hopes by Cardinal Bea with whom he had a meeting two days later.
As we know, a sub-commission was in fact created. In order to develop interest for mutual understanding among Christians and Jews, Jules Isaac also invested much energy in the field of Christian religious education on an international level. It is also thanks to his inspiration that the Amicizia Ebraico-cristiana di Firenze came into existence in From on the Amicizia published a Bollettino.
On May 3, the association organised an important commemorative celebration in honour of Jules Isaac who died in Aix-en-Provence on September 5, Prayer: Thank you Lord for the courage and perseverance of Jules Isaac, and the effect of his life and work in changing the state of Jewish-Christian relations in the post-Shoah context. Give us today men and women of prophetic vision and engaged practice, who will make a difference in the world in which we live. Skip to content. Home About Donate. We, out of the meekness of Christian piety, and in keeping in the footprints or Our predecessors of happy memory, the Roman Pontiffs Calixtus, Eugene, Alexander, Clement, admit their petition, and We grant them the buckler of Our protection.
For We make the law that no Christian compel them, unwilling or refusing, by violence to come to baptism. But, if any one of them should spontaneously, and for the sake of the faith, fly to the Christians, once his choice has become evident, let him be made a Christian without any calumny. Indeed, he is not considered to possess the true faith of Christianity who is not recognized to have come to Christian baptism, not spontaneously, but unwillingly.
Too, no Christian ought to presume…to injure their persons, or with violence to take their property, or to change the good customs which they have had until now in whatever region they inhabit. Besides, in the celebration of their own festivities, no one ought disturb them in any way, with clubs or stones, nor ought any one try to require from them or to extort from them services they do not owe, except for those they have been accustomed from times past to perform. If anyone, however, shall attempt, the tenor of this decree once known, to go against it…let him be punished by the vengeance of excommunication, unless he correct his presumption by making equivalent satisfaction.
Calixtus II. Eugenius III. Clement III. Innocent III. Nemoy, eds. Baron Jubilee Volume, vol. Neuman Leiden, , Simonsohn, The Apostolic See and the Jews, vol. Almog, ed. Antisemitism through the Ages Oxford, , The need to mark boundaries became pressing specifically in view of the physical, social and cultural proximity between the two groups.
Like this: Like Loading Posted in otdimjh Tagged article , innocent III , otdimjh , papal bull , sicut judaeis Leave a comment. Here are the titles of the books: On knowledge, straightforwardly On the nature of the universe On theology i. Ktobo d-Zalge This is a medium-size compendium of theology, divided into 10 parts: On the Creation in six days On theology i.
Sed, PO There is a French translation of this by H. The Book of the Dove Ktobo d-Yawno This short work in four chapters describes the various forms of the ascetic life. On Interpretation Peri Hermenias ; 4. Prior Analytics; 5. Apodeiktike, or Posterior Analytics; 6. Topics; 7. Sophistics; 8. Rhetorics; 9. The Book of the Conversation of Wisdom Ktobo da-Swod Sufya This is his middle-sized treatise on logic, the physical world and philosophy. Budge Poems Mushhoto As well as the grammar in verse, Barhebraeus wrote a considerable number of poems.
Excellent biographical discussion. London: Oxford University Press. Posted in otdimjh Tagged article , bar hebraeus , otdimjh , syriac 1 Comment. Message of a Consultation of the Lutheran World Federation held at Dobogoko, Hungary, September This message is a working paper, which comes out of a discussion that is ongoing. Barbara Streisand — Avinu Malkenu — Our Father, our King prayer Today we can see that in many countries Jews and Christians work together for social justice and respect for human rights and engage in dialogue on theological matters.
Our Father Our King Our father our king our king, inscribe us in the book of good life, in the book of good life. Our father our king inscribe us, seal us Redemption and salvation… Our father our king our king, inscribe us in the book of good life. Sigulim told CBN News she can withstand the persecution because she knows she is not alone. Arad police say their hands are tied and they must allow the demonstrations to take place.
Posted in otdimjh Tagged arad , article , gur hasidim , otdimjh , polly sigulum 1 Comment. Editorial The world changed Tuesday, 11 September Posted in otdimjh Tagged article , dabru emet , novak , ochs , otdimjh 1 Comment. Original Members of the Beni Abraham. Posted in otdimjh Tagged article , beni abraham , cmj , otdimjh , schonfield 1 Comment.
Hugh Schonfield wrote : After protracted discussion and correspondence with the British Hebrew Christian Alliance founded in , a joint letter of invitation was sent to Hebrew Christians in all parts of the world. Sir Leon Levinson. Posted in otdimjh Tagged article , ihca , imja , otdimjh , schonfield 5 Comments. Martin V. Eugene IV. Habemus Papam Basel c Posted in otdimjh Tagged article , basel , eugene IV , otdimjh , pope , pope martin v 1 Comment. Posted in otdimjh Tagged article , isaac , jules isaac , otdimjh 1 Comment.
Search for:. On this day in Messianic Jewish History. Blog Stats , hits. It is, however, very rare; and it is worth observing that among the terracottas found at Tarsus described Vol. Compare xix. R The Zabeans. See Olshausen. So in the Clementine Recognitions are mentioned some " ex discipulis Johannis, qui magistrum suum veluti Christum prwdicarunl" 1 64, That such persons should be found at Ephesus, the natural meet ng- lace of all religious sects and opinions, is what we might have supposed a priori. Their own connection with Judsea, or the connection of their teachers with Judaea, had been broken before the day of Pentecost.
Thus their Christianity was at the same point at which it had stood at the commencement of our Lord's ministry. They were ignorant of the full meaning of the death of Christ; possibly they did not even know the fact of His resurrection; and they were certainly ignorant of the mission of the Comforter. That voice had reached them, which cried, "Prepare ye the way of the Lord " Is. They felt that the axe was laid to the root of the tree, that "' the kingdom of Heaven was at hand," that " the knowledge of Salvation was come to those that sit in darkness" Luke i.
Paul and the Christians at Ephesus as fellow disciples 3 of the same Lord and Master. In some respects Apollos was distinguished from the other disciples of John the Baptist, who are alluded to at the same place, and nearly at the same time. There is much significance in the first fact that is stated, that he was "born at Alexandria. The Hellenistic learning fostered by the foundations of the Ptolemies might be made the handmaid of the truth, no less than the older learning of Judaea and the schools of the Hebrews. As regards Apollos, he was not only an Alexandrian Jew by birth, but he had a high reputation for an eloquent and forcible power of speaking, and had probably been well trained in the rhetorical schools on the banks of the Nile.
The character which he bore in the synagogues was that of a man "mighty in the Scriptures. Also pp, 9, , and Thus we may conceive of him as travelling, like a second Baptist, beyond the frontiers of Judaea,-expounding the prophecies of the Old Testament, announcing that the times of the Messiah were come, and calling the Jews to repentance in the spirit of Elias.
Hence he was, like his great teacher, diligently "preparing the way of the Lord. An intense interest must have been excited about this time concerning the Messiah in the synagogue at Ephesus. Paul had recently been there, and departed with the promise of return. Aquila and Priscilla, though taking no forward part as public teachers, would diligently keep the subject of the Apostle's teaching before the minds of the Israelites. And now an Alexandrian Jew presented himself among them, bearing testimony to the same Messiah with singular eloquence, and with great power in the interpretation of Scripture.
Thus an unconscious preparation was made for the arrival of the Apostle, who was even now travelling towards Ephesus through the uplands of Asia Minor. So far his knowledge was accurate dicplt6. Further instructions from Aquila and Priscilla made it more accurate diKpt6Learpov. Mark i. Luke iii. John i. Compare Mal. But God had provided among his listeners those who could instruct him more perfectly. Aquila and Priscilla felt that he was proclaiming the same truth in which they had been instructed at Corinth. They could inform him that they had met with one who had taught with authority far more concerning Christ than had been known even to John the Baptist; and they could recount to him the miraculous gifts, which attested the outpouring of the Holy Ghost.
Thus they attached themselves closely to Apollos,' and gave him complete instruction in that "way of the Lord," which he had already taught accurately,2 though imperfectly; and the learned Alexandrian obtained from the tent-makers a knowledge of that "mystery" which the ancient Scriptures had only partially revealed. This providential meeting with Aquila and Priscilla in Asia became the means of promoting the spread of the Gospel in Achaia. Now that Apollos was made fully acquainted with the Christian doctrine, his zeal urged him to go where it had been firmly established by an Apostle.
The Christians of Ephesus encouraged4 him in this intention, and gave him "letters of commendation" 5 to their brethren across the Egean. On his arrival at Corinth, he threw himself at once among those Jews who had rejected St. Paul, and argued with them publicly and zealously on the ground of their Scriptures,6 and thus 7 became " a valuable support to those who had already believed through the grace of God;" for he proved with power that that Jesus who had been crucified at Jerusalem, and whom Paul was proclaiming throughout the world, was indeed the Christ.
And yet es2, grew up side by side with the good. For while he was a valuable aid to the Christians, and a formidable antagonist to the Jews, and while he was honestly co-operating in Paul's great work of evangelizing the world, he became the occasion of fostering pai ty-spirit X Ilpoe2ed6ovro avrov. His coming was a valuable assistance to the Christians against the Jews, in the controversies which had doubtless been going on since St. Paul's departure.
In this city of rhetoricians and sophists, the erudition and eloquent speaking of Apollos were contrasted with the unlearned simplicity with which St. Paul had studiously presented the Gospel to his Corinthian hearers. We have no reason to imagine that Apollos himself encouraged or tolerated such unchristian divisions.
A proof of his strong feeling to the contrary, and of his close attachment to St. Paul, is furnished by that letter to the Corinthians, which will soon be brought under our notice,2 when, after vehement rebukes of the schismatic spirit prevailing among the Corinthians, it is said, "touching our brother Apollos," that he was unwilling to return to them at that particular time, though St. Paul himself had " greatly desired it. His residence in this place, like his residence in Antioch and Corinth, is a subject to which our attention is particularly called.
Therefore, all the features of the city-its appearance, its history, the character of its population, its political and mercantile relations-possess the utmost interest for us. We shall defer such description to a future chapter, and limit ourselves here to what may set before the reader the geographical position of Ephesus, as the point in which St. Paul's journey from Antioch terminated for the present. We imagined him 3 about the frontier of Asia and Phrygia, on his approach from the interior to the sea. See the remarks on the Corinthian parties in Vol.
The image, however, of Diana is not the form Luder which she was worshipped at Ephesus. The islands of Samos and Chios are respectively opposite the projecting portion of coast, where the rivers flow by these cities to the sea. Here, in the level valley of the Cayster, is the early cradle of the Asiatic name,-the district of primeval "Asia,"-not as understood in its political or ecclesiastical sense, but the Asia of old poetic legend. For some time after its foundation by Androclus the Athenian, it was inferior to Miletus;; alut with the decay of the latter city, in the Macedonian and Roman periods, it rose to greater eminence, and in the time of St.
Paul it was the greatest city of Asia MSinor, as well as the metropolis of the province of Asia. Though Greek in its origin, it was half-oriental in the prevalent worship, and in the character of its inhabitants; and being constantly visited by ships from all parts of the Mediterranean, and united by great roads with the markets of the interior, it was the common meeting-place of various characters and classes of men.
Amongr those whom St. Paul met on his arrival, was the small company of Jews above alluded to,6 who professed the imperfect Christianity of John the Baptist. By this time Apollos had departed to Corinth. Those " disciples" who were now at Ephesus were in the same religious condition in which he had been, when Aquila and Priscilla first spoke to 1 Rev. Paul's return we shall have to take particular notice of this coast. An account of the early history of Ephesus to the time of Alexander, will be found in a treatise "'De rebus Ephesiorum," by W.
Perry Gdttingen, A much more copious work is Guhl's " Ephesiaca " Berlin, , of which we shall make abundant use. See also a paper by Mr. In legend its origin is referred to the Amazona. See Acts xix Paul found, on inquiry, that they had only received John's baptism, and that they were ignorant of the great outpouring of the Holy Ghost, in which the life and energy of the Church consisted.
On this they received Christian baptism;4 and after they were baptized, the laying on of the Apostle's hands resulted, as in all other Churches, in the miraculous gifts of Tongues and of Prophecy. Doubtless, Aquila and Priscilla were there. Though they are not mentioned here in connection with St. Paul, we have seen them so lately Acts xviii. It is even probable that he again worked with them at the same trade: for in the address to the Ephesian elders at Miletus Acts xx.
A preparation for his teaching had been made by Apollos and those who instructed him. The nwhole narrative seems to imply that they were in a lower state of religious knowledge than he was. Some commentators supply doo0v, or some equivalent word. If taken thus, the passage will be a close parallel to John vii. See again the last chap. As the house of Justus at Corinth2 had afforded St. Paul a refuge from calumny, and an opportunity of continuing his public instruction, so here he had recourse to " the school of Tyrannus," who was probably a teacher of philosophy or rhetoric, converted by the Apostle to Christianity.
For the incidents which occurred during this residence, for the persons with whom the Apostle became acquainted, and for the precise subjects of his teaching, we have no letters to give us information supplementary to the Acts, as in the cases of Thessalonica, and Corinth:4 inasmuch as that which is called the " Epistle to the Ephesians," enters:ito no personal or incidental details.
From that address we learn, that his voice had not been heard within the school of Tyrannus alone, but that he had gone about among his converts, instructing them "from house to house," and warninga "each one" of them affectionately "with tears. A large Church was formed, over which many presbyters were called to preside. Nor were the results confined to the city. See what is said on this subject, Vol. Acts xix. There must have been many Jews it various parts of the province. This city was renowned throughout the world for the worship of Diana, and the practice of magic.
Though it was a Greek city, like Athens or Corinth, the manners of its inhabitants were half oriental. The image of the tutelary goddess resembled an Indian idol 2 rather than the beautiful forms which crowded the Acropolis of Athens 3 and the enemy which St. Paul had to oppose was not a vaunting philosophy, as at Corinth,4 but a dark and Asiatic superstition.
The worship of Diana and the practice of magic were closely connected together. Eustathius says, that the mysterious symbols, called "Ephesian Letters," were engraved on the crown, the girdle, and the feet of the goddess. A When written, they were carried about as amulets. Crcesus is related to have repeated the mystic syllables when on his funeral pile;' and an Ephesian wrestler is said to have always struggled successfully against an antagonist from Miletus until he lost the scroll, which before had been like a talisman. Paul travelled to Ephesus by Colossm and the valley of the M aander.
The same arguments tend to prove that he never visited this district from Ephesus. It is thought by many that Epaphras was converted by St. Paul at Ephesus, and founded the church of Colossae. See Col. We shall return to the subject hereafte3 See Vol. See Guhl's Ephesiaca, c. Anaxilas in Athenamus, xii.
Society, contains some important illustrations. This statement throws some light on the peculiar charactei of the mir acles wrought by St. We are not to suppose that the Apostles were always able to work miracles at will. An influx of super. And the character of the miracles was not always the same.
They were accommodated to the peculiar forms of sill, superstition, and ignorance they were required to oppose. Paul was in the face of magicians, like Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh; and it is distinctly said that his miracles were " not ordinary wonders; 2 from which we may infer that they were different from those which he usually performed.
We know, in the case of our Blessed Lord's miracles, that though the change was usually accomplished on the speaking of a word, intermediate agency was sometimes employed; as when the blind man was healed at the pool of Siloam. A miracle which has a closer reference to our present subject, is that in which the hem of Christ's garment was made effectual to the healing of a poor sufferer, and the conviction of the bystanclders. Yet was this no encouragement to blind superstition.
When the suffering woman was healed by touching the hem of the garment, the Saviour turned round and said, " Virtue is gone out of me. These miracles must have produced a great effect upon the minds of those who practised curious arts in Ephesus. Among the magicians who, The narrative of what was done by St.
Paul at Ephesus should be compared witk St. Peter's miracles at Jerusalem, when "many signs and wonders were wrought among the people See Trench on the Miracles, p. The former, sudarium, is that which occurs [uke xix. John xi. Compare vi. Hence we find St. Paul classing " witchcraft " among the works of the flesh Gal. Paul's latest letter had probably reference to that very city in which we see him now brought into opposition. These men, believing that the name of Jesus acted as a charm, and recognising'the Apostle as a Jew like themselves, attempted his method of casting out evil spirits.
One specific instance is recorded, which produced disastrous consequences to those who made the attempt, and led to wide results among the general population. In the number of those who attempted to cast out evil spirits by the " name of Jesus," were seven brothers, sons of Sceva, who is called a high-priest,8 either because he had really held this cdice at Jerusalem, or because he was chief of one of the twenty-four courses of I Acts xix.
A knowledge of magic was a requisite qualification of a member of the Sanhedrin, that he might be able to try those who were accused of such practices. Josephus Ant. Again Ant. See again Rev. See Neaa. But the Demons, who were subject to Jesus, and by His will subject to those who preached His Gospel, treated with scorn those who used His Name without being converted to His truth. And straightway the man who was possessed sprang upon them, with frantic violence, so that they were utterly discomfitted, and "fled out of the house naked and wounded.
Paul's preaching-,4 some appear to have retained their attachment to the practice of magical arts. Their conscience was moved by what had recently occurred, and they came and made a full confession to the Apostle, and publicly acknowledged and forsook their deeds of darkness. A large number of the sorcerers themselves openly renounced the practice which had been so signally condemned by a higher power; and they brought together the books 7 that contained the mystic formularies, and burnt them before all the people. When the volumes were consumed,8 they proceeded to reckon up the price at which these manuals of enchantment would be valued.
Such books, from their very nature, would be costly; and all books in that age bore a value, which is far above any standard with which we are familiar. Hence we must not be surprised that the whole cost thus sacrificed and surrendered amounted to as much as two thousand pounds of English money. It was a strong proof of honest conviction on the part of the sorcerers, and a striking attestation of the triumph of Jesus Christ over the powers of dark1 v.
The burning and blazing of the books went on for some considerable time. Compare the instances of the burning of magical books recorded in Liv. There can be no reason to suppose with Grotius that the shekel is meant. The workers of evil were put to scorn, like the priests of Baal by Elijah on Mount Carmel;' and the teaching of the doctrine of Christ "increased mightily and grew strong. Paul's three years' residence at Ephesus. See v. WE have hitherto derived such information as we possess, concerning the proceedings of St.
Paul at Ephesus, from the narrative in the Acts; but we must now record an occurrence which St. Luke has passed over in silence, and which we know only from a few incidental allusions in the letters of the Apostle himself. This occurrence, which probably took place not later than the beginning of the second year of St.
Paul's residence at Ephesus, was a short visit which he paid to the Church at Corinth. If the visit' after leaving Ephesus was the third, there must have been a sewona before it. He fears lest he should again be humbled on visiting them, and again have to mourn their sins. Hence there must have been a former visit, in which he was thus humbled and made to mourn. Paley in the Horna Paulina, and other commentators since, have shown that these passages though they acknowledge their most natural meaning to be in favour of an intermediate visit may be explained away; in the first two St.
Paul might perhaps only have meant " this is the third time T have intended to come to you;" and in the third passage we may take,rTltv with 8E0O6Pra, in the sense of " on my return. Here it would be exceedingly unnatural to join 7ria2tv with? UZ0eiv; and the feeling of this probably led to the error of the Textua Receptus. I have warned you formerly. Paul would not have remained three years at Ephesus without revisiting his Corinthian converts.
We have already remarked I on the facility of communication which existed between these two great cities, which were united by a continual reciprocity of commerce, and were the capitals of two peaceful provinces. And we have seen examples of the intercourse which actually took place between the Christians of the two Churches, both in the case of Aquila and Priscilla, who had migrated from the one to the other, and in that of Apollos, concerning whom, "when he was disposed to pass into Achaia," " the brethren [at Ephesus] wrote, exhorting the disciples [at Corinth] to receive him" Acts xviii.
We have seen, in the last chapter, some of the results of this visit of Apollos to Corinth; he was now probably returned to Ephesus, where we know2 that he was remaining and, it would seem, stationary during the third year of St. Paul's residence in that capital. No doubt, on his return, he had much to tell of the Corinthian converts to their father in the faith,much of joy and hope, but also much of pain, to communicate; for there can be little doubt that those tares among the wheat, which we shall presently see in their maturer growth, had already begun to germinate, although neither Paul had Planted, nor Apollos watered them.
One evil at least, we know, prevailed extensively, and threatened to corrupt the whole Church of Corinth. This was nothing less than the addiction of many Corinthian Christians to those sins of impurity which they had practised in the days of their heathenism, and which disgraced their native city, even among the heathen. We have before mentioned the peculiar licentiousness of manners which prevailed at Corinth. So notorious was this, that it had actually passed into the vocabulary of the Greek tongue; and the very word "to Corinthianise," meant "to play the wanton;" while I am absent, saying to those who had sinned before that time, and to all the rest, "If I come again, I will not spare.
Luke's silence, which, however, is acknowledged by all to be inconclusive, considering that so very many of St. Paul's travels and adventures are left confessedly unrecorded in the Acts see note on 2 Cor. Paul tells the Corinthians he did not wish now to give them a "second benefit," dev7rpav XdIipt; whence he argues that the visit then approaching would be his second visit. But a more careful examination of the passage shows that St. Paul is speaking of his original intention of paying them a double visit, -on his way to Macedonia, and on his return from Macedonia.
The whole argument on both sides is very ably stated by Wieseler, Chronologie, p.? I Vol. Cornm pare also Aristoph. The offenders against Christian chastity were exceedingly numerous 2 at this period; and it was especially with the object of attempting to reform them, and to check the growing mischief, that St. Paul now determined to visit Corinth. HEe has himself described this visit as a painful one;3 he went in sor-ow at the tidings he had received, and when he arrived, he found the state of things even worse than he had expected; he tells us that it was a time of personal humiliation4 to himself, occasioned by the flagrant sins of so many of his own converts; he reminds the Corinthians, afterwards, how he had "mourned" over those who had dishonoured the name of Christ by "the uncleanness and fornication and wantonness which they had committed.
Yet he was compelled to threaten them with this penalty, if they persevered in the sins which had now called forth his rebuke. He has recorded the very words which he used. Paul remained but a very short time at Corinth. When afterwards, in writing to them, he says, that he does not wish " now to pay them a passing visit," he seems to imply, that his last visit had deserved that epithet.
Moreover, had it occupied a large portion of the " space of three years," which lhe describes himself to have spent at Ephesus Acts xx. The silence of St. Luke also, which is easily explained on the supposition of a short visit, would be less natural had St. Paul been long absent from Ephesus, where he appears, from the narrative in the Acts, to be stationary during all this period.
On these grounds, we suppose that the Apostle, availing himself of the constant maritime intercourse between the two cities, had gone by sea to Corinth; and that he now returned to Ephesus by the same route which was very much shorter than that by land , after spending a few days or weeks at Corinth. But his censures and warnings had produced too little effect upon his converts; his mildness had been mistaken for weakness; his hesitation in punishing had been ascribed to a fear of the offenders; and it was not long before he received new intelligence that the profligacy which had infected the community was still increasing.
Then it was that he felt him. The Corinthians, however, either did not understand this, or to excuse themselves they affected not to do so; for they asked, how it was possible for them to abstain from all intercourse with the profligate, unless they entirely secluded themselves from all the business of life, which they had to transact with their heathen neighbours. Whether the lost Epistle contained any other topics, we cannot know with certainty; but we may conclude with some probability, that it was very short, and directed to this one subject;3 otherwise it is not easy to understand why it should not have been preserved together with the two subsequent Epistles.
Soon after this short letter had been dispatched, Timotheus, accompanied by Erastus,4 left Ephesus for Macedonia. Paul desired him, 1 Wieseler, however, gets over this, by supposing that when St. Paul mentions three years spent among his hearers, he means to address not only the Ephesian presbyters whom he had summoned, but also the companions of his voyage Acts xx.
This lost Epistle must have been written after his second visit; otherwise he need not have explained it in the passage referred to. Meantime, some members of the household of Chloe, a distinguished Christian family at Corinth, arrived at Ephesus; anc from them St. Paul received fuller information than l]e before possessed of the condition of the Corinthian Church. The spirit of party had seized upon its members, and well nigh destroyed Christian love. We have already seen, in our general view of the divisions of the Apostolic Church, that the great parties which then divided the Christian world had ranked themselves under the names of different Apostles, whom they attempted to set up against each other as rival leaders.
At Corinth, as in other places, emissaries had arrived from the Judaizers of Palestine, who boasted of their " letters of commendation" from the metropolis of the faith; they did not, however, attempt, as yet, to insist upon circumcision, as we shall find them doing successfully among the simpler population of Galatia. This would have been hopeless in a great and civilised community like that of Corinth, imbued with Greek feelings of contempt for what they would have deemed a barbarous superstition.
Here, therefore, the Judaizers confined themselves, in the first instance, to personal attacks against St. Paul, whose apostleship they denied, whose motives they calumniated, and whose authority they persuaded the Corinthians to repudiate. Some of them declared themselves the followers of Cephas, whom the Lord himself had selected to be the chief Apostle; others probably the more extreme members of the party2 boasted of their own immediate connection with Christ himself, and their intimacy with " the brethren of the Lord;" and especially with James, the head of'the Church at Jerusalem.
The endeavours of these agitators to undermine the influence of the Apostle of the Gentiles met with undeserved success; and they gained over a strong party to their side. Meanwhile, those who were still stedfast to the doctrines of St. Paul, yet were not all unshaken in their attachment to his person: a portion of them preferred the Alexandrian learning with which Apollos had enforced his preaching, to the simple style of their first teacher, who had designedly abstained, at Corinth, from anything like philosophical argumentation.
Paul which was thus implied, and even refused to revisit Corinth,4 lest he should seem to countenance the factious spirit of his adherents. I Timotheus apparently did not reach Corinth on this occasion, or the fact would have been mentioned 2 Cor. Paul, and excited his utmost abhorrence: a member of the Corinthian Church was openly living in incestuous intercourse with his step-mother, and that, during his father's life; yet this audacious offender was not excluded from the Church.
Nor were these the only evils: some Christians were showing their total want of brotherly love by bringing vexatious actions against their brethren in the heathen courts of law; others were turning even the spiritual gifts which they had received from tLe Holy Ghost into occasions of vanity and display, not unaccompanied by fanatical delusion; the decent order of Christian worship was disturbed by the tumultuary claims of rival ministrations; women had forgotten the modesty of their sex, and came forward, unveiled contrary to the habit of their country , to address the public assembly; and even the sanctity of the Holy Communion itself was profaned by scenes of revelling and debauch.
About the same time that all this disastrous intelligence was brought to St. Paul by the household of Chloe, other messengers arrived from Corinth, bearing the answer of the Church to his previous letter, of which as we have mentioned above they requested an explanation; and at the same time referring to his decision several questions which caused dispute and difficulty.
These questions related-1st, To the controversies respecting meat which had been offered to idols; 2ndly, To the disputes regard ing celibacy and matrimony; the right of divorce; and the perplexities which arose in the case of mixed marriages, where one of the parties was an unbeliever; 3dly, to the exercise of the spiritual gifts in the public assemblies of the Church.
Paul hastened to reply to these questions, and at the same time to denounce the sins which had polluted the Corinthian Church, and almost annulled its right to the name of Christian. The letter which he was thus led to write is addressed, not only to this metropolitan Church, but also to the Christian communities established in other places in the same province,' which might be regarded as dependencies of that in the capital 1 See the translation of 1 Cor.
Also Vol. This letter is, in its contents, the most diversified of all St. Paul's Epistles; and in proportion to the variety of its topics, is the depth of its interest for ourselves. For by it we are introduced, as it were, behind the scenes of the Apostolic Church, and its minutest features are revealed to us under the light of daily life.
We see the picture of a Christian congregation as it met for worship in some upper chamber, such as the house cf Aquila, or of Gaius, could furnish. We see that these seasons of pure daevotion were not unalloyed by human vanity and excitement; yet, on the other hand, we behold the heathen auditor pierced to the heart by the inspired eloquence of the Christian prophets, the secrets of his conscience laid bare to him, and himself constrained to fall down on his face and worship God; we hear the fervent thanksgiving echoed by the unanimous Amen; we see the administration of the Holy Communion terminating the feast of love.
Again we become familiar with the perplexities of domestic life, the corrupting proximity of heathen immorality, the lingering superstition, the rash speculation, the lawless perversion of Christian liberty; we witness the strife of theological factions, the party names, the sectarian animosities. We perceive the difficulty of the task imposed upon the Apostle, who must guard from so many perils, and guide through so many clifficulties, his children in -the faith, whom else he had begotten in vain; and we learn to appreciate more fully the magnitude of that laborious responsibility under which he describes himself as almost ready to sink, "the care of all the Churches.
The following is a translation of the Epistle, which was written at Easter, in the third year of St. Paul's residence at Ephesus:I The contrast between the short-lived interest of the questions referred to him for solution, and the eternal principles by which they must be solved, was brought prominently before the mind of the Apostle himself by the Holy Spirit, under whose guidance he wrote; and he has expressed it in those sublime words which might serve as a motto fcr the whole Epistle 1 Cor.
It gives us the means of ascertaining, not merely the year, but even the month and week, in which it was written. Paul at Ephesus 1 Cor. This was the case during St. Paul's residence at Ephesus Acts xix. After leaving Ephesus, he purposed to come by Macedonia to Achaia xvi. This was the route he took Acts xx. They had taken up their residence at Ephesus before the visit of St. Paul Acts xviii. When he wrote to the Romans from Corinth during his three months' visit there Acts xr.
Now the time when he entertained this very purpose was towards the conclusion of his long Ephesian residence Acts xix. Now it was at the close of his Ephesian residence Acts xix. Paul the word "Christian" was only used as a term of reproach. The objection to translating it "saints" is, that the idea now conveyed by that term is quite different from the meaning of o dgytos as used by St. Paul means to say that he feels the home of his converts to be also his own. Both sentiment and expression are the same as in Rom. Because, in Him, you- were every-wise en- E riched with all the gifts of speech and knowledge for thus i mny testimony to Christ was confirmed among you , so that 7 you came behind no other church in any spiritual gift; looking earnestly for the time when our Lord Jesus Christ shall be revealed to our sight.
Rebukeoftheir Nevertheless, brethren, I exhort you, by the io party-spirit, n Ynd special name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to shun disputes, censure of the pseudo-philo- and suffer no divisions among you, but to be knit sophical party, together in the same mind, and the same judgment. VWas Paul crucified for you? I thank God that I al p- 14 tized none of you except Crispus and Gaius5 lest any one 15 should say that I baptized unto my own name ; and I bap tized also the household of Stephanas; besides these I know not that I baptized any other.
For Christ sent me forth as His lT apostie,, not to baptize, but to publish HIis Glad-tidings; and that, not with the wisdom of argumnent, lest thereby the cross of Christ should lose its mark of shame. For the tidings of the Z1 showing that, though the salutation runs in the name of both, the author of the Epistle was St. Paul alone. Compare the remarks on 1 Thess. He will do His part to confirm you unto the end. If you fall, it will not be for want of His help.
Peter is called throughout this Epistle. It wv the actual word used by our Lord himself, and remained the Apostle's usual appellati on among the Jewish Christians up to. It is strange that it should afterwards have been so entirely supplanted by its Greek equivalent, " Peter," even among the Jewish Christians.
See note on Gal. For an explanation of the parties here alluded to, see Vol. Where is the Rabbi? Where is the reasoner of this passing4 world? HIas not God turned this world's 21 wisdom into folly. For when the world had failed to gain by its wisdom the knowledge of the wisdom of God, it pleased God, by the folly of our preaching, to save those who have 5 22 faith therein.
The Signs Of The Times, Forerunning The Kingdom Of Christ, Spirits Day Version (SDV) - Archive
For the Jews ask for a sign from heaven, and the Greeks demand a system of philosophy; but we6 pro23 claim a Messiah crucified, to the Jews a stumbling-block, and 24 to the Greeks a folly; but to the called themselves, whether they be Jews or Greeks, Christ the power of God, and the 25 wisdom of God. For the folly which is of God, is wiser than man's wisdom, and the weakness which is of God, is stronger 26 than man's strength.
For you see, brethren, how God has called you; how few of you are wise in earthly wisdom, how 27 few are powerful, how few are noble. But what the world thinks folly, God has chosen, to confound its wisdom; and what it holds for weakness He has chosen, to confound its 28 strength; and what the world counts base and scorns as worthless, nay, what it deems to have no being, God has chosen, to 29 bring to nought the things that be; that no flesh should glory 30 in His presence.
But you He owns for His children 8 in Christ Jesus, who has become to us God's wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption; that the Scripture might 1 be fulfilled which saith,9 " e that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord. So, brethren, when I myself first came to declare In hi own' i. Paul and the other preachers of Chrigtianity. All who make an outward profession of Christianity are, in St. Paul's language, " the callecL" They have received a message from God, which has called them to enter into His church.
And in 3 Spirit of God. Spirit of God. Nevertheless, among those who are ripe in knowledge3 I 6 speak wisdom; albeit not the wisdom of this patssing world, nor of those who rule it, whose greatness will soon be nothing. But the rulers of this world knew it not; for had they 3 known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of Glory. But as it is written,6 "T'ye hath not seen, nor earT heard, neither 9 have entered into the heart of man, the thinygs wlwhic God hath prepared for them that love Hiim.
For who can know what is 11 in a man but the spirit of the manr which is within him? Now to us has been granted, not the spirit of this world, but 12 1 i. Him, not exalted on the earthly throne of David, but condemned to the death of the vilest malefactor. Paul appears, on his first coming to Corinth, to have been suffering under great depression, perhaps caused by the bodily malady to which he was subject cf.
Paul's expression for those who had attained the maturity of Christian wisdom. Compare 1 Cor. Such men could understand that his teaching was in truth the highest philosophy. The quotation is not to be found anywhere exactly. I Us, including all the inspired Christian teachers, and the rest of the rer.
But the natural2 man rejects the teaching of God's Spirit, for to him it is folly; and it nmust needs be beyond his knowledge, for the spiritual mnind 1s alone can judge thereof. But the spiritual man judges all things truly, yet cannot himself be truly judged by others. I fed you with milk and PevoaTatoo are proved to not with meat; for you were not able to bear the be carnal by their diesenstronger food, nay you are not yet able, for you are sions. For while you are divided amongst yourselves by jealousy, and strife, and factious parties, is it not evident that you are carnal, and walking in the common ways 4 of men?
When one says, "I follow Paul," and another "I follow Apollos," can you deny that you are carnal? I planted, ties. Nature of their work. Apollos watered; but it was God who made the 7 seed to grow. So that he who plants is nothing, nor lie who 8 waters, but God alone who gives the growth. But the planter and the waterer are one together; 5 and each will receive the 9 wages due to him, according to his work. For we are God's 10 fellow-labourers,6 and you are God's husbandry. Compare iii. See Juv. Molienti deinde bellum adversus praefectos Alexandri Sic acquisito regno, Sandrocottus ea tcmpe- state,qua Seleucus futurae magnitudinis f'undamenta iuciebat, Indiam possidebat cum quo facta pactione Seleucus.
The word drindc seems to indicate that the war with Alexander's officers fol- lowed the usurpation Justin, xv. But the vast hosts of teeming India led by Chandra- gupta were more than a match for the power of the Macedonian, who was compelled to withdraw from the country and renounce his ambition to eclipse the glory of Alexander. No record of the conflict has survived, and we are ignorant of the place of battle and everything save the result. Terms of peace, including a matrimonial alliance between the two royal houses, were arranged, and the Indian monarch obtained from his opponent the cession of four satrapies, Aria, Arachosia, Gedrosia, and the Paropanisadai, giving in exchange the comparatively small recompense of five hundred elephants.
This memorable treaty extended Chandragupta's frontier to the Hindu Kush mountains, and brought under his sway nearly the whole of the presentKingdom of Afghanistan, besides Baluchistan and Makran 1. A German writer has evolved from his inner con- sciousness a theory that Chandragupta recognized the suzerainty of Seleukos, but the plain facts are that the Syrian monarch failed and was obliged to sur- render four valuable provinces for very inadequate consideration.
Five hundred elephants at a high 1 The current assertion that the Syrian -King 'gave his daughter in marriage' to Chandragupta is not warranted by the evidence, which testifies merely to a matrimonial alliance ' ' Kfjdos, fiftyafila. The authorities for the extent of the cession of territory by Seleukos are textually quoted and discussed in Early History of India, 3rd ed.
Seleukos never attempted to assert any superiority over his successful Indian rival, but, on the contrary, having failed in attack, made friends with the power which had proved to be too strong for him, and treated Chandragupta as an equal. In pursuance of this policy, soon after his defeat, in or about B. The modern city of Patna, the civil station of Bankipore, and adjoining villages have been proved by partial excavations to occupy the site of the ancient capital, the remains of which now lie buried at a depth of from ten to twenty feet below the existing surface.
Megasthenes resided there for a considerable time, and fortunately for posterity, took the trouble to record carefully what he saw and heard. The ambassador found the government of the Indian king strong and well organized, established in a magnificent fortified city, worthy to be the capital of a great kingdom. The royal camp at the capital was estimated to contain , souls, and an effi- cient standing army numbering , infantry, 30, cavalry, 9, elephants, and a multitude of chariots, was maintained at the king's expense.
With this overwhelming and well- equipped force Chandragupta, as Plutarch tells us, ' overran and subdued the whole of India,' that is to say, at all the country to the north of the least Narbada. His work has been but the pith of it is pre- lost, served in extracts or allusions by Arrian, Anabasis, Bk. Curtius, Bk. Athenaios, Deipnosophists, ch. The testimony of Megasthenes concerning all matters which came under his personal observation is trustworthy, and a worthy man ' Arrian rightly described him as ' Sdnipos.
Strabo and some other ancient writers censure him unjustly ' on account of the ' travellers' tales which he repeated. The passages above cited and most of the other references in Greek and Roman authors to India have been carefully translated in Mr. Interesting traditional details are given in the Mudrd Bdlcshasa drama, which is now believed by some scholars to date from the fifth or sixth century A.
But Mr. Keith places it in either the seventh or the ninth century J. The Arthasdstra of Kautilya or. Chanakya, discovered in , and completely translated in by R. Shamasastry Bangalore Government Press is the best commentary on the Asoka inscriptions and on his institu- tions. Chandragupta died or abdicated, and transmitted the empire which he had won to his son Bindusara Amitraghata, who reigned for twenty -five or, accord- 1 ing to other authorities, twenty-eight years. The only recorded public event of his reign, which may be assumed to have begun in either B.
The information is of interest as proving that the official intercourse with the Hellenic world begun by Chandragupta was continued by his successor. In the year B. Greek writers have preserved curious anecdotes of private friendly correspondence between Seleukos and Chandragupta and between Antiochos and Bindusara, of value only as indications that the Indian monarchs valuable information, and a few particulars are obtainable from other sources. Solinus McCrindle, Megasfhenes, p. The variants in other Purdnas seem to be mere clerical errors.
The name or title Amitraghata ' slayer of foes ' is a restoi-ation in Sanskrit of the Amitro- chades or Amitrochates of Greek writers, who is stated to have been the son. Taranath indicates that Bindusara extended the empire towards the south. See S. Aiyangar, The Beginnings of Indian History, chap. Madras, Patrokles, an officer who served under both Seleukos and his son, sailed in the Indian seas and collected much geographical information which Strabo and Pliny were glad to utilize.
About seven years after the death of Seleukos, Asoka-vardhana, commonly called Asoka, a son of Bindusara, and the third sovereign of the Maurya dynasty, ascended the throne of Pataliputra B. According to the silly fictions which disfigure the Ceylonese chron- icles and disguise their solid merits, Asoka waded to the throne through a sea of blood, securing his position by the massacre of ninety-nine brothers, one brother only, the youngest, being saved alive.
These fictions, an extract from which will be found in a later chap- ter, do not deserve serious criticism, and are sufficiently refuted by the testimony of the inscriptions which proves that the brothers and sisters of the king were still living in the middle of the reign, and that they and all the members of the royal family were 1 the objects of the sovereign's anxious solicitude.
It seems to be true that the solemn consecration, or coronation, of Asoka was delayed for about four years after his accession in B. The empire won by Chandragupta had passed intact to his son Bindusara, and when, after the lapse of a quarter of a century, the sceptre was again transmitted from the hands of Bindusara to those of his son Asoka, it seems unlikely that a prolonged struggle was needed to ensure the succession to a throne so well established and a dominion so firmly consolidated.
The authentic records give no hint that Asoka's tranquillity was disturbed by internal commotion but on the contrary exhibit him as fully master in his empire, giving orders for execution in the most distant provinces with perfect confidence that they would be obeyed. The numerous inscriptions recorded by Asoka are the leading authority for the events of his reign. All the inscriptions, except the latest discovered, that at Maski in the Nizam's Dominions, are anonymous, describing their author by titles only.
The titles Devanampiya and Piyadasi are frequently combined, although also used separately. The name of Asoka next occurs in Rudradaman's inscription, c. A few other inscriptions and traditions preserved in various literary forms help to fill up the outline derived from the primary authority, and by utilizing the available materials of all kinds, we are in a posi- tion to compile a tolerably full account of the reign, considering the remoteness of the period discussed, and the well-known deficiency of Hindu literature in purely historical works.
The interest of the story is mainly psychological and religious, that is to say, as we read it we watch the development of a com- manding personality and the effect of its action in transforming a local Indian sect into one of the leading religions of the world. That interest is per- manent, and no student of the history of religion can ignore Asoka, who stands beside St. Paul, Constan- tine, and the Khalif Omar in the small group of men who have raised to dominant positions religions founded by others.
The dates which follow may be open to slight correction, for various reasons which we need not stop to examine, but the error in any case cannot exceed three years, and the chronology of the reign may be regarded as practically settled in its main outlines. Bearing in mind this liability to immaterial error, we may affirm that Asoka succeeded his father in , and four years later, in B. Asoka assumed the title of devdnam piya, which literally means 'dear to the gods,' but is better treated as a formal title, suitably rendered by the phrase current in Stuart times, 'His Sacred Majesty.
Nothing authentic is on record concerning the early 1 Dr. Fleet prefers the term 'anointing,' and states that the ' ' liquid poured over the king included ghee or clarified butter J. I do not deny that the chroniclers of Ceylon used Piyadasi and Piyadassana as quasi proper names, but I affirm that in the inscriptions the titles are not so used. The monkish chroniclers of India and Ceylon, eager to enhance tne glory of Buddhism, represent the young king as having been a monster of cruelty before his conversion, and then known as Asoka the Wicked, in contradistinction to Asoka the Pious, his designation after conversion.
But such tales, specimens of which will be found in Chapters VI and VII, are of no historical value, and should be treated simply as edifying romances. Tradition probably is right in stating that Asoka followed the religion Brahmans in his early days, with of the a special devotion to Siva, and we may assume that he led the life of an ordinary Hindu Kaja of his time.
We know, because he has told us so himself, that he then had no objection to sharing in the pleasures of the chase, or in the free use of animal food, while he permitted his subjects at the capital to indulge in merry-makings accompanied by feasting, wine, and l song Whether or not he waged any wars in those. There no reason to suppose is that his dominions were less than those of his grand- father and father, and equally little reason for sup- posing that he made additions to them.
In his in- ' scriptions he counts his regnal years from the date of ' 2 his consecration, which may be taken as B. The earliest recorded events belong to the ninth 'regnal year,' B. In that year he sought to round off his dominions by the conquest of the Kingdom of the Three Kalingas, or Kalinga, on the coast of the Bay of Bengal between the Mahanadi and Godavari rivers. His arms were successful and the kingdom was an- nexed to the empire.
But the horrors which must accompany war, even successful war, made a deep impression on the heart of the victorious monarch, who has recorded on the rocks in imperishable words the sufferings of the vanquished and the remorse of the victor. The record is instinct with personal feeling, and still carries across the ages the moan of a human soul. The words clearly are those of the king himself, for no Secretary of State would dare to express in such a language the profound sorrow and ' regret' felt by His Sacred Majesty. The rocks tell the tale as follows : The Kalingas were conquered by His Sacred and Gracious ' Majesty the King when he had been consecrated eight years.
One hundred and fifty thousand persons were thence carried away captive, one hundred thousand were there slain, and many times that number died. Directly after the Kalingas had been annexed began His Sacred Majesty's zealous protection of the Law of Piety; his Pillar Edicts, which are not dated, appear to be certainly later than The Queen's Edict is the latest of all. Thence arises the remorse of His Sacred Majesty for having con- quered the Kaliugas, because the conquest of a country previously unconquered involves the slaughter, death, and carrying away captive of the people.
That is a matter of profound sorrow and regret to His Sacred Majesty. So that of all the people who were then slain, done to death, or carried away captive in Kalinga, if the hundredth part or the thousandth part were now to suffer the same fate, it would be matter of regret to His Sacred Majesty. After the triumphant conclusion of the war and the annexation of the kingdom Asoka issued two long special edicts prescribing the principles on which both the settled inhabitants and the wild jungle tribes of the conquered provinces should be treated.
These two edicts, in substitution for three documents pub- lished in other localities, were issued in Kalinga only, where they are preserved at two sites, now called 2 Jaugada and Dhauli The conquered territory, no. His officers, the Wardens of the Marches mentioned in the edicts, may may not have been compelled at or times to defend portions of his extended frontiers against the incursions of enemies, but all that we know had begun to of his life indicates that once he devote himself to the love, protection, and teaching of the Law of Piety, or dharma, he never again allowed himself to be tempted by ambition into an unprovoked war.
It is possible that the Kalinga conflict may not have been his first, but certainly it was his last war undertaken voluntarily. The full meaning of the statement that the king's love for and protection of the Law of Piety and his teaching of that Law began directly after the annexa- tion of Kalinga brought out by comparison with is another document Minor Rock Edict I published a few months earlier than the edict describing the annexation.
The total period referred to is conse- quently somewhere about four years. The conquest of ' ' the Kalingas took place in the ninth regnal year B. He expressly informs us that his earliest inscriptions date from that year 1 The Minor Rock Edict I, of. Many more probably remain to be discovered, and at least two inscribed pillars are known have been deliberately destroyed 1 to The.
Asoka's conversion to Buddhism, therefore, may be dated in B. It is impossible to be more precise because we do not know the exact value of the expressions 'more than two years and a half and 'more than a year. When the first edition of this book was published I was misled by inter- pretations of Minor Rock Edict I now proved to be erroneous. HIS HISTORY 29 Before proceeding farther in tracing the story of Asoka's religious development, which is the history of his life and reign, it will be convenient to pause and explain the nature of the dharma, or Law of Piety, which he loved, protected, and promulgated with all the energy of his temperament and all his power as a mighty sovereign.
We must also consider how he managed to reconcile the apparently inconsistent positions of monk and monarch. Dharma, or Dhamma, means to a Hindu the rule of life for each man as determined by his caste and station, or, in other words, the whole duty, religious, moral, and social, of a man born to occupy a certain position in the world.
For many ages past this con- ception of dharma has been inseparably associated with the notions of caste. Each caste has its own dharma, and conduct most proper for the member of one caste is reprehensible in the highest degree for a member of another. In Asoka's time caste, although in some respects less rigid than it has been since the shock of the Muhammadan invasions, which did so much to solidify the institution, was well de- veloped, and the now current Hindu notion of dharma does not seem to diverge widely from that then enter- tained by the followers of the Brahrnanical law.
The dhamma of the Edicts is that Hindu dharma with a difference, due to a Buddhist tinge, nay, rather due The position adopted in this edition, which has the support of Mi-. Thomas as well as of M. Senart, was opposed by Fleet, whose latest article appeared in J. The association of the idea of duty with caste is dropped by Asoka, and two virtues, namely, respect for the sanctity of animal life and reverence to parents, superiors, and elders, are given a place far more prominent than that assigned to them in Hindu teaching.
In short, the ethics of the Edicts are Buddhist rather than Brahmanical. This proposition, of course, does not involve contradiction of the equally true statement that Buddhism is a de- velopment of Hinduism. Many summaries of the dhamma, or Law of Piety, are to be found in the Edicts, the most concise being 2 ihat in Minor Rock Edict II : 'Thus saith His Sacred Majesty: Father and mother must be hearkened to similarly, respect for living creatures ; 1 In the Bhabru Edict the Good Law sadhamme means the collective sayings of Buddha, the recorded expression of the Law of Piety in its highest form.
These are the virtues of the Law of Piety which must be practised. Similarly, the teacher must be reverenced by the pupil, and towards relations proper courtesy should be shown. This is the ancient nature of piety this leads to length of days, and according to this men should act. One of them defines the Law of Piety as ' comprising the duties of compassion, almsgiving, truth, purity, gentleness, and saintliness V Excellent moral doctrine of such a kind is inculcated over and over again, and men are invited to win both the royal favour and heavenly bliss by acting up to the precepts of the Law.
No student of the edicts can fail to be struck by the purely human and severely practical character of the teaching. The object avowedly aimed at, as in modern Burma, is the happiness of living creatures, man and beast 2. The teacher assumes that filial piety and the other virtues commended open the path to happiness here and hereafter, but no attempt is made to prove any proposition by reasoning, nor is any value attached to merely intellectual cognition.
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One edict only, that of Bhabru, probably early in date, expressly alleges the authority of the Venerable Buddha as the basis of the king's moral doctrine, and that authority undoubtedly is the one foundation of Asoka's ethical system l The king. So long as he felt assured that his teaching was in accordance with that of his Master he needed not to allege any other justification.
The authority expressly cited in the Bhabra Edict is understood throughout the whole series, and the only non-Buddhist inscriptions of Asoka are the Barabar cave dedications in favour of the Ajivika ascetics, who were more akin to the Jains than to the Buddhists. Having adopted the opinion of M.
Senart and Mr. Senart has noted many specially Buddhist words and phrases throughout the inscriptions. Asoka's favourite maxim, apparently composed by himself, was the text Let ' small and great exert themselves 1. Difficult, however, it is to attain such freedom, whether by people of low or of high degree, save by the utmost exertion and giving up all other aims. That, how- ever, for him of high degree is difficult V But ' even by the small man who chooses to exert himself, immense heavenly bliss may be won V This doctrine of the need for continual self-sustained exertion in order to attain the highest moral level is fully in accordance with numerous passages in the Dhammapada and other early Buddhist scriptures.
The saying about the difficulties of the man of high degree, recalls, as do many other Buddhist aphorisms, familiar Biblical texts, but the spirit of the Bible is totally differentfrom that of Asoka's teaching. As it is said in the Dhammapada : By ourselves is evil done, By ourselves we pain endure, By ourselves we cease from wrong, By ourselves become we pure. No one saves us but ourselves, No one can and no one may, We ourselves must tread the Path: Buddhas only show the way.
Only he can do himself good by good thoughts, by good acts only ; he can hurt himself by evil intentions and deeds V The Buddhist attitude is akin to the Stoic. Zoroastrian, and Jain, but directly opposed to the Christian. So much exposition may suffice to enable the reader to understand the general nature of the Buddhist dhaniTna, or Law of Piety, as taught by Asoka.
Special topics of the doctrine will be discussed later, as occasion arises. The belief held by some learned writers that he had abdicated before he assumed the monastic robe is untenable, being opposed 'tothe plain testimony of the edicts. Throughout his reign he retained the position of Head of the Church and Defender of the Faith. His latest proclamations, the Minor Pillar Edicts, issued at some time during the last ten years of the reign, exhibit him as actively engaged in pro- tecting the Church against the dangers of schism and issuing his orders for the disciplinary punishment of schismatics.
A copy of the Minor Rock Edict I in which he gives a summary of his early religious history is engraved on a rock at the foot of another hill close by. The inscriptions give no sup- port to the late legends which represent the great emperor as a dotard in his old age, and suggest that he abdicated his sovereign functions. His authentic records show him to have been the same man through- out his career from to the end, a zealous Buddhist, and at the same time a watchful, vigorous, autocratic ruler of Church and State.
How did he manage to reconcile the vows and practices of a Buddhist monk with the duties and responsibilities of the sovereign of an enormous empire? It is not possible to give a complete answer, but fairly satisfactory explanations can be presented. The pilgrim I-tsing in the seventh century notes that the statue of Asoka represented him as wearing a monk's robe of a particular pattern 1. He does not seem have been offended by any incongruity in the to situation, and his attitude may be explained by the fact that he knew a Chinese Emperor to have done the same thing.
However exact or inexact the parallel may be in detail, it holds good for the main fact that both Asoka and Wu-ti succeeded somehow in combining the duties of monk and monarch. A slightly less exact parallel to Asoka's action is offered by the case of the Jain Kumarapala, King of Gujarat in the twelfth century, who assumed the title of ' Lord of the Order,' and at various periods of his reign took vows of continence, temperance, abstention from animal food, and refraining from confiscation of 1 Giles, Chinese Literature , p.
London, , vol. Indeed, the whole story of Kumarapala's proceedings after his con version, to Jainism offers the best possible commentary on the history of Asoka l. The legend of Vitasoka, the hermit brother of Asoka according to one form of the story, who was permitted to beg his alms within the palace precincts, is good evidence to show that people were accustomed 2 to arrangements making asceticism easy for princes.
We must further remember that the Buddhist cere- mony upaaampadd of full admission to the Order, ' commonly, but inaccurately, called ordination, does ' ' ' not convey indelible orders or involve a lifelong vow. In both Burma and Ceylon men commonly enter the Order temporarily, and after a time, long or short, resume civil life. Asoka could have done the same, as Wu-ti afterwards did in China, and a proceeding easy for an ordinary doubly easy man is for In short, although we do not know an emperor.
Le roi lit aux femmcs des appartements interieurs : Donnez-lui des aliments semblables a ceux que ramassent les Religieux qui incndient. See post, chap. Having now defined the nature of the dhamma, or Law of Piety, which Asoka made it the business of and propagate, and having shown his life to preach how the apparently inconsistent roles of monk and monarch could be reconciled in practice, we may resume his life story.
We have seen that his ninth was the turning-point of his : regnal year' B. Those records prove that Asoka visited the Lumbini garden,' the ' traditional scene of the birth of Gautama Buddha, and also paid reverence to the stdpa of Konakamana, or Kanakamuni, the ' former Buddha,' which he had already enlarged six years earlier.
It is interesting Bodoahpra, the ferocious king of Burma, who reigned from 1 to , and claimed descent from Asoka Phayre, Histoiy of Burma, , p. The memory of the same pilgrimage was preserved also by literary tradition, as recorded in the Sanskrit romance called the Asokdvaddna. According to the story, which will be found in a later chapter, the king, under the guidance of his preceptor, a saint named Upagupta, visited in succession the Lumbini garden, Kapilavastu, the scene of Buddha's childhood, the Bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya, Rishipattana, or Sarnath, near Benares, Kusinagara, where Buddha died, the Jetavana monastery at Sravasti, where he long resided, the sttipa of Vakkula, and the stilpa of Ananda.
The words graven on the Rummindei pillar, Here the ' Venerable One was born,' are those ascribed by the tradition to Upagupta as spoken when he guided his royal master to the holy spot. Asoka bestowed great largess at every place except the stupa, of Vakkula, where he gave only a single copper coin, because that saint had met with few obstacles to surmount, and had consequently done little good to his fellow creatures. Smith, Antiquities in the Tardi, Nepal ; Archaeol. The famous monastery at Mathura which bore his name appears to have been situated at the Kankali Tila, a Buddhist as well as a Jain site, and his memory was also associated with various local- ities in Sind.
He is said to have been the son of Gupta the perfumer. In the traditions of Ceylon his place taken is by Tissa, the son of Mogali, who should be regarded as a fictitious person made up from the names of Buddha's two principal disciples, as in- l geniously argued by Colonel Waddell. The discoveries made at Sarnath in and sub- sequent years include an edict of Asoka. The site of Kusinagara has not been finally determined. India, 3rd ed.
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I once believed it to be in Nepal on the upper course of the Rapti ; but contra, Vogel, J. The legend of Bakkula or Vakkula is told in the Bakkula-sutta J. For references to other ' ' books and papers see Asoka's Father-Confessor in Ind. In or about the year mentioned he took the momentous resolution of organizing a network of preaching missions to spread the teaching of his Master, not only throughout and on the borders of his own wide empire, but in the distant regions of Western Asia, Eastern Europe, and Northern Africa. We are told that His Majesty sought the conversion of even the wild forest tribes, and that missions were sent to the nations on the borders of his empire, who are enu- merated as the Yonas, Kambojas, Nabhapamtis of Nabhaka, Bhojas.
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Pitenikas, Andhras, and Pulindas, thatis to say, various more or less civilized tribes occupying the slopes of the Himalaya, the regions beyond the Indus, and parts of the Deccanand Central India, which were under imperial control, although not included in the settled provinces administered by the emperor or his viceroys.
But these opera- tions, extensive though they were, did not satisfy the zeal of Asoka, who ventured to send his prosely- tizing agents far beyond the limits of India, into the dominions of Antiochos Theos, King of Syria and Western Asia B. Bock Edict V adds to the list of border nations given above the names of the Rashtrikas of the Maratha country, and the Gandharas of the Peshawar frontier, noting that there were yet others unnamed ; while Rock Edict II, which again names Antiochos, with a reference to his Hellenistic neigh- and Pandyas, as far as the bours, as well as the Cholas, Tamraparni adds the Satiyaputra and Kerala- river, putra kingdoms of the Western coast to the list of coun- tries in which healing arrangements for man and beast were carried out.
The date of the missions is fixed ap- proximately by the fact that the year B. The statements in the two edicts quoted constitute almost the whole of the primary and absolutely trustworthy evidence concerning Asoka's missionary organization. Mahishamandala Mysore Mahadeva. Vanavasi North Kannara Itakkhita.
Aparantaka coast north of Bombay Yona-Dharmarakkliita. Yona region N. Suvarmabhumi Pegu and Moulmein Sona and Uttara. All the names of countries in this list, except Nos. The inclusion of No. Burma, as a halfway house between India and China, seems to have first received Buddhism effectively two streams converging early in the Christian era in from China on one side and northern India on the other.
The close connexion between the Churches of x Ceylon and Burma is of much later date. The exclusion of the Hellenistic kingdoms from the Ceylon list is easily explained when we remember that those kingdoms had ceased to exist centuries before that list was compiled. The omission of the Tamil The argument is worked out at length in the author's essay, 1 'Asoka's alleged Mission to Pegu Suvannabhumi ,' Ind. Burma for HIS HISTORY 45 countries of Southern India may be ascribed to the secular hostility between the Sinhalese and the Tamils of the mainland, which naturally would indispose the oppressed Sinhalese to recognize the ancestors of their oppressors as having been brothers in the faith.
The island monks were eager to establish the derivation of their religion direct from Magadha through the agency of Mahinda and his supposed sister, and had no desire bygone days of friendly intercourse with to recall the the hated Tamils. Sound principles of historical criticism require that when the evidence of the in- scriptions differsfrom that of later literary traditions, the epigraphic authority should be preferred without hesitation, and there is no reason to doubt the reality of the missions to the Tamil kingdoms of the south.
The Ceylon tradition as to the names of the mission- aries is partially confirmed by Cunningham's dis- coveries at the Bhilsa topes or st'Apas near Sanchi, which included relic caskets bearing the name of ' Kasapa Gota, missionary dckariya of the whole Hemavanta,' or Himalayan region. Other caskets bore the name of Majjhima 1 But when the chronicler. The finding of a casket inscribed Mogaliputasa does not establish the real existence of the Ceylonese Tissa, son of Mogali, as distinct from Upagupta.
The scheme was not only comprehensive but successful. Buddhism did not effect its entry until centuries after the time of Asoka, but the diffusion of the religion in them all was due to the impetus given by the great Buddhist emperor of India, who transformed the creed of a local Indian sect into a world-religion, the most important of all the religions, perhaps, if the numbers of its adherents be taken as the test. The obvious comparison of Asoka with Constantino suggests the thought that the action of the Indian monarch was far more influential than that of the Roman emperor, whose official patronage of Chris- tianity was rather an act of tardy and politic submission to a force already irresistible than the willing devotion 1 of an enthusiastic believer.
If Constantino had not 1 When Constantine, partly perhaps from a genuine moral ' sympathy, yet doubtless far more in the well-grounded belief that he had more to gain from the zealous sympathy of its professors than he could lose by the aversion of those who still cul- tivated a languid paganism, took Christianity to be the religion of the empire, it was already a great political force, able, and ' not more able than willing, to repay him by aid and submission Bryce, Holy Jiomatt Empire , p.
HIS HISTORY 47 adopted the Christian creed himself, his successors would have been compelled to do so, but if Asoka had withheld his heartfelt adherence to the teaching of Buddha there is no reason to suppose that the doctrine had strength enough to impose itself upon the faith of India and half of the civilized world. Gautama Buddha moved, and died within a small territory lived, in and near Magadha, and there is no indication that during the interval of three centuries which elapsed between his death and the dispatch of missions by Asoka the Buddhist teaching had made any great noise in the world or was known beyond very narrow limits, nor is there any reason to believe that Asoka was constrained by political reasons to make a virtue of necessity and yield to the demands of an imperious priesthood.
We watch in the personal records drafted by himself the gradual growth of his sincere convictions and the orderly development of the policy which con- secrated his immense autocratic power and diplomatic influence as the sovereign of one of the greatest empires in the world to the service of the religion which had captured his heart and intellect.
They cannot be accepted as history, and, in reality, the conversion of the island must have been a process much slower then it is represented to have been. But we do not possess any authoritative account of what actually happened. We must be content to admit our ignorance, which is likely to continue. I am sceptical about the tale of Sanghamitra, the sup- posed daughter of Asoka. Her name, which means 'Friend of the Order,' is extremely suspicious, and the inscriptions give no indication of her existence.
Professor Oldenberg has much justification for his opinion that the story of Mahinda and his sister seems lo have been ' invented for the purpose of possessing a history of the Buddhist institutions in the island, and to connect it with the most distinguished person conceivable the great Asoka. The historical legend is fond of poetically exalting ordinary occurrences into great and brilliant actions ; we may assume that, in reality, things were accomplished in a more gradual and less striking manner than such legends make them appear V The naturalization in Ceylon of the immense mass of Buddhist literature now existing in Pali and, I believe, also v in Sinhalese, must necessarily have been a work of time, and would seem to be the fruitof long and continuous intercourse between Ceylon and the adjacent parts of India, rather than the sudden result of direct communication with Magadha.
The statements of the Chinese pilgrims in the fifth and seventh centuries prove that Asoka's 1 Introduction to the Vinayapitakam, p. Hiuen Tsang mentions one sMpa in the Chola country, and another in the Dravida or Pallava kingdom as being ascribed to Asoka. Still more significant is his description of the state of religion in A. They do not esteem learning much, but are wholly given to commercial gain. There are the ruins of many old convents, but only the walls are preserved, and there are few religious followers. There are many hundred Deva [Brahmanical] temples, and a multitude of heretics, mostly belonging to the Nirgranthas [Jains].
Not far to the east of this city [the unnamed capital, 1 Madura] is an old sanghdrdma [monastery] of which the vestibule and court are covered with wild shrubs ; the foundation walls only survive. This was built by Mahendra, the younger brother of Asoka-raja. To the which east of this is a sttipa, the lofty walls of are buried in the earth, and only the crowning part of the cupola remains.
Tbis was built by Asoka-raja V This interesting passage, which shows how vivid the traditions of Asoka and his brother continued 1 Beal, Records of the Western World, ii. That hypothesis is certainly much more probable than the Ceylonese story that he came flying through the air, ' as flies the king of swans. But, notwithstanding the mythology which has gathered round his name, Mahendra or Mahinda, the younger brother of Asoka, was a real, historical personage, and there can be no doubt that he was a pioneer in the diffusion of Buddhism in Ceylon.
The concurrence of Indian and Ceylonese traditions, and the existence of monuments bearing his name both in the island and on the mainland do not permit of scepticism as to his reality.