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Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers.

A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks. In linguistics , a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology , the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound.

Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register ; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en. Hamburg Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany with a population of over 1.

One of Germany's 16 federal states, it is surrounded by Schleswig-Holstein to the north and Lower Saxony to the south; the city's metropolitan region is home to more than five million people. Hamburg lies on two of its tributaries, the River Alster and the River Bille; the official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League and a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire.

Before the Unification of Germany , it was a sovereign city state, before formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg , north Sea flood of and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids, the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Hamburg is Europe's third-largest port. Hamburg is the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank.

Both the former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and Angela Merkel , German chancellor since , come from Hamburg; the city is a major domestic tourist destination. Hamburg is a major European science and education hub, with several universities and institutions.

Among its most notable cultural venues are the Laeiszhalle concert halls. It paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. Pauli's Reeperbahn is among the best-known European entertainment districts. Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsula , between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the northeast, it is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Bille.

The neighborhoods of Neuenfelde , Cranz and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at Hamburg borders the states of Lower Saxony. Hamburg has an oceanic climate, influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. The location north of Germany provides extremes greater than marine climates, but in the category due to the mastery of the western standards.

Nearby wetlands enjoy a maritime temperate climate; the amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: while in the late s and early s, at times heavy snowfall occurred, the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall only on a few days per year. The warmest months are June and August, with high temperatures of Claudius Ptolemy reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva; the name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort.

The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain. In , Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric ; the first bishop, became known as the Apostle of the North. Hamburg occupied several times. In , Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around inhabitants. Hamburg experienced several great fires in the medieval period.

In , an forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg; this charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea made it a. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain , the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland , many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean , with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland.

With an area of , square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II , who has reigned since , making her the longest-serving current head of state. The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London , a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast , respectively.

Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man , Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation.

The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England , followed by the union between England and Scotland in to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories , the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity.

It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

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The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community , since The term " United Kingdom " has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from to was " Great Britain "; the Acts of Union united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in , forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in , which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland". Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination.

However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Guitarist A guitarist is a person who plays the guitar. Guitarists may play a variety of guitar family instruments such as classical guitars, acoustic guitars, electric guitars, bass guitars; some guitarists accompany themselves on the guitar by playing the harmonica.

The guitarist may employ any of several methods for sounding the guitar, including finger picking, depending on the type of strings used, including strumming with the fingers, or a guitar pick made of bone, plastic, felt, leather, or paper, melodic flatpicking and finger-picking ; the guitarist may employ various methods for selecting notes and chords, including fingering , the barre, and'bottleneck' or steel-guitar slides made of glass or metal.

These left- and right-hand techniques may be intermixed in performance. Several magazines and websites have compiled what they intend as lists of the greatest guitarists—for example The Greatest Guitarists of All Time by Rolling Stone magazine, or Greatest Guitarists of All Time by Guitar World magazine. This list included guitarists whom the magazine editor David Fricke considered the best, with a brief introduction for each of them; the first in this list is the American guitarist Jimi Hendrix introduced by Pete Townshend , guitarist for The Who, who was, in his turn, ranked at 50 in the list.

In describing the list to readers, Paul MacInnes from British newspaper The Guardian wrote, "Surprisingly enough for an American magazine, the top 10 is fair jam-packed with Yanks," though he noted three exceptions in the top 10; the online magazine Blogcritics criticized the list for introducing some undeserving guitarists while forgetting some artists the writer considered more worthy, such as Johnny Marr , Al Di Meola , Phil Keaggy or John Petrucci. Artists who had not been included in the previous list were added.

Rory Gallagher , for example, was ranked in 57th place; the Greatest Guitarists of All Time is mentioned in many biographies about artists who appear in the list. Different from the Rolling Stone list, which listed guitarists in descending order, Guitar World divided guitarists by music genre—such as "Lords of Hard Rock " for hard rock artists or "Jazzmen" for jazz players.

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Despite the appearance in other magazines like Billboard , this publication by Guitar World was criticized for including no female musicians within its selection. King, Keith Richards and Kirk Hammett. There are many classical guitarists listed as notable in their respective epochs. Media related to Guitarists at Wikimedia Commons. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of , square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate.

With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia , the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union.


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Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin , while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before AD.


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During the Migration Period , the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in ; the German revolutions of —49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights.

In , Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of —19 , the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic ; the Nazi seizure of power in led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria , World War II , the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany , formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany , formed from the Soviet occupation zone.

Following the Revolutions of that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe , the country was reunified on 3 October Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education.

ヒバナ (Hibana)

The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in and the European Union in , it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors. Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine ; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants.

The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered. The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40, years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,year-old Ice Age Lion Man , the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,year-old Venus of Hohle Fels , the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered.

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From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well. Yokohama Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan by population, the most populous municipality of Japan. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area. Yokohama's population of 3. Yokohama developed as Japan's prominent port city following the end of Japan's relative isolation in the midth century, is today one of its major ports along with Kobe , Nagoya , Hakata and Chiba.

This sandbar was the original Yokohama fishing village. Since the sandbar protruded perpendicularly from the land, or horizontally when viewed from the sea, it was called a "horizontal beach". Yokohama was a small fishing village up to the end of the feudal Edo period , when Japan held a policy of national seclusion , having little contact with foreigners.

A major turning point in Japanese history happened in —54, when Commodore Matthew Perry arrived just south of Yokohama with a fleet of American warships, demanding that Japan open several ports for commerce, the Tokugawa shogunate agreed by signing the Treaty of Peace and Amity. Yokohama became the base of foreign trade in Japan.

Foreigners occupied the low-lying district of the city called Kannai , residential districts expanding as the settlement grew to incorporate much of the elevated Yamate district overlooking the city referred to by English speaking residents as The Bluff. Kannai, the foreign trade and commercial district, was surrounded by a moat , foreign residents enjoying extraterritorial status both within and outside the compound.

Interactions with the local population young samurai , outside the settlement caused problems. To protect British commercial and diplomatic interests in Yokohama a military garrison was established in With the growth in trade increasing numbers of Chinese came to settle in the city. Yokohama was the scene of many notable firsts for Japan including the growing acceptance of western fashion, photography by pioneers such as Felice Beato , Japan's first English language newspaper, the Japan Herald published in and in the first ice cream and beer to be produced in Japan.

Recreational sports introduced to Japan by foreign residents in Yokohama included European style horse racing in , cricket in and rugby union in A great fire destroyed much of the foreign settlement on November 26, and smallpox was a recurrent public health hazard, but the city continued to grow — attracting foreigners and Japanese alike. After the Meiji Restoration of , the port was developed for trading silk, the main trading partner being Great Britain. Western influence and technological transfer contributed to the establishment of Japan's first daily newspaper, first gas-powered street lamps and Japan's first railway constructed in the same year to connect Yokohama to Shinagawa and Shinbashi in Tokyo.

In Jules Verne portrayed Yokohama, which he had never visited, in an episode of his read novel Around the World in Eighty Days , capturing the atmosphere of the fast-developing, internationally oriented Japanese city. In , a British merchant, Samuel Cocking , built the city's first power plant. At first for his own use, this coal-burning plant became the basis for the Yokohama Cooperative Electric Light Company; the city was incorporated on April 1, By the time the extraterritoriality of foreigner areas was abolished in , Yokohama was the most international city in Japan , with foreigner areas stretching from Kannai to the Bluff area and the large Yokohama Chinatown.

The early 20th century was marked by rapid growth of industry. Entrepreneurs built factories along reclaimed land to the north of the city toward Kawasaki , which grew to be the Keihin Industrial Area ; the growth of Japanese industry brought affluence, many wealthy trading families constructed sprawling residences there, while the rapid influx of population from Japan and Korea led to the formation of Kojiki-Yato the largest slum in Japan.

Fuelled by rumours of rebellion and sabotage , vigilante mobs thereupon murdered many Koreans in the Kojiki-yato slum. Many people believed. Martial law was in place until November Rubble from the quake was used to reclaim land for parks, the most famous being the Yamashita Park on the waterfront which opened in Yokohama was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by U. An estimated seven or eight thousand people were killed in a single morning on. Oasis band Oasis were an English rock band formed in Manchester in Upon returning to Manchester, Liam's older brother, Noel Gallagher joined as a fifth member, which formed the band's core and settled line-up.

During the course of their existence, they had various line-up changes. Oasis signed to independent record label Creation Records in and released their record-setting debut album Definitely Maybe; the following year the band recorded Morning Glory? Morning Glory?

In , Oasis performed two nights at Knebworth for an audience of , each night, which were at the time the largest outdoor concerts in UK history. In , Oasis released their third album. Their fifth studio album Heathen Chemistry was released in In , White left, leaving them as a four-piece, with the addition of the Who drummer Zak Starkey as an unofficial recording and touring fifth member, they found renewed popularity with Don't Believe the Truth. Chris Sharrock was recruited as a touring member, Oasis did their last tour as a collective band.

During the tour the Gallagher brothers' deteriorating relationship led to Noel Gallagher announcing his departure in August , after a backstage altercation with Liam. The rest of the band, led by Liam, decided to continue, under the name Beady Eye , until their breakup in They have been nominated for two Grammy Awards ; as of , Oasis have sold over 75 million records worldwide.

The band were listed in the Guinness World Records book in for "Longest Top 10 UK Chart Run by a Group" after an unprecedented run of 22 top 10 hits in the UK; the band holds the Guinness World Record for the most successful act in the UK between the years and , spending weeks in the top 75 singles and albums charts. Unsatisfied with Hutton, Arthurs invited and auditioned acquaintance Liam Gallagher as a replacement.

Liam suggested that the band name be changed to Oasis, inspired by an Inspiral Carpets tour poster in the Gallagher brothers' bedroom which listed the Oasis Leisure Centre in Swindon as a venue. Oasis played their first gig on 18 August at the Boardwalk club in Manchester. Liam's brother Noel Gallagher, a roadie for Inspiral Carpets, went with the band to watch his younger brother's band play. Whilst Noel and his friends did not think Oasis sounded spectacular, he began to consider the possibility of using his brother's group as a possible outlet for a series of songs he had been writing for several years.

Noel approached the group about joining with the proviso that he would become the band's sole songwriter and leader, that they would commit to an earnest pursuit of commercial success. All of a sudden, there were loads of ideas. Oasis, along with a group of friends, made the journey to Glasgow ; when they arrived, they were refused entry. They were given the opening slot and impressed McGee, there to see 18 Wheeler, one of his own bands. McGee offered them a recording contract.

Due to problems securing an American contract. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Yojiro Noda. Yojiro Noda performing with Radwimps at Zepp Tokyo in Alternative rock punk rock. Singer Songwriter Musician Record producer Actor. Vocals guitar piano. Radwimps Aimer Taka. Tokyo, Japan: Rockin' On. February January 20, Mark Beaumont.

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