Feminists have also shown that seemingly neutral research tools produce different results when used by female social scientists or social scientists of color. Survey respondents give different responses to interlocutors of different identities; participant observation produces different opportunities and results for men and women. Some feminist scholars have revealed how social power structures knowledge so that the way we define and value knowledge reinforces patterns of class, race, and gender inequality.
The legacy of these assumptions—the artificial analytical separation of the public and private, the privileging of high politics, and the adoption of certain models of the individual researcher and the research process—remains a source of resistance to efforts to change the discipline and make it more inclusive and equitable. And if we turn to politics as practice, we see that these underlying assumptions have also impacted how politics is practiced. Similarly, in many countries domestic violence has been considered something with which the police should not interfere, lying outside state jurisdiction in the realm of the private.
Feminism as a form of theory and practice has remained important to scholars and to the research carried out in the field of gender and politics. And from the late s, women academics also began to organize inside the discipline. Scholars pressing alternative sexualities pushed further, sometimes arguing for a destabilization of analytic as well as social categories e.
The development of much academic work on gender and politics was shaped by this broader context of feminist and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer LGBTQ activism. Thus, the burgeoning gender and politics scholarship has looked at a range of themes using a diversity of approaches. A second strand on women has examined political activities in arenas traditionally seen as outside political science. A third strand has looked at gender as a structure of social organization. Finally, mirroring struggles within the broader feminist movement, women of color women of marginalized races and ethnicities , women in the developing world, postcolonial feminists, and LGBTQ scholars pressed for a place in the study of gender politics, sometimes finding a degree of accommodation and sometimes, frustrated with resistance, founding their own scholarly institutions and threads of research.
We briefly describe these developments next. The inclusion project, as Squires named it, aims to expose the absence of women, to reveal the degree to which that leads to partial, shallow, and biased knowledge, and to integrate women into the theories, institutions, and practices from which they had been excluded Sapiro ; Zerilli , — It examines p. Similarly, work in the United States finds that when women run they are just as likely as men to get elected and just as able as men to raise money. However, scholars also showed that women and men do often exhibit differences in their political attitudes and behavior, but not necessarily in the ways that had been assumed e.
Men and women do tend to line up on issues in different ways—but not necessarily on a straightforward left—right split such as on law and order. In , while 52 percent of British men initially supported bombing of Libya, only 35 percent of British women did Waylen , This gender gap is often found in voting behavior. At the last U. They have argued for more women in politics and have discussed strategies, such as party and electoral quotas, to increase numbers of women in legislatures Dahlerup ; Krook More recently, in part reflecting real-world changes, women in executives have been analyzed both comparatively and in single case studies Jalazai ; Annesley and Gains ; Franceschet and Thomas However, studies also highlight obstacles on the route from descriptive to substantive representation.
Not all women legislators want to represent women p. Related to this, the so-called critical mass debate explored whether a certain minimum proportion of women is needed to change the institutions and enable women to act for women Dahlerup But empirical research has found little support for the critical mass thesis Childs and Krook How far it can radically alter the discipline is disputed.
Its advocates argue that it destabilizes and challenges existing categories.
November 13, 2015 – Inner Feminine Discipline to Breakthrough
However, the key issue is what happens to the mix after stirring: if the mixture blows up, then the addition of gender is of importance. But critics argue that problems including women in political science will remain because, as we have seen, many mainstream theories, categories, concepts, and practices are based on initial exclusion of women Zerilli , Hence, it is based on narrow notions of how discrimination and structural inequalities work and cannot theorize the broader societal processes behind gender inequalities.
Moreover, the narrow focus on women and sex differences often reflects an unexamined assumption that women constitute a unified category who are stable and coherent subjects with identifiable, shared interests. Only recently, for example, has research on the impact of quotas also looked at the impact on ethnic minority women Hughes The inclusion project therefore remains unfinished and the discipline still has a great deal to learn about women in conventional politics.
Taking a different point of departure, other gender scholars have examined women in politics on their own terms. They are less concerned with p. This strand of research goes beyond the study of feminist movements, however, also covering women in racist Blee , and conservative movements Schreiber There is also a wealth of research on the political impact of these activities, from changing identities and culture to changing policy Weldon ; Banaszak, Beckwith, and Rucht These movements also included feminist organizations.
Feminists in Chile, for example, held one of p. In addition to their important role in the broader opposition movements against dictatorship, organized women also tried to ensure that the outcomes of some transitions would bring positive change for women, such as increased political representation and the provision of greater rights in the post transition period Waylen In both the Chilean and South African transitions women organized in an attempt to influence the developing political processes but with varying results Hassim ; Waylen And in we have seen some similar efforts in Tunisia and Egypt as part of the Arab Spring.
Egyptian women organized after only one women was appointed as part of the transitional government and a clause was inserted in the draft constitution that appeared to preclude women from becoming president. A raft of equality measures has been introduced. Htun and Weldon showed that feminist policy change depends on whether issues are doctrinal; about the status of women predominantly; or also strongly about class.
Another strand of research focuses on broader societal patterns, examining regimes rather than specific policies and studying the state rather than particular laws. A distinct literature examines how particular institutional structures p. The strength of this research has been to move beyond specific women and men to look at the bigger picture, examining historical legacies and how policies and activities combine to create larger effects.
In welfare state studies, this examination of the state structure has generated a wide variety of typologies on regimes, gender contracts, and worlds of welfare Duncan , ; Connell The literature on gender regimes generated typologies of nations according to whether they promoted male breadwinners or dual-income families Lewis and later developed models on what might follow the demise of male breadwinner regimes: the universal breadwinner, the caregiver parity, and the universal caregiver models Fraser Comparative studies of, for example, the social and employment policies of different countries on the basis of these models generated insights into the ways these social structures either challenged or reproduced gender inequalities.
The study of welfare states and of the ways that institutional structures undergird social organization is an important and continuing field of research. A persistent critique of the universalizing approach of feminist scholarship has cut across all these areas, culminating in a fundamental critique of the concept of gender from a variety of quarters. From onward, important moves were made to deconstruct the category of gender Butler ; Scott Using the feminist strategy of displacement in relation to politics—namely, destabilizing existing categories, binaries, and oppositions—scholars argued that as the gendered categories and concepts legitimated the exclusion of women, they had to be radically rethought, examining, for example, how gendered power relationships construct citizenship and the nation, the state, and bureaucracy Lister ; Yuval-Davis ; Squires ; Kantola Institutions and structures are not just gendered but also gendering: they produce the very p.
Power here is understood as productive, not just repressive Foucault , and this kind of power is most effective when it lures us to fulfill the standards of normative femininities and masculinities. Gender has multiple meanings and analyses that include the production of sexuality, masculinities, and femininities that had hitherto been downplayed in the gender and politics scholarship. The increasing fragmentation of feminism has resulted in feminisms in the plural and the problematization of women as a coherent and unified category, which adds greater analytical complexity particularly once race, class, and sexuality are fully analyzed.
This work also posed important challenges to concepts such as objective knowledge and the role of researcher and researched. Feminists who are of color, working class, postcolonial, and lesbian, argue that failure to consider the distinctive and sometimes conflicting interests among women has created a bias toward the experience of white middle-class women hooks ; Lorde ; Collins ; Smooth Queer theorists and lesbian feminists also have critiqued what they call the heteronormativity taking heterosexuality for granted of much of the feminist work on gender.
Scholars of gender and race in the United States have critiqued the examination of gender and race apart from one other; these two concepts are not separable like pop-beads on a necklace Spelman These arguments have prompted feminists of color to develop the concept of intersectionality to get at the complex interrelationship between gender and race Hancock ; Smooth For example, disaggregating the gender gap in voting in the United States by race reveals that the gender gap emerged earlier among African Americans and is today larger there.
Big challenges remain within politics as it is both practiced and studied. Contestation has increased around issues associated with gender equality, p. Neoliberalism, the financial crisis, and various processes of de-democratization Verloo are fundamentally shaping the political context and the austerity measures are having a very differentiated impact by gender as well as by race, class, and disability. According to Fraser , the once emancipatory feminist critiques of the economy, androcentrism, and the state have been redirected to serve to legitimate neoliberal capitalism.
On the other hand, an increasingly sexualized culture, with issues of violence, rape, street harassment, and pornography, may also be impacting a popularly vaunted decline in feminism. Interest in feminism has resurged, particularly among younger women, using new forms of activism, such as blogs, demonstrations, and technologies such as social media Banyard SlutWalks, which began in Toronto and later spread all over the world to cities as far apart as London, Singapore, Berlin, Buenos Aires, Mexico City, and New York in summer following remarks made by a senior police officer to Canadian law students, are further evidence of this.
In this context, a number of important challenges remain for gender scholarship.
First, as many have argued, too little attention is still given to issues of intersectionality Collins ; Hancock ; Weldon As we have seen, much of the pioneering gender scholarship was primarily focused on the issues and concerns of white middle-class women. Scholars were then forced to pay more attention to race, class, sexuality, and disability by vocal black, working-class, lesbian, and postcolonial feminists. Others are exploring how identity groups can be constituted within—rather than prior to—inequality policies Cooper , 49— Intersectionality can therefore appear to have disciplinary functions as a governmental discourse that produces more identities Grabham , Intersectionality will undoubtedly bring fundamental changes to the conceptual, methodological, and normative paradigm of the gender and politics scholarship.
It requires sophisticated methods and research designs able to deal with complexity without particularism. Most importantly, intersectionality also challenges existing theories and begs for new normative standards. For example, theorists of gender have delineated dimensions of nation, heteronormativity, hierarchies of power, and divisions of labor as dimensions of gender Young ; see also Connell Turning to the analysis of law and policy making, some have suggested a distinction between market or class-related or redistributive policies and those that are focused on status or rights Htun and Weldon ; Blofield and Haas More work theorizing and analyzing these distinctive dimensions is needed.
This exhortation provokes an anxiety among some feminists that having finally developed a context in which we can study women, we will be back to studying men and their concerns again. Nevertheless, the study of men and masculinity is critical to moving the field of gender politics forward. Third, the gender scholarship has sometimes been too narrowly focused on the formulation of gender equality policies and the workings of gender equality bodies Waylen Last, we need to continue to develop theoretical accounts of politics that better link structure, action, and ideas.
Early work was overly focused on actors. No one would deny that actors, and certain actors in particular, are hugely important in both the conventional and nonconventional political arenas. Feminist institutionalists are developing a wider understanding of institutions as gendered structures and an improved understanding of how they operate in gendered ways Mackay and Waylen ; Krook and Mackay Underlying this development is a belief that if we understand institutions as rules, norms, and practices, then we need to know how formal and informal rules, norms, and practices are gendered Chappell and Waylen And in particular one of the key questions for all institutionalists, including feminists, is how to explain institutional change.
How and why does change occur or not occur?
And linked to that, how is it that institutions can remain the same? We need to explain institutional continuity or more accurately institutional reproduction. How do institutions actually sustain and reproduce themselves Waylen ? This can help us to understand why attempts to change institutions do not have p. There is also a need for more research that focuses on discourses and ideas as well as actors and structures, examining, for example, the role that discourses and ideas about gender and sexuality play in constituting political actors and structures in the global economy Bedford ; Lind , violence Kantola, Norocel, and Repo , and gender equality policies Lombardo and Forest Particular notions of politics reproduce particular kinds of gendered subject positions and agents and result in particular performances of gender cf.
Butler This handbook takes up many of these themes and issues in its seven substantive sections. It recognizes the complexity and multidimensionality of gender. As demonstrated already, gender is not just about sexuality, the body, work, motherhood, or violence, as some scholars have claimed. Rather gender operates along many, interrelated dimensions, including sex and sexuality, family, race and nation, work, and institutionalized relations of power and violence.
We have organized these chapters to highlight the political nature of these phenomena and also to show they structure nations, states, markets, and civil society. These latter concepts are more traditional categories of political analysis that nonetheless are also critical for the study of politics and gender. We hope that this handbook will be accessible to all starting and established political and social scientists, so we begin in the first section by explaining some key concepts and how they relate to each other and also by explaining the variety of and contributions to method and methodology in the field.
The chapters cover two families of concepts: 1 sex, gender, feminism, and intersectionality; and 2 power, politics, domination, and oppression. We then turn to examine p. In the next section we investigate various forms and contexts of gendered organizing by women and men—including feminist, nonfeminist, antifeminist, and transnational movements by women and men as well as civil society as a realm of gendered political action more generally. The subsequent two sections consider the relationship between gender and a range of more traditional political institutions, systems, and structures.
First, we look at gendered praxes of participation and representation in various political systems, political parties, electoral systems, judicial politics, and courts. The next section focuses on the gendered nature of the state, governance, and policy making, and the actors and processes involved. The final section focuses on the debates and the puzzles surrounding equality, citizenship, identity, multiculturalism, nations, and security.
As a whole, this handbook aims to illustrate the evolution, establishment, and institutionalization of the field of gender and politics. Its chapters also show the diversity and pluralism of this field and illustrate some of the clear lines of agreement and disagreement in the field of politics and gender. Each section has its own introduction highlighting the developments, the old and new debates, and future challenges for the key themes within that section as well as linking it to the rest of the handbook and discipline.
The Oxford Handbook on Gender and Politics is therefore premised on the belief that it is vitally important that we improve our understanding of how both politics as a practice and political science as a discipline are gendered; this will help us to change both the practice and the discipline of politics for the better. Alvarez, Sonia. Engendering democracy in Brazil. Find this resource:. Annesley, Claire, and Francesca Gains. Political Studies 58 5 : — APSA report on the advancement of women in political science.
Washington, DC: Author. Arendt, Hannah. The human condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Banyard, Kat. Governing now: Grassroots activism in the National Organization for Women. Basu, Amrita Ed. Boulder, CO: Westview.
mudywehy.tk: Dictionary entry for Strong's number παιδεία, Noun, Feminine: discipline
Beckwith, Karen, and Kimberley Cowell-Meyers. Bedford, Kate. Developing partnerships: Gender, sexuality and the reformed World Bank. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Bjarnegard, Elin. Blee, Kathleen. Women of the Klan: Racism and gender in the s.
Berkeley: University of California Press. Inside organized racism: Women in the hate movement. Blofield, Merike, and Liesl Haas. Bourque, Susan C. Brenner, Suzanne. Brettell, Caroline, and Carolyn Sargeant. Gender in cross-cultural perspective. Brown, Wendy.
States of injury: Power and freedom in late modernity. Butler, Judith. Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge. Celis, K. Childs, J. Kantola, and M. Chappell, Louise, and Georgina Waylen. Charrad, Mounira. Culprits of gender inequality. Childs, Sarah, and Mona Lena Krook. A contingent yes.
Can this model of exercising power contribute to our understanding of the feminine subject? If a docile feminine body is the correlate of disciplinary practices, what kind of feminine body is the correlate of neoliberal practices of governing? It seems incontestable that the normative practices of feminine beauty that Bartky describes have dramatically increased in both volume and variety since The cosmetics industry has reported huge increases in profits globally and many multinational cosmetics companies have expanded to new territories such as China.
Both the very young and the very old are also included now in the target group for cosmetics as well as other normative techniques of shaping the feminine body such as dieting, exercising and hair removal. There seem to be no signs suggesting that the disciplinary techniques that Bartky so aptly describes and catalogues have in any way waned or even come under heightened critique in contemporary society. I want to suggest that there have been changes in the rationality underpinning these techniques, however, which have emerged in tandem with the rise of the neoliberal, economic subject.
In neoliberal governmentality, with its excessive emphasis on the economic, women have now seemingly become liberal subjects in the full sense of the term: they are not only individual subjects of political rights, but also egotistical subjects of interest. In other words, they not only have the rights guaranteed by political liberalism; they are now also the subjects presumed by economic liberalism — individuals pursuing their own interests and responding primarily to economic gains and losses.
This implies that women are now also governed and subjected through new mechanisms, namely through the harnessing of their economic interests. It is significant that normative femininity has become firmly attached to economic gains in a new way. Similarly, in interviews with cosmetic surgery patients, one of the main arguments women state for undergoing the operations is the fact that it can be a career move. The neoliberal subject views feminine appearance as well as her own body increasingly as an investment for getting the returns she wants.
This means that the practices of normative femininity are no longer upheld only through the subtle mechanisms of discipline described by Bartky — a system of social sanctions and rewards such as shame and sexual admiration. It is upheld now through a rationality based on financial loss and gain. Whereas Bartky noted that successful provision of a beautiful or sexy body gained women attention and admiration but did not result in any real social power, the situation has, on the surface level, changed considerably.
The link between idealised femininity and economic success has become tight and pronounced. The most successful performances of feminine appearance in our society no longer symbolise subservience — waitresses, flight attendants or secretaries. They are these days accomplished by women who have power and money: female executives and politicians. We live in a world in which appearances are more important than ever and the modern female consumer is well aware of this.
We must not be fooled into thinking that this means that the cultural meaning of femininity and its profound tie to subservience, selflessness and dependency has fundamentally dissolved, however. As long as our life form is fundamentally centred on families and on a gendered division of the sensibilities and activities of the subjects, the neoliberal, purely self-interested feminine subject would signal the collapse of our social order, a collapse that is in no way evident. Build a city of skyscrapers—one synonym at a time. Choose the Right Synonym for discipline Verb punish , chastise , castigate , chasten , discipline , correct mean to inflict a penalty on in requital for wrongdoing.
Examples of discipline in a Sentence Noun Sir Robert Peel is credited with creating the first modern police force, the bobbies, in London, in , but the transformation of law enforcement, and especially forensic science, into a professional discipline was a haphazard affair. Filtered through scores of later interpreters, it percolated across a broad segment of academic culture and influenced disciplines as diverse as literary criticism and legal theory.
Without him, I would never have become a scientist. He shamed me into doing the hard work necessary to be able not just to talk about math and physics but to calculate. Without that discipline , my story would have been very different … — Lee Smolin , Curious Minds , He stood erect, his bearing patrician, his dress impeccable. His face was stern and his pale eyes unsmiling behind his trifocals, like a man who had been called from important duties in the principal's office to administer discipline to an unruly classroom. The troops were praised for their dedication and discipline.
Some parents feel that the school's principal has been too harsh in meting out discipline. Keeping a journal is a good discipline for a writer. Verb The Army disciplined seven men for the incident, penalties ranging from pay-cuts and loss of rank to dismissal from the Rangers and return to the rank-and-file Army.
There, the principal attempted to discipline me with an old Catholic school technique called "paddling" … — Lalo Gomez , Undoing Time , She was disciplined for misbehaving in class. He seems unwilling or unable to discipline his children. I'm trying to discipline myself to eat less. Recent Examples on the Web: Noun For someone who writes vividly about emotional chaos, Mitski has a striking devotion to order and discipline. Sullivan, Twin Cities , "Caryn Sullivan: Mental illness: Breaking the silence and making a plan," 9 June July could be an excellent time to use your extra energy and self- discipline to begin a diet or to banish a bad habit.
Paul officers should be disciplined for policy violations and forwards recommendations to the police chief. Gottfried, Twin Cities , "Leaders of commission that reviews St. First Known Use of discipline Noun 13th century, in the meaning defined at sense 2 Verb 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1.