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Chicago, ; pp. Translated and rpt. Jesper Olson, PP. Reviewed by Susan Schultz in Plastic 3 Spring Emory Elliott. New York: Columbia U. P, Postmodern Genres , special issue of Genre, 22, no. Contains 11 essays and my Introduction. Reviewed in Semiotica , : by Ingeborg Hoesterey. Behrens, Choice, 32, no. Twentieth Century American Poetry , 2 vols. Library of America: Garvin ed. Merwin: Essays on the Poetry , ed. Fokkema eds. Tuscaloosa and London: University of Alabama Press, , pp.

Nadel eds. Friedman and Miriam Fuchs eds. Press, , pp. Kinney ed. Hardison, Jr. Newark: U of Delaware, Press, : pp. Jacques Darras Brussels, : ; trans. Dominque Goy-Blanquet. Donald Hall U of Illinois Press, , Yeats," Contemporary Literature 10 Spring : Hall, ,pp. The O'Hara section is reprinted in Jim Elledge ed.

Rawson and G. Hunter, 8 , pp. Hall, , pp. Gish ed. Peters Corp, , pp. Rawson and Jenny Mezciems , pp. Gordon Lish 3 September : ; rpt. David Pethica Norton, , pp. Susan Schultz, 8, no. Renee Hubert, 25, no. Roland Greene Fall Anthologizing in the Nineties," Diacritics , 26, Fall-Winter : Richard J. Wright, David. Harnish, Andrew. A Cappella: Voices from Mennonite Writers. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, Hinz-Penner, Raylene. MQR Intercourse, PA: Good Books, Mennonite Poetry. Lapp, Rachel. JMW 6.

Juana Inés de la Cruz

Elements of Faithful Writing. Entering the Wild: Essays on Faith and Writing. Gaff, Clarissa. Janzen, Jean. Janzen, Jean and Larry Warkentin. Roberts, Laura Schmidt. New York: Grand Central Publishing, Reprinted as Mennonite Meets Mr. Janzen, Rhoda. Mock, Melanie Springer. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Fixing Tradition: Joseph W.

Poems and Poetics

Yoder, Amish American. And Michael Tyrell, eds. And Joshua R. Brown, eds. Rosanna of the Amish: The Restored Text. And Steven Rubin photographs. Berube, Michael. Birky, Beth Martin. Cruz, Daniel Shank, ed. Friebert, Stuart. Field 48 Spring : Heinlen, Amy. An Interview with Julia Spicher Kasdorf. Hostetler, Sheri. Kasdorf, Julia Spicher. CrossCurrents Schmidt, et al. Edited by Donna Olendorf, Kindl, Christine. Meyer-Lee, Robert J. Miller, Susan Fisher. Silver, Anya Krugovoy.

Tiessen, Hildi Froese. Wagner, Shari. Yoder, Anita Hooley. Marcia Kauffman Clark. Before the Fall and Other Short Stories. Clark, Marcia Kauffman. Wiley, Phoebe. Five on Fiction : A Collection of Stories. Coniglio, Corine. Dwyer, June. Harris, Mark. Brook, Hinnefeld, Joyce. Hollywood, Amy. Jackson, Fleda Brow. Trosky, Marowski, et al. Lapp, Jessica W. Lisella, Julia. Kinch, Eileen R. Suderman, Elmer F. Wiebe, Dallas. Scratching the Woodchuck: Nature on an Amish Farm.

Athens: University of Georgia Press, Galindo, Rene. Kline, David. Topeka, KS: Woodley Press, Lachman, Becca J. Goshen, IN: Pinchpenny Press, Beyeler, Jodi H. Miller, Keith. Dinner, or a Deranged Event. With CD of music by Chris Janzen. Nathan, Jesse. Neufeld, Leonard.

Who Are We? Shaken in the Water. Kasdorf, Julia. JMW 5. Penner, Jessica. How the War Started. Zercher, David L. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, Enns, Mary M. Juhnke, James C.

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Rimland, Ingrid. Winnipeg: Hyperion Press, Urry, James. Branch: A Memoir with Pictures. Miller, Reuben Z. Miller, eds. Ruth, John Landis. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, With Del Samatar. Monster Portraits. Excerpt in JMW Note that Samatar is a prolific interviewee and thus that the list below only includes a sampling of her interviews. Alfrey, Ellah Wakatama. Bady, Aaron. Beck, Ervin. Cain, Amina. Carroll, Tobias. Clarke, Nic.

Cole, Alicia. Samatar, Sofia. Conner, Allison Noelle. Kimbell, Naomi. McCarry, Sarah. Locus Magazine Winter, Nicolas. Zimmerman, Diana R. Marry a Mennonite Boy and Make Pie. Newton, KS: Workplay Publishing, Smucker, Jessica. Berkeley, CA: Counterpoint, Harrington, David V. Suderman, Elmer. Suzanne, Miriam. King, Marshall. With Gerald L. A Hundred Camels. Waldrep, G. North Adams, MA: Tupelo, Stouffville, ON: Theatre of the Beat, The Vox Populi Street Stories. Tiessen, Paul. Also about Rhoda Janzen and Lee Snyder.

To begin ...

Wiebe, Katie Funk. Edited by Wilbur Birky. Et al, ed. Birky, Wilbur. Edited by Joshua R. Brown and Julia Spicher Kasdorf. Brown, Joshua A. Kauffman, S. Skip to content. New York: Hyperion, All Things Are Labor. Kirsten Eve Beachy Editor. Kyle Beachy The Slide. Stephen Beachy The Whistling Song. New York: W. Norton, Philadelphia: Harrington Park Press, Zeke Yoder vs. The Singularity. Amish Terror Book 1. Glory Hole. Philip N. Pittsburgh: Dorrance, At Columbia University in , Borges further elaborated on the story's creation, "I tried to imagine what a real Nazi might be like.

I mean someone who thought of violence as being praiseworthy for its own sake. Then I thought that this archetype of the Nazis wouldn't mind being defeated; after all, defeats and victories are mere matters of chance. He would still be glad of the fact, even if the Americans and British won the war. Naturally, when I am with Nazis, I find they are not my idea of what a Nazi is, but this wasn't meant to be a political tract.

It was meant to stand for the fact that there was something tragic in the fate of a real Nazi. Except that I wonder if a real Nazi ever existed. At least, when I went to Germany, I never met one. They were all feeling sorry for themselves and wanted me to feel sorry for them as well.

Almost immediately, the spoils system was the rule of the day, as ideological critics of the ruling Partido Justicialista were fired from government jobs. Upon demanding to know the reason, Borges was told, "Well, you were on the side of the Allies, what do you expect? At the dinner, a speech was read which Borges had written for the occasion. It said:. Dictatorships breed oppression, dictatorships breed servility, dictatorships breed cruelty; more loathsome still is the fact that they breed idiocy.

Bellboys babbling orders, portraits of caudillos , prearranged cheers or insults, walls covered with names, unanimous ceremonies, mere discipline usurping the place of clear thinking Fighting these sad monotonies is one of the duties of a writer. In the aftermath, Borges found himself much in demand as a lecturer and one of the intellectual leaders of the Argentine opposition. Borges, then suffering from depression caused by a failed romance, reluctantly accepted. Borges later recalled, however, "Many distinguished men of letters did not dare set foot inside its doors.

SADE official Luisa Mercedes Levinson noted, "We would gather every week to tell the latest jokes about the ruling couple and even dared to sing the songs of the French Resistance , as well as ' La Marseillaise '". Borges indignantly refused, calling it a ridiculous demand. The policemen replied that he would soon face the consequences.

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  7. According to Edwin Williamson,. Borges had agreed to stand for the presidency of the SADE in order [to] fight for intellectual freedom, but he also wanted to avenge the humiliation he believed he had suffered in , when the Peronists had proposed to make him an inspector of chickens. In his letter of to Attilio Rossi , he claimed that his infamous promotion had been a clever way the Peronists had found of damaging him and diminishing his reputation.

    It was impossible for Borges, as president, to hold the usual reception for the distinguished visitor; instead, one of Borges' friends brought a lamb from his ranch, and they had it roasted at a tavern across the road from the SADE building on Calle Mexico. Borges was overjoyed and joined demonstrators marching through the streets of Buenos Aires.

    According to Williamson, Borges shouted, "Viva la Patria", until his voice grew hoarse. Due to the influence of Borges' mother and his own role on the opposition to Peron, the provisional government appointed Borges as the Director of the National Library. The first he described as "the criminal one", composed of the police state tactics used against both real and imagined anti-Peronists. The second history was, according to Borges, "the theatrical one" composed of "tales and fables made for consumption by dolts.

    Borges concluded:. It is useless to list the examples; one can only denounce the duplicity of the fictions of the former regime, which can't be believed and were believed. It will be said that the public's lack of sophistication is enough to explain the contradiction; I believe that the cause is more profound. Coleridge spoke of the "willing suspension of disbelief ," that is, poetic faith; Samuel Johnson said, in defense of Shakespeare, that the spectators at a tragedy do not believe they are in Alexandria in the first act and Rome in the second but submit to the pleasure of a fiction.

    Similarly, the lies of a dictatorship are neither believed nor disbelieved; they pertain to an intermediate plane, and their purpose is to conceal or justify sordid or atrocious realities. They pertain to the pathetic or the clumsily sentimental. Happily, for the enlightenment and security of the Argentines, the current regime has understood that the function of government is not to inspire pathos. I mean, he had people tortured, killed. And his wife was a common prostitute. In a interview for National Geographic , he said "Damn, the snobs are back in the saddle.

    If their posters and slogans again defile the city, I'll be glad I've lost my sight. Well, they can't humiliate me as they did before my books sold well. For a time, Argentines hesitated to wear band aids for fear friends would ask, 'Did the atomic bomb go off in your hand? After Borges' death in , the Peronist Partido Justicialista declined to send a delegate to the writer's memorial service in Buenos Aires. A spokesman for the Party said that this was in reaction to "certain declarations he had made about the country. During the s, Borges at first expressed support for Argentina's military junta , but was scandalized by the junta's actions during the Dirty War.

    He also said about the war: "The Falklands thing was a fight between two bald men over a comb. Wardrip-Fruin and Montfort argue that Borges "may have been the most important figure in Spanish-language literature since Cervantes. He was clearly of tremendous influence, writing intricate poems, short stories, and essays that instantiated concepts of dizzying power. In addition to short stories for which he is most noted, Borges also wrote poetry, essays, screenplays, literary criticism, and edited numerous anthologies. His longest work of fiction is a fourteen-page story, "The Congress", first published in Paramount among his intellectual interests are elements of mythology, mathematics, theology, integrating these through literature, sometimes playfully, sometimes with great seriousness.

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    8. Borges composed poetry throughout his life. As his eyesight waned it came and went, with a struggle between advancing age and advances in eye surgery , he increasingly focused on writing poetry, since he could memorize an entire work in progress. His poems embrace the same wide range of interests as his fiction, along with issues that emerge in his critical works and translations, and from more personal musings.

      Borges was a notable translator. Borges's best-known set of literary forgeries date from his early work as a translator and literary critic with a regular column in the Argentine magazine El Hogar.

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      Along with publishing numerous legitimate translations, he also published original works, for example, in the style of Emanuel Swedenborg [Note 6] or One Thousand and One Nights , originally claiming them to be translations of works he had chanced upon. In another case, he added three short, falsely attributed pieces into his otherwise legitimate and carefully researched anthology El matrero.

      While Borges was the great popularizer of the review of an imaginary work, he had developed the idea from Thomas Carlyle 's Sartor Resartus , a book-length review of a non-existent German transcendentalist work, and the biography of its equally non-existent author. I read Sartor Resartus , and I can recall many of its pages; I know them by heart. In the introduction to his first published volume of fiction, The Garden of Forking Paths , Borges remarks, "It is a laborious madness and an impoverishing one, the madness of composing vast books, setting out in five hundred pages an idea that can be perfectly related orally in five minutes.

      The better way to go about it is to pretend that those books already exist, and offer a summary, a commentary on them. A more reasonable, more inept, and more lazy man, I have chosen to write notes on imaginary books. On the other hand, Borges was wrongly attributed some works, like the poem "Instantes". In the post-Peronist Argentina of the early s, Contorno met with wide approval from the youth who challenged the authenticity of older writers such as Borges and questioned their legacy of experimentation.

      Magic realism and exploration of universal truths, they argued, had come at the cost of responsibility and seriousness in the face of society's problems. The Contorno writers acknowledged Borges and Eduardo Mallea for being "doctors of technique" but argued that their work lacked substance due to their lack of interaction with the reality that they inhabited, an existentialist critique of their refusal to embrace existence and reality in their artwork.

      The story " The Sect of the Phoenix " is famously interpreted to allude to the ubiquity of sexual intercourse among humans [95] — a concept whose essential qualities the narrator of the story is not able to relate to. With a few notable exceptions, women are almost entirely absent from the majority of Borges' fictional output.

      However, there are some instances in Borges' later writings of romantic love, for example the story " Ulrikke " from The Book of Sand. The protagonist of the story "El muerto" also lusts after the "splendid, contemptuous, red-haired woman" of Azevedo Bandeira [97] and later "sleeps with the woman with shining hair". Borges turned their fictional counterparts into brothers, excluding the possibility of a homosexual relationship.

      Borges was never awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature , something which continually distressed the writer. Some observers speculated that Borges did not receive the award in his later life because of his conservative political views, or, more specifically, because he had accepted an honour from Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet.

      Borges was nominated in , and was among the final three choices considered by the committee, according to Nobel records unsealed on the 50th anniversary, in Williamson writes, "His basic contention was that fiction did not depend on the illusion of reality; what mattered ultimately was an author's ability to generate "poetic faith" in his reader.

      His stories often have fantastical themes, such as a library containing every possible page text " The Library of Babel " , a man who forgets nothing he experiences " Funes, the Memorious " , an artifact through which the user can see everything in the universe "The Aleph" , and a year of still time given to a man standing before a firing squad "The Secret Miracle". Borges told realistic stories of South American life, of folk heroes, streetfighters, soldiers, gauchos , detectives, and historical figures. He mixed the real and the fantastic, fact with fiction. His interest in compounding fantasy, philosophy, and the art of translation are evident in articles such as "The Translators of The Book of One Thousand and One Nights ".

      In the Book of Imaginary Beings , a thoroughly researched bestiary of mythical creatures, Borges wrote, "There is a kind of lazy pleasure in useless and out-of-the-way erudition. Often, especially early in his career, the mixture of fact and fantasy crossed the line into the realm of hoax or literary forgery. Borges uses the recurring image of "a labyrinth that folds back upon itself in infinite regression" so we "become aware of all the possible choices we might make.

      Borges saw man's search for meaning in a seemingly infinite universe as fruitless and instead uses the maze as a riddle for time, not space. Due to the success of the "Forking Paths" story, the term "Borgesian" came to reflect a quality of narrative non-linearity. The philosophical term "Borgesian conundrum" is named after him and has been defined as the ontological question of "whether the writer writes the story, or it writes him.

      After reviewing works that were written before those of Kafka, Borges wrote:. If I am not mistaken, the heterogeneous pieces I have enumerated resemble Kafka; if I am not mistaken, not all of them resemble each other. The second fact is the more significant. In each of these texts we find Kafka's idiosyncrasy to a greater or lesser degree, but if Kafka had never written a line, we would not perceive this quality; in other words, it would not exist.

      The poem "Fears and Scruples" by Browning foretells Kafka's work, but our reading of Kafka perceptibly sharpens and deflects our reading of the poem. Browning did not read it as we do now. In the critics' vocabulary, the word 'precursor' is indispensable, but it should be cleansed of all connotation of polemics or rivalry.

      The fact is that every writer creates his own precursors. His work modifies our conception of the past, as it will modify the future. Its eponymous hero became a symbol of Argentine sensibility, untied from European values — a gaucho , free, poor, pampas -dwelling. The character Fierro is illegally drafted to serve at a border fort to defend it against the indigenous population but ultimately deserts to become a gaucho matrero , the Argentine equivalent of a North American western outlaw.

      In his book of essays on the poem, Borges separates his admiration for the aesthetic virtues of the work from his mixed opinion of the moral virtues of its protagonist. In his works he refutes the arch-nationalist interpreters of the poem and disdains others, such as critic Eleuterio Tiscornia, for their Europeanising approach. Borges denies that Argentine literature should distinguish itself by limiting itself to "local colour", which he equates with cultural nationalism.

      Neither, he argues, need the literature be bound to the heritage of old world Spanish or European tradition. Nor should it define itself by the conscious rejection of its colonial past. He asserts that Argentine writers need to be free to define Argentine literature anew, writing about Argentina and the world from the point of view of those who have inherited the whole of world literature. Borges focused on universal themes, but also composed a substantial body of literature on themes from Argentine folklore and history.

      Ultranationalists, however, continued to question his Argentine identity. Borges's interest in Argentine themes reflects, in part, the inspiration of his family tree. Borges had an English paternal grandmother who, around , married the criollo Francisco Borges, a man with a military command and a historic role in the Argentine Civil Wars in what is now Argentina and Uruguay.

      His non-fiction explores many of the themes found in his fiction. In fact, contrary to what is usually supposed, the geographies found in his fictions often do not correspond to those of real-world Argentina. He suggested that only someone trying to write an "Arab" work would purposefully include a camel.

      At the time of the Argentine Declaration of Independence in , the population was predominantly criollo of Spanish ancestry. From the mids on waves of immigration from Europe, especially Italy and Spain, arrived in the country, and in the following decades the Argentine national identity diversified. He also read translations of Near Eastern and Far Eastern works.

      Borges's writing is also informed by scholarship of Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism, including prominent religious figures, heretics, and mystics. The curious inversion of mainstream Christian concepts of redemption in the latter story is characteristic of Borges's approach to theology in his literature.

      In describing himself, he said, "I am not sure that I exist, actually. I am all the writers that I have read, all the people that I have met, all the women that I have loved; all the cities that I have visited, all my ancestors. Borges said that his father wished him "to become a citizen of the world, a great cosmopolitan," in the way of Henry and William James. Borges lived and studied in Switzerland and Spain as a young student. As Borges matured, he traveled through Argentina as a lecturer and, internationally, as a visiting professor; he continued to tour the world as he grew older, finally settling in Geneva where he had spent some of his youth.

      Drawing on the influence of many times and places, Borges's work belittled nationalism and racism. Borges wrote that he considered Mexican essayist Alfonso Reyes to be "the best prose-writer in the Spanish language of any time. Borges was also an admirer of some Oriental culture, e. Borges was rooted in the Modernism predominant in its early years and was influenced by Symbolism. However, while Nabokov and Joyce tended toward progressively larger works, Borges remained a miniaturist. His work progressed away from what he referred to as "the baroque": his later style is far more transparent and naturalistic than his earlier works.

      Borges represented the humanist view of media that stressed the social aspect of art driven by emotion. If art represented the tool, then Borges was more interested in how the tool could be used to relate to people. Existentialism saw its apogee during the years of Borges's greatest artistic production. It has been argued that his choice of topics largely ignored existentialism's central tenets. Critic Paul de Man notes, "Whatever Borges's existential anxieties may be, they have little in common with Sartre's robustly prosaic view of literature, with the earnestness of Camus' moralism, or with the weighty profundity of German existential thought.

      Rather, they are the consistent expansion of a purely poetic consciousness to its furthest limits.

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      Borges always recognized the influence of this German philosopher. The first time that Borges mentioned Mauthner was in in his book The language of the Argentines El idioma de los argentinos. In a interview Borges described Mauthner as possessing a fine sense of humor as well as great knowledge and erudition.

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Borges disambiguation. For other people with the same name, see Borges surname. No one should read self-pity or reproach Into this statement of the majesty Of God; who with such splendid irony, Granted me books and night at one touch. Main article: Jorge Luis Borges bibliography.

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      Main article: Borges and mathematics. Ferriera , Eliane Fernanda C. In: Pedro Pires Bessa ed. Riqueza Cultural Ibero-Americana. He was never to finish his high school education, in fact. London: Telegram Books, pp. Hays, ed. See Murray, Janet H.