The favors from the LDP have paid off for the construction industry. The Economist Intelligence Unit profile notes, "Generous Public works programmes have allowed many unviable construction companies to remain in business" EIU , p. By keeping otherwise unviable construction companies in business, the government has hindered the market's process of adjustment by maintaining a capital structure that does not reflect consumers' desires. If the market process was allowed to work, capital and labor would be reallocated from the construction industry to other industries.
The agricultural industry also has political influence over the LDP. The political voice of the agricultural lobby is enhanced by Japan's electoral system, which, by failing to take account of the massive postwar shift of the population to the urban areas, makes votes in the sparsely populated rural areas worth more than those in the urban areas EIU This has resulted in a wide array of import quotas and price-support programs.
Barriers to price adjustment, such as these, harm the market's ability to adjust to consumer demands and correct itself out of the recession. The central bank has tried to reinflate, which has only further distorted the interest-rate price signals, slowing the market's ability to correct.
Despite the massive interest-rate cuts, broader monetary aggregates have not responded because of the poor condition of the Japanese banking industry. The asset contraction that the Japanese banks have experienced on their balance sheets has not only hindered attempts of the BOJ to reinflate but also has interfered with their ability to serve as financial intermediaries.
Sound Money and the Business Cycle
The collapse in real estate prices and the economic slowdown that has put many borrowers out of business have left Japanese banks with a huge overhang of problem loans backed by collateral worth sometimes 60—80 percent less than when the loans were taken out EIU Japan's financial institutions are estimated by the Financial Services Agency to have In addition to these problems, banks that invested in the real estate boom have seen values fall 80 percent from to Herbener Banks invested in the stock market have seen the Nikkei average drop from 40, yen in to under 12, yen by March Because of the increase in bad loans with poor collateral and the fall in other asset values, increased funds injected from the BOJ or additional deposits from savers have been used to hold as cash reserves against bad loans, instead of being used to extend loans to worthy borrowers.
The government's answers to the problems in the banking industry are bailout funds and nationalization. Nationalization and bailout funds only serve to prop up unsound financial institutions, delaying the needed restructuring, which would allow them to serve their function as financial intermediaries again. The market deals with unsound banks by allowing bank failures, mergers, acquisitions, and restructuring. After market-based corrections, banks would serve in their roll as financial intermediaries again.
Some market corrections have taken place. Most bank mergers, however, have occurred among smaller, regional banks that have not had access to bailout funds Herbener Until the government stops intervening with bailout funds and nationalization, the process of larger bank failures and mergers will be delayed, extending the time that the banks are unable to function as efficient financial intermediaries.
The Japanese government has gone to great lengths to prevent the liquidation of the boom's malinvestments. Japan set up a trillion-yen credit guarantee fund to ease credit availability for companies. The Economist Intelligence Unit profile indicates "funds disbursed under the programme are often going to companies that are not creditworthy and that would otherwise go bankrupt" EIU According to Austrian theory, these are precisely the companies that must go bankrupt if the economy is going to recover.
When a company goes bankrupt, real resources are not lost; capital and labor are reallocated to other companies in line with consumer preferences. FILP gets its funding from the postal savings system, which had Government lending is usually made to political allies of the Liberal Democratic Party, such as the construction industry, resulting in wasteful, loss-producing projects that do not reflect consumer preferences. This type of lending does not reflect consumer preferences.
The government has also worked to prop up the stock market by purchasing shares when the Nikkei stock average drops below 12,, to maintain Japanese banks' capital adequacy ratios as defined by the Bank for International Settlements. Banks are allowed to count up to 45 percent of unrealized profits on share holdings toward their tier-two capital; these ratios are in jeopardy whenever the Nikkei falls below 13, EIU Artificially holding up stock prices hinders market forces from reasserting themselves, further delaying capital reallocation and economic recovery.
In America's Great Depression , Rothbard wrote, "there is one thing the government can do positively [during a depression], however: it can drastically lower its relative role in the economy, slashing its own expenditures and taxes" p. The Japanese government raised its consumption tax from 3 percent to 5 percent in There were income tax cuts in , and in , the top income tax rate was decreased from 65 percent to 50 percent and the corporate rate from 46 percent to 40 percent. Despite some tax cuts, Japan has maintained a high level of government spending.
Government-services spending increased 9 percent from through EIU Tax decreases cannot have their full beneficial effects if they are not matched by corresponding decreases in government spending. If more money is left in the hands of private citizens, some of it will be saved, helping to justify the lengthened structure of production, whereas all government spending is consumption.
Government spending seeks to maintain the existing production structure, against the demands of consumers, instead of permitting its liquidation and reconstruction Herbener The repeated fiscal stimulus packages with public-works spending, the large amount of savings controlled by the postal savings system and allocated through FILP, and the efforts to prevent bank and business failures all have prevented the market process of recovery from working. These repeated government interventions have maintained the existing structure of production, delaying its necessary alignment to the particular demands of consumers.
The mining industry is capital intensive and one of the stages of production farthest from eventual consumption. Manufacturing is also relatively capital intensive and one of the earlier stages of production, although less so than the mining industry. Wholesale and retail are relatively less capital intensive and are in the later stages of production.
Finally, the services industry is in the latest stages of production and is not very capital intensive.
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Although there would be individual exceptions within each category, broadly speaking, these industries fall in order from earliest to latest stages of production, and from most to least capital intensive, as: mining, manufacturing, wholesale and retail, and services. During Japan's recession, the contractions in these industries lend support to Austrian business cycle theory. In there was great expansion in the mining industry, but, when the artificial boom ended, the hardest-hit sectors throughout the decade have been in precisely the order Austrian theory would predict.
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The GDP growth rate, by industry sector, has been worst in the mining industry, followed by manufacturing, and then wholesale and retail. Finally, the service industry has experienced the smallest contractions. Austrian theory, like the Keynesian and monetarist theories, can give a reason for the start of the Japanese recession. Unlike the other schools, the Austrian policy recommendation of laissez-faire has not been tried. One prediction that Austrian business cycle theory provides has been accurate. The industries in the earliest stages of production have had the worst growth rates throughout the entire decade.
Japan's development model over the past 50 years has emphasized government intervention and planning in the economy. During its recession, government interventions have manifested themselves as fiscal stimulus packages involving large amounts of public works, increases in the monetary base, interest-rate cuts, bailouts and nationalization of some banks, direct government lending to businesses, and increases in government spending despite some tax cuts.
These interventions have tried to maintain the existing structure of production preventing the necessary market processes from working to correct the artificial boom's malinvestments. Japan has experienced an Austrian business cycle. The initial boom was created by a central bank-induced monetary expansion. Because of repeated interventions, the economy has not recovered. The greatest malinvestments took place in capital-intensive industries in the earlier stages of production. For Japan's economy to recover the government must stop intervening in the economy and allow the market process to realign the structure of production to match consumer preferences.
View the discussion thread. Skip to main content. An Overview of Japan's Economy — After the September Plaza Accord, the yen's appreciation hit the export sector hard, reducing economic growth from 4. The Keynesian Explanation and Solution In Keynesian macroeconomic theory, business cycle fluctuations are caused by aggregate demand collapsing. One prominent New Keynesian, Paul Krugman, recently recognized that, Japan's postal savings system which channels money into public works projects that have little if any social payoff, is monumentally inefficient; so is the practice of rolling over the debts of companies that will never regain profitability and hence keeping capital employed producing what nobody wants.
Krugman Krugman argues that this is not a problem as long as Japan is not producing at capacity. The Austrian Explanation and Solution The Austrian theory of the business cycle is more accurately a theory of an unsustainable boom than a theory of a depression Garrison , p. Rothbard summarized the Austrian policy position this way: If government wishes to alleviate, rather than aggravate, a depression, its only course is laissez-faire—to leave the economy alone. Conclusion Austrian theory, like the Keynesian and monetarist theories, can give a reason for the start of the Japanese recession.
All statistics contained herein are from the Economist Intelligence Unit Country Profile Japan and unless otherwise cited. Throughout the paper many figures are in yen. Between and , average market exchange rates ranged from In the average market exchange rate was Krugman is not convinced of the actual numbers because he thinks that more empirical work needs to be done. He does think that the policy itself is correct and that Japan should commit to a minimum policy of at least a decade-long sustained inflation.
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For example, the U. For more on the history of what government has done to the value of money see Rothbard and Wood The economy is able to temporarily operate beyond the production possibilities frontier because the frontier is defined as sustainable combinations of consumption and investment.
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The crisis or bust following a boom is just a calculation meltdown cut short. The intervention is stopped or slowed and the falsified calculations are revealed. If the intervention is not slowed or stopped, the inflation continues until a crack up boom sets in with the associated complete calculation breakdown. Sound money provides a financial environment where economic crisis associated with misdirections of resources and malinvestments can be avoided and where monetary calculation can be as efficient as possible.
Economists who accept the Austrian argument on the impossibility of rational economic calculation in a socialist economy and recognize the calculation problems inherent in highly interventionist economies, but reject Austrian business cycle theory, should re-examine their position. The key elements for understanding the market process based on entrepreneurial planning, monetary calculation, and capital are the key elements underlying both the calculation argument and Austrian business cycle theory.
Without sound money, calculation is less efficient and the economy will be prone to business cycles. With sound money policy, no boom-bust cycle will emerge and monetary calculation and planning will be as efficient as possible in an uncertain world. Boettke, Peter J. London and New York. Cochran, John P. Ebeling, Richard M. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund. Hayek, F. The Collected Works of F.
Edited by Stephen Kresge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Improving Wikipedia: Notes from an Informed Skeptic
Herbener, Jeffrey M. Kaldor, Nicholas. In Essays on Economic Stability and Growth. Essays on Economic Stability and Growth. Kirzner, Isreal M. Cheltenham, U. Lewin, Peter. London and New York: Routledge. Mises, Ludwig von. Human Action: The Scholars Edition. Auburn, AL. Von Mises on the Manipulation of Money and Credit. Batson, translator.
Osterfeld, David. Reisman, George. Rothbard, Murray N. Man, Economy, and State Vol. Los Angeles: Nash Publishing. Salerno, Joseph T. A web version of the paper is available at Ludwig von Mises Institute — Romania. All page numbers refer to the web version. View the discussion thread. Skip to main content. Monetary Calculation, Capital, and Sound Money Recognizing the role and importance of monetary calculation requires a proper understanding of the economic problem, which is "to employ the available means in such a way that no want more urgently felt should remain unsatisfied because the means suitable for its attainment were employed—wasted—for the attainment of a want less urgently felt" Mises , p.
See Cochran and Glahe , p. See Boettke Chapters 6 and 7 and Osterfeld , pp. In addition, facts themselves are never truly neutral since they are always understood within a larger ideological context. Wikipedia editors emphasize that neutrality is not the same as objectivity. Recently minted PhDs currently face an existential job crisis with the vaunted goal of obtaining a full-time, tenured professorship proving more and more elusive. The specifics may require fine-tuning.
Perhaps historians could identify themselves publicly on Wikipedia, save their contributions, and be credited if Wikipedia maintains their corrections. Wikipedia entries should be a supplement, not a replacement, to traditional monographs and articles, and tenure committees might consider a certain ratio of digital articles to traditional ones—maybe four or five successful Wikipedia entries for every traditional journal article.
One of the long-standing criticisms of monographs is that they suit only a narrow, specialized audience, gathering dust on quiet library shelves. Perhaps Wikipedia is the ideal venue for broadcasting our own research expertise to a larger public, which, theoretically, should improve public discourse and historical thinking. Many in the hard sciences already take electronic publications into account, and as others have suggested, we risk being marginalized as a discipline if we do not join in. At the time of this writing, approximately a third of the text and half of the citations on the Panic of entry are mine.
I had to shelve this valuable project because the new semester was starting, which was unfortunate because the entry could still use tinkering, but at least I had provided some scaffolding for other experts. Students, economic history enthusiasts, and the general public, however, will hopefully obtain better historical information as Wikipedia continues to improve.