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Note: Exchanges permitted with same product only. DVDs are not refundable if seal is broken. Gjertson Approximate run time: 40 minutes Learn self defense techniques in blocking, tripping, hooking, and controlling an opponent using a common walking stick. This method allows you to carry an ordinary looking object, such as an umbrella or cane, that can serve as a very effective defensive weapon, without appearing to be carrying a weapon.

Gjertson Approximate run time: 30 minutes Tiger Broad Sword is an intermediate close-range kata form used for public demonstrations and in competitions, awarding points for such aspects of technique as style, balance, timing, and verisimilitude appearance of being real. Learn combinations of techniques in a safe practice environment that will help you to defeat your opponent. Gjertson Approximate run time: 30 minutes Would you like to expand your self defense skills?

Learn to protect yourself against many different types of attacks, as well as multiple attackers, while improving balance, coordination, speed, endurance, agility and strength. Training includes proper stance, submission holds, balance, footwork, and timing. Gjertson Approximate run time: 60 minutes Proper warm up is essential to any successful training session.

The "optimal" mass during impact for a thrusting technique is on the order of the mass of the target, to effect maximal momentum transfer into the target. To some extent, this time also depends on the nature of the projectile, e. In reply to: :I would greatly appreciate it if Mr. Ingber would provide two examples :of strikes with weapons that qualify as momentum transfer and two that :qualify as pressure. Please describe the damage to the body, the :advantages and disadvantages, etc. Sorry, but I don't have time to prepare a full thesis here.

The free texts in my archive give more information on the physics of karate techniques. Momentum transfer takes place when you walk with your arms swinging freely. While some weirdos may walk with their arms following the legs, most people find it natural for the arms to swing opposite to the their leg motions. This is a case of reverse-rotation forces, helping to keep balance in this case -- no damage done, and some momentum from the body is transferred to the arms.

The body, being much heavier than the arms does not effect any near-complete momentum transfer under usual walking conditions. Of course, with more hip dynamics, reverse-rotation can become an important dynamic force for blocking, striking, punching, etc. I pick the strike-snap to illustrate this, as the focus generally is not deep into the target or at least does not follow the target, and so it is clear that the head is snapping back due to momentum transfer and not "pushing.

Momentum, force, pressure are not different variables as suggested by the question, but rather are related to each other. Impact force is often best described as the transfer of momentum divided by the short time momentum is being transferred. Pressure is the force divided by the area over which it is acting.

51 Awesome Ways to Practice Kata

Another variable, energy, is the one-half the square of the velocity times the mass. Momentum, velocity and force are "vectors," which means that you also must specify their direction punching does no damage if it misses your opponent. If a thrusting technique happens to deposit all its energy into a target, then it may be possible to reasonably calculate the energy deposited into the target as one-half the square of the velocity of the projectile times its mass.

For example, large impact forces can rip meat, and the damage done often can be measured by the energy deposited which would include the kinetic energy imparted to the parts of the meat, the heat generated, and the energy required to rip fibers, etc. Bone often is broken by large pressure waves. In the above example, if the striking hand were open instead of a fist, whereas there might have been enough pressure from a knuckle of the fist making contact with the face, it is likely that on impact the same force would be spread over a large enough area so that there would not be sufficient pressure to break bone, though the momentum transfer likely would be comparable to cause the head to snap back as well allowing for some additional momentum not present that would have gone into the momentum of broken fragments of bone in the case of using a fist.

The above gives some general description of the nature of momentum and pressure acting in a karate technique. Actually, I'm greatly relieved that :it's not because I can't do this kick worth a damn. My leg won't stay :parallel to the ground and my heel won't go high enough. Are there any :exercises that would help? While there are ballet-barre-type and kicking-over-the-chair-type, etc.

The hips must generate the direction parallel if you wish and magnitude of the momentum that is transferred to the leg. So, it is wise to practice round-knee kicks as well to try to isolate the hip feeling as much as possible. Then, you can let the momentum of the round-knee kick transfer to the lower leg for a full round-snap-kick, much the same way the front-snap-kick is performed. In fact, in this context the kicking leg itself is really performing the same kicking dynamics, just being driven by different hip and stance dynamics.

If you can do a proper front-snap-kick you are only a bit away from successfully doing a round-snap-kick. The foot formation is the same, but the hip :action is different. The basic difference between them is the hip dynamics. In the front-snap kick, the stance leg if standing, arms if from a chair, etc. In a round-snap kick, the momentum is generated from some stance to rotate the hips to create momentum to be transferred into the kick. Now, look at Unsu. You're on your side on the floor, rolling from side to side for the kicks.

How can you shift both hips to create momentum for a front-snap kick? I do not think you can, at least not very effectively. Rather, it makes more sense to consider that you are using the side against the floor to generate some rotational dynamics in the far hip to generate momentum for the round-snap kick. Whatever the purpose of that is, it escapes me completely.

This movement of the arms, usually coordinated with some other body movement is common throughout T'ai Chi forms. OCR-scanned text-only version of this book. In the context of this thread, it should be noted that Nakayama and Kanazawa wrote of their high regard for T'ai Chi training, and in particular for Ming-Shi in the inside cover of Ming-Shi's book. It would be too simplistic to isolate the hand movements and the breathing from the full body movements and timing as illustrated in T'ai Chi forms, without at least also appreciating how these techniques relate to transitions in movements.

In this important sense, T'ai Chi is complementary to Karate training, where too often and too long in Karate training the student is drilled in isolated techniques without also training in transitions -- the latter being of extreme importance in sparring!

I agree that XX1's point in most cases is more important than the use of breathing to enhance power. I would think by now that there are many much more sophisticated instruments than my impactometer for measuring components of force -- mass, velocity, contact time during which momentum is being transferred to the target, etc.? I consciously trained during my first decade or so to have all forces generated from my "hip center" a somewhat nebulous point on a line spanning the naval to the tailbone, depending on the technique, etc.

Therefore, I find it natural to be exhaling on most techniques that are producing power, even within combinations, as forces tend to flow better along compressed muscle groups. I do not favor tensing muscle groups in the lower abdomen while performing "high" breathing in the upper abdomen and chest. XX1 wrote Further, have you looked at reaction :time to technique focus at different points in the breathing cycle i. I haven't -- Lester, any data in your :impactometer studies? Did you do any reaction triggers? Breath stuff? In this context, sitting or standing in very relaxed ready positions, the breathing of course was not being forced due to any prior techniques, so this may not have any relevance to optimum breathing during much of sparring.

I think the concept [of a certain karate organization's rules] is correct. I think the rules miss the mark. I had a "rule" in all my classes beyond beginners, that anyone that dropped out could not re-enter that session. If I told someone to sit down -- sometimes their health truly might be at risk, I reserved the option to let them come back in again.

I consider this in part training for hard sparring and combat, wherein dropping out is not an option unless you totally surrender. I'm willing to let each class session be considered an independent life event. My classes were the hardest, and I have no apologies, even in face of a lot criticism. I also haven't seen many of my critics take out a lot of their own time and money to accommodate the handicapped and very sick, or run special classes for them.

If someone is of reasonably sound mind and body, I won't sanction their quitting for lack of a strong spirit. The "mark" I alluded to above is my own belief that good instruction promotes learning proper mental and physical skills, without laying on a morality trip. Statistically this seems to work out OK,. Furthermore, I'm willing to admit that my own sense of "morality" is a product of my own culture and damaged synapses.

Among several good points you state: : Student safe training from warm up through to warm : down must be paramount. At first glance this is hard to reconcile with an Instructor's class. We were always sparring hard, with each other and with our instructors. The key is to give superb instruction, detailing the proper way to execute each part of each technique, and to reinforce these lessons with extreme repetition -- repetition made "interesting" and given important context by the performance of hard basic combinations and demanding basic-sparring combinations.

Classes must insist on extreme focus of each technique and the control that is required to achieve such foci. This must be insisted on in basics, kata, and sparring. Any deviation brings swift discipline to the entire class. I know there will be a lot of disagreement, but I've just stated my opinion, and do not disrespect other opinions offering other consistent teaching methodologies. Below is a correspondence which reflects on some differences of attitudes towards training. I don't really disagree with you or this other person whose first lines begin with ":" , but I do have a different point of view.

It seems to me that : Europe is also more competition oriented in : traditional Karate so that sports medicine : came into Karate much earlier than in the U. Probably right. My advanced training was geared to more of a Samurai mentality. Since my interest for all these years has been to use karate as tool itself to study such phenomena as attention, this training was particularly useful to me.

It also was very useful for many of my students. I was never particularly interested in formal competition; the stakes were usually higher in dojo sparring. Most importantly, I did not like the "sports" mentality that relied too much on "rah rah" and on taking it easy between tournaments, rather than continually trying your best.

I'm not saying that all sports training has to be that way; it's just the way many Americans use it.

51 Awesome Ways to Practice Kata

I don't : say that competition is everything but the twist : Karate has made in Europe is very good in my : opinion because things shifted from the more : dogmatic and overly tough way to a more sensible : way of Karate. We didn't break boards much either. We were into strong dojo sparring and very hard self-disciplined training. I was disappointed however to see how many other JKA classes were run in the States, especially among the new generation of JKA instructors.

Many turned the hard training from a spirit of self-discipline into more of a punk fighting spirit. I appreciate your comments, but I do not fully agree with them. I am not a fan of Japanese culture, but some aspects of Bushido are worth preserving. Sport karate is certainly the most popular form of karate practice, but it is not the only way.

Life may imitate art, but sport is not as deep. Individuals in any discipline of course may be quite profound, but here I am discussing what the method of training has to offer.

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Competing for a point under the watchful eye of a referee, who also can serve to terminate a match after a point is won, is hardly reflective of the challenges life can offer or often presents. Sport practice often embellishes the "rah-rah" support of teammates and an audience to help a competitor push a bit harder. More self-discipline is required to push a bit harder in silence, whether or not in the presence of others. I have always felt that karateists whose goal it is to parade around wearing a gold medal should at least enter a stronger and more rewarding sport at a true Olympic event.

I have no doubts that I and others have reached the same physical prowess as Olympic athletes, but if its an award they want they should at least go for true gold. I believe, in somewhat of a Bushido tradition, that sparring is a means to an end, not an end in itself. In my training, and in the training I gave, opponents bow to each other to acknowledge that they are honored to accept fierce combat as means of further sharpening their perceptions of nature. I believe karate, with its strong offense and defense, with a usual distance between opponents requiring decisions just outside automatic reflexes, is best among the martial arts to give feedback on attention and human nature.

When two people fight to their utmost ability, the victor doesn't do a dance on the body of the defeated opponent; both people bow again to signify their appreciation for the life's moment of intensity and wisdom they have mutually gained. This isn't just philosophy; a lot of blood and sweat flows.

Training must be hard and often; the only limits on hard training should be that you still can train often. It surely will give you more : insight into life and your own personality : that's what bungee jumpers, free climbers : etc. I cannot tell. I truly believe : that there is much more to discover, : especially concerning the powers of the : mind. I have to think about it. You raise a good question, one that each person must answer for himself or herself.

The bungee example, I believe is easily parried in my above context: What is being gained by the jump? Yes, just facing death perhaps gives some insights, but intense sparring gives much more feedback than that. My own training over the years included lots of hard sparring, often leading to accidents eventually breaking most major bones in my body in addition to tearing lots of meat!

Bad teaching attitudes lead to bad training lead to accidents or even worse -- promoting lousy technique which just lightly injures most everyone. Proper technique, in most Shotokan schools, if full contact is made with proper focus, should lead to massive injury, the same as unleashing any lethal weapon.

The only way to properly train such technique if to exercise control in focus, not "pushing" or "pulling" techniques. I always get irritated when hearing about the slop in tournaments, slop that causes injuries, and slop that further promotes bad karate techniques, leading to promoting bad karate. Yes, enforcing rules would definitely help, but I do not think that goes to the core of the problem. The problem is crappy technique taught by crappy instructors -- no matter what is the personal level of the instructor.

I avoided tournaments because I felt the "rah rah" spirit was against all that I believe regular daily maximal training should be about. I did not at shy away from hard training or competing with opponents; I just did not like the tournament concept. Then, when I developed my own excellent brown and black belts -- I even had a green belt make the international team in Nishiyama and the other judges were pissed and made the poor fellow compete against just about everyone -- they finally made him wear a black belt at the tournament , I saw how sloppy the tournaments had become, and I could not even recommend them to students who wanted to enter I would have supported their wished if there were decent tournaments.

I believe that the essence of slop in karate can be encapsulated by "lack of focus. Then, and only then, if such jerks realize they will lose points if they hit in tournaments, they will they control themselves. But what's the point of taking away points if the contestants are not even jerks, but just poorly trained so that they cannot execute techniques with proper focus? The "points" should be taken away from their instructors!!

I don't think anyone should be allowed to compete until they pass some tests on the day of the tournament -- not really hard to make up, are they! That means at the minimum that they can deliver a measurable agreed-upon minimum level of some momentum to a small region in three-dimensional space without extending past that region!!!

After a given number of points deducted from students from a given dojo within a year, in all listed recognized tournaments, the entire dojo should be disqualified from competing for the entire next year. That means : at the minimum that they can deliver a measurable agreed-upon minimum : level of some momentum to a small region in three-dimensional space : without extending past that region!!!

The technique must break the first pair of beams, but not break any one of the far third pair. This establishes control. I assume that if the near pair of beams is broken, the second pair also will be broken, and a simple oscilloscope or some other piece of equipment can be used to determine the velocity speed of the technique through the first 2 pairs of beams. This establishes velocity.

Now to get mass, we need a target; something has to get hit. The target should be light enough so that it will not reasonably impede the technique so that we can get a good measure of control at the third pair of beams. We can use the formula for momentum transfer between a projectile and the target. That's why I have a couple of other suggestions to at least measure the quality of force and to set some minimum requirements, e. In the center X, extended straight out from the wall a few feet in from of the candidate and the crossed beams, up to just behind the first two pairs of crossed beams, a pole is extended with either a spring that has some apparatus to measure imparted force, e.

The idea is that a fist or extended foot will break a beam in the third or fourth crossed beams, but the target will not be impeded. If the spring idea is used, the measured imparted force is simply related to the momentum imparted by the projectile. If the accelerometer idea is used mounted on a hard-rubber 1-inch stopper seems best to avoid "ringing" on the oscilloscope a bell-shaped type pulse is generated. The reason for including some of these excerpts is to give some context for the concept of control in sparring.

While I have X'd out names, these stories have been published in many magazines over the years, so I do not think any confidentiality is being violated. Sorta like having a :high noon shoot-out with an uzi-wielding opponent and all you've got is a :revolver. Especially when you factor in the political issues and the :respective ages and experience levels of the two shooters.

I agree about XXX's abilities. I completely disagree about your interpretation of the scenario with XX2. This happened while I was training at this dojo, though I did not see the actual incident. XXX pushed everyone, and was well-known for violating repeated caution not to keep breaking people's teeth and bones. For what's it's worth, immediately afterwards, XX2 was severely reprimanded by Nishiyama and the other visiting senior Instructors present.

At least at that time the last thing JKA wanted to do was to give the impression they were bullies, etc. As far as I could tell afterwards, XXX had no hard feelings towards XX2, although his jaw was wired for several weeks. I :certainly would fight a very different match if I were certain that :the other guy were trying to injure me. I strongly argue that you should always run a class as hard as you can, the limits being that people have to be able to come back to train the next day if they so choose; how else can you train a class?

There is an obvious line between allowing or even encouraging contact and permitting regular damage. I think it is clear that XXX regularly stepped over the line. I agree that this gave him an "unfair" intimidation factor. I say all this in the context that I liked XXX as a person very much, not because he was a strong fighter, but because he had a straight-forward and deep character. However, each case has to looked at individually. In XXX's case, I think it clear that he also had very polished technique, speed, and strength, and great timing.

I think XXX would have been just as great a fighter even if he had regularly exercised control. I would have sued the bejesus out of :him, Nishiyama for negligence as person responsible for teaching and :controlling activities , the club, the AAKF, and everyone else I could :have found. Of course today there would law suits for such behavior all over the place, and I think the overall climate for training now is much too weak as a result.

We have passed through any small window that would have presented any reasonable balance. XXX's methods were not endorsed by Nishiyama or other instructors, but of course you have to take into account he was perhaps a bit stronger many would have liked to see a Westerner become at that time. They just didn't know how to handle him. They wanted a strong AAKF representative, but they would have preferred someone in their own image. It's no secret how they often misjudged tournaments in favor of their pets. With XXX, his techniques were so obvious they most often had no choice.

By the end of Instructor's training, well I'll just only say that I improved a few orders of magnitude. I thought this was poor and I had to leave anyway , in that it was my credentials outside karate that looked good to attach to my karate. Also, as I said above, even with his faults I thought XXX had superb character and his techniques were all the articulation required for him to express himself.

He worked hard to get to his level and he deserved to be treated better for that, just as he should have been better reprimanded for regularly violating the trust in dojo sparring that is what bowing is all about. Lest some people think a great fighter has to not be concerned with control, I would like to point out that Yaguchi regularly sparred and whipped all of us, including XXX. He also exhibited the expected control, just making you feel a bit sick for the short time his foot was planted inside or through you. I remember the day about mid-year in Instructor's school when I resolved not to back off one inch from him anymore.

He just blinked as he saw my resolve, and proceeded to unload with both feet and hands all over me as I unleashed my own attacks. I remember a moment during all this, in a kind of out-of-body experience, watching with disbelief and awe that I wasn't dead or dying; his control was remarkable. He set a good example for us to follow if we so desired. I think I imparted this to my students as well. Under my instruction, such intolerable behavior as regularly exhibiting lack of control would be nipped in the bud; either they shape up or ship out.

This simply requires the application of professional integrity, independent of any political or personal considerations. In reply to: :I trained both ways. Usually when fighting without the conscious part which :is how the military teaches it you are taught to shut off all emotion. Karate training IMHO tries to add a level of consciousness too :this without bottling up the emotions.

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I'm still studying on this. The :situation of this reaction in Karate only occurs rarely to me right now, :usually when it happens it seems that time slows down the decision making :process doesn't take into account consequences at all. I'm not sure which military institution you are referring too, but most of them rely on training heavy doses of teamwork, loyalty, "gung-ho," e.

I think somewhat clear lines can be drawn between acting on "conscious" selective attention versus acting on emotional states. Both selective attention and emotional states may be conscious activities, but they often are independent sets of states. Without years of training, many combatants find it necessary to maximize their emotional energy, e. In advanced sparring, it usually is best to not draw upon, or at least to control, emotional states. Such states are of relatively long time-duration and inflexible; hence, they can be used against you by a worthy.

Selective attention can be exercised within tenths of second, and permit some conscious decision-making to be brought to sparring. However, such states are capacity-limited, so they are best exercised by utilizing feinting and exercising distance-timing strategies to quickly develop one to several patterns of attack or defense-attack combinations that might be immediately executed.

In some cases, e. In such cases, sometimes it is best to rely on your previous years of training to "spontaneously" develop resemblances of previously rehearsed actions and reactions against such an opponent s. This means shutting out conscious interference. In response to: :Okay. Lester's gonna like this one: : :How is it humanly possible to develop concentration? My greatest :disadvantage in sparring is that at some point, I just seem to tell to :the other guy "excuse me while I kiss the sky" This also happens :frequently after an exchange where I saw a flaw in the other guy's :defense that I plan to attack Are there any drills, tips?

Does it only come with :experience, when you no longer need to think that much However, even within our own constraints, there is much we can do to train optimal use of our "concentration. To a large extent, we can learn to pay attention to various levels of abstraction so we can function more efficiently and robustly. For example, when learning a new language one gets stuck on the meaning of individual words, "concentration" cannot span the meaning of groups of sentences, etc.

Learning to think in spatial-temporal patterns of movement, of course assuming that the components have been well-trained and can be depended upon, makes it easier and faster to react more appropriately to evolving interactions between and your opponent s.

This is the crux of most of the methodology I have developed in my classes and written in my texts. There's much more to say, and even much more to train! This creates a new abstract person I'll just define as the "mediator," and refer to "it. A This state permits me to keep a fair awareness of both my opponent s and my own space-time position. Too often in sparring people get too fixated on their opponents intended actions or on their own intended actions, without taking into account that the interaction of all people can quickly lead to a new set of intended actions not well understood by such separate fixations.

The mediator perceives and tries to control both kinds of attention states. B I found that there are some definite benefits to enhanced timing, especially effective against opponents who have superior fast reflexes. The mediator can view both opponents as part of one pretty fast changing rhythm, and in this view it can act on "phase differences" in the rhythm which is faster than trying to match two or more rhythms against each other.

In a real sense, this is the most violent kind of activity, one that good commanders should try to install in their battles, wherein all purpose and attention is objectively given to destroy the enemy. The usual perception of violence is to get all worked up and run in screaming like a maniac which is not much different in my estimation as "rah rah spirit" but, while this may permit a weak spirit to feel reckless and murderous, it in fact often impedes the direction of attention towards the actual violent actions required, especially against skilled opponents.

D This state permits me to resolve the issue of how to "feel" in sparring with a classmate versus street fighting for ones life. I simply alter the direction given by the mediator to focus on skin instead of into meat or through bone, etc. E I started this kind of "state training" in the late '60's by a kind of mediation, which to another observer looks the same as mediating in a normal kneeling position. However, instead of just a relaxed focus on breathing or brain activity or whatever mnemonic most people use, I first mentally place a mirror image of myself a few feet away, then put the mediator on top of both bodies as an external observer.

The mediator is the entity actually meditating. F Often there are more peaceful ways to win conflicts than always going into combat mode. The mediator state can permit an objective assessment of a situation, to better decide on a course of action in situations of conflict. This state gives at least an external appearance of calm while violence is an immediate option , which often can calm an opponent, thereby avoiding physical conflict.

G I hesitate to teach this state of mind to many students. In many ways many people maintain a "civilized" composure by having a deep sense of compassion at some level for other people, at least for themselves! I rather prefer to rant and train students hard without mercy giving them critical feedback to remove emotions as they at the moment impede their training. This perhaps could lead them to a mediator state if they are as convoluted as me! In karate sparring, I embraced the concept of finding a good distance between self and the external world to find reasonable interactions.

I a crude sense, feinting in sparring attempts this, but I would like to see this kind of training expanded. My daily composition of two-person combinations for my classes and myself provided additional training for this skill. At an early age I decided that competition with my own goals was superior to competition with others.

This sense of self-competition is another manifestation of having some objective distance between ego and purpose. I often generalize this tool to imagine "my self" someplace between my physical body and that of a Martian. How would a Martian judge our actions -- by how "successful" we are in piling sand on our mounds, by how we help our wounded, by how we throw sand back at the Martian?

I know this seems trite, but it sometimes give perspective to how we judge ourselves and others. I think that for a long time, my teaching included some degree of competition with the focus to have the student learn as best as possible as fast as possible. After a decade or so, I decided that the "fast as possible" part was not so important; the other aspects are still there. This is a reply to a posting: :Here is a sort of esoteric question that has bothered me for :nearly a decade: At the top of the old SHOTOKAN tiger logo :there are a pair of kanji characters.

I think one is the :character for "dai" and the other resembles the greek :letter tau. You might see these on the old SKA patches i. On some :of the more modern patches, the characters have been abbreviated :with just a simple character that resembles a cross. The modern :JKA logo : uses the latter character. Has anybody had an instructor :who talked about the details of these characters and their meaning?

I'd like to mention that neither my first instructor Tsutomu Ohshima for a couple of years, 'till he left for France for a few years , or my second instructor Hidetaka Nishiyama for over 10 years specifically dwelled on the historical aspects of karate. While I agree this sounds a bit strange, to put this into perspective, one of the strong points I always sensed about both instructors at least during the time of my training is that they stressed the philosophy of karate as it could be embedded in Western culture.


At that time, this in fact was their mission. In turn, I have always viewed karate as a training for people independent of culture. It's not that I'm not interested in such issues, but especially in the earlier days of karate, it was easy to fall into the trap of talking "pig-English" all the time, seeking a lowest common denominator with Japanese instructors, expounding all things Japanese as superior, etc. I view self-respect and self-discipline as important traits if one is to strive for the highest levels of any discipline, and my way of dealing with these early trends was to speak slowly in my native tongue while paying careful attention to every word and movement of my instructors.

At the highest levels, :does Shotokan begin to incorporate a "deliver multiple techniques with one :motion" philosophy? Does the motion become more fluid? While a particular school usually is influenced quite strongly by the individual instructor, in most Shotokan schools there is regular training in many Kata, multiple-step sparring, and many hard combinations in basic as well as in free sparring. I can't imagine anyone seriously studying any kata or combinations in sparring and coming to the conclusion that somehow fluidity of motion is not being stressed?

In my own classes and texts, I stress the importance of fluidity at several scales, e. Probably what can be correctly stated about Shotokan styles, e. The emphasis perhaps is close to what you state. Eventually, at advanced levels, the emphasis is on a "state" of continual movement, punctuated by focused feints, blocks, attacks, etc. By "state" I mean that the movements may be quite overt with large shifting movements, or quite subtle not so overt movements that can serve to keep a body awareness of the interplay of rhythms of your opponent s and yourself.

I have been following the discussions of the "corkscrew" punch a new word for me for this technique with great interest, particularly because it has elicited a lot of interesting responses from many angles and disciplines. I would just like to add my own perspective on this technique, based on my own JKA training and analysis. While some of the responses already have said much of what I have to say, I think it useful to some students to present a reply in my terms. From one point of view, the punching arm is really just an extension of the body, at first receiving most of its momentum from the momentum gained by the torso -- e.

At the later stages of the punch, e. This "compromise" is a feature of the focus of the punch, e. That is, during the short time scale of focus which I measured with some equipment years ago to be on the order of a tenth of second , some velocity is "traded" for mass. This is used by advanced practitioners to match the "impedance" of the target, to maximize the transfer of energy into the target.

For example, a heavy target, like the torso, often might be attacked with a "heavy" punch, while a lighter target, like the head, often might be attacked by a relatively lighter and faster punch. Of course, strategy, the hardness of the target, etc. For example, against some targets, there is an additional "shearing" power that can be achieved by twisting the fist into the target upon impact.

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  4. Explosive Karate.

That stated, in this view, the initial and middle stages of the punch should permit the arm to most freely accept the momentum transfer from the torso. If the deltoid or arm biceps or triceps are stiff, then this process will be impeded. When your hands are close to your body, e. As the arm is extended, there is less tension in the arms when the palms turn away from your body. During these three phases, there is an opportunity to focus at various distances: a punch close, the "back-punch" with the elbow still at the hip; b punch to some intermediate distance, the "vertical punch" with the elbow one or two fists' width away from the hip; c punch fully outstretched, the "standard" punch.

Note that during the focus of the back-punch, the shearing rotation is usually most naturally performed outwards, i. Of course, these three punches require adapting to different timings of the body, etc. The "hook-punch" to the opposite side of the punching hand, also rotates upon impact, similar to the regular punch. This punch is "guided" by a sense of horizontal body compression above and below the punching course, creating a channel for the flow of the technique. In contrast to the hook-punch, the "rising-punch" is "guided" by a sense of vertical compression to both sides of the technique.

This punch is facilitated by rotating the punching hand immediately as the elbow is clearing the hip; the extra tension along the top of the upper arm helps the rising action of the technique. The early rotation of the fist, a "bug" in the regular punch, is a "feature" in the rising-punch. Advanced Applications of Basic Techniques. Yes, pressure is most important to understand just how transferred momentum can break bone as well as rip into soft tissue. There are some details that you have not quite taken into account. The time t in your above explanation cannot be controlled exclusively by the attacker for arbitrary times.

The focus time during which momentum can be transferred is determined as much by the nature of the target as it is by the projectile the focus time of the attacker during which the velocity and mass in mv are effective. Yes, it also is important to realize the role of excellent body focus to "attach" a heavy mass to this kind of punch especially when it is being focussed into a heavy body target. Whatever "strange way" might exist to hold one's fist prior to a special short punch is a new idea I have never heard of.

That is, a well trained person can generate a strong punch from a picking-the-nose position. I don't believe that the extra distance :gained by chambering is the issue, I think it's to do with the mind set :of the person. If you DO chamber, it shows greater ability to maintain :concentration and focus. I think "chambering" a new word for me is more physical than mental. It takes quite a bit of training before you can rely on the large torso muscles to properly transfer momentum to the arms and legs.

Pulling hands chambering , idealized trajectories, are excellent training aids to maximize the chances of all this occurring. For example, the most usual reason for loss of power when the elbow does not follow the fist close to the hip in a basic punch is that the shoulder is tensed, creating a line of tension along the outside the arm which tends to make the elbow come out. The reason this usually gives rise to a weaker punch is that this often signifies that the torso is not driving the arm by connections of muscles under the arm to the chest and back muscles; i.

Of course moving along these trajectories does not guarantee that you are using the proper muscles and proper dynamics, but it helps. Once you get some good results, with more training you can get these dynamics to produce good techniques without always having to rely on basic trajectories and timing aids. I first became impressed with this idea while practicing knife-defense in Instructor's School.

An effective technique against a lunge was to drop to a kneeling position, driving a block to the shin of the opponent just as he was executing a step-in lunge, while using the other hand to block the attacking hand, then rotating the opponent's body on the floor to rotate him in the air. Nishiyama did this so well against Yaguchi in one demo, that he landed so hard he was knocked out for several seconds. Over the years, I introduced several variants of this in my own instruction, emphasizing general body dynamics instead of "tricks," or just simple variants of classical Judo and Aikido techniques which certainly are great techniques in their own right.

I did this spontaneously against an attack during a Dan exam after the command to stop sparring, throwing the insensitive fellow to the floor. In Keri No Kata, there is a move in the slow part to time locking of B's heel inside A's heel, to effect a lever against the A's vertical line, driving A's upper body back while pulling A's lower body forward; this is effected while while A is trying to effect a throw against B, by attacking B's neck and rotating the top of B's body across A's hip using power generated from A's changing stances.

In summary, basic karate techniques have been demonstrated to be well analyzed by basic physics-type principles, permitting a better understanding of similarities of body dynamics across many techniques. For example, it now is clear how angular momentum around different body axes effects front-snap-kick, side-snap-kick and round-kick.

In my text, I introduced a stick Tai-Chi-like sparring exercise to promote using minimal but effective force against the linear and angular momentum of the attacker, illustrating how these concepts can be studied in a dynamic sparring-type context. I think that these approaches at least permit complementary approaches to instruction and applications to locking and throwing techniques.

Using ancient animal metaphors are great for conveying intuitions, but they are sorely lacking in promoting creative instruction and applications. I think part of it is the type of blocking being done. Bone breaker vs. Perhaps after these years of :training, the premise of a breaking-block has become alien to me.

I generally :attack while ignoring the opponent's attempts or simply deflect and face-punch. I think it is common perhaps not universal teaching practice, that after a few years of getting down timing with basic blocks in basic sparring, a student can more effectively move on to sweep blocks, etc. Hip rotation is useful for attack-blocks, which are designed to break the opponent's rhythm and balance as a prelude to a counterattack. When facing in a given direction, you can effectively direct power perpendicular to an attack over an extremely wide angular region.

Attack-blocks are used to defend the face, solar plexus, and groin regions. Another method of blocking, which is smoother but requires better timing, is sweep-blocking, in which the attacking momentum of the opponent is controlled along a line tangential to the attack.

The blocking hand glides along the attacking limb, exerting a gradual sideways force that smoothly deflects the attack. This method of control, used to a great extent in Judo and Aikido, is utilized in some of the timing exercises in chapter 3. Don't we all! But I'm a little different. For me, I try to move at the Now here's At some point in the step-back, I try And I'm trying to finish the block The harder the And the I just got up and :tried it. I can't do it and follow my tech that way. Either you've :got something funny in your hips, or I'm missing something like my :teachers always said I was Such techniques can be trained and utilized quite effectively, by a quite general use of "body expansion and compression.

I have a few notes on stepping in my texts. That is, as XXX similarly reports, the end of full body technique that properly uses stance often sets up increased momentary tensions across the legs that can be used to advantage, like a coiled spring, to move in any other direction, not just the same or reverse direction from the just finished technique. Furthermore, similarly, there are similar compression and expansion techniques in the torso that can be used to advantage to generate the next technique from a previous technique.

At a somewhat more advanced level, these ideas can be used effectively in feints. For example, moving your body from feinting position to feinting position can be used as a "cover" to generating tensions in the stance and torso similar to those generated when performing full techniques. These expansions and compressions, albeit smaller than those developed during full techniques, can of course be done at higher frequencies, to cut into your opponent's rhythm at more vantage points, while masking the beginning of a full attack.

Success in the above feinting strategy is great training for teaching timing at more advanced stages of "softer" feinting requiring even less commitments to generating your own body forces, while conveying intended threats or non-threats to your opponent to set up advantageous attacking positions and moments. Often these techniques are used effectively with sweep blocks, as described above, requiring smaller forces in your stance and torso than the use of attack blocks.

At this stage, you can give the outward appearance of no-motion or some intended motion, while keeping forces flowing internally at very high frequencies ready to create attacks. Try to set up tensions across both legs into the floor, independent of knee position, e. Then you can better perform the methods I describe above, relatively independent of your knee position.

So I'm using the front hip going back for my initial step back and the now Does this make sense boys and girls? I'd :love to see it. If just standing in place, why not move the front hip forward with Front knee going too deep, foot sliding forward. I'm sorry to disagree. The rear hip can stay in place.

A coiled spring Which you then can Yes the hip does But not necessarily in terms of Clearly it requires :more skill at timing one's response than a striking block does. Of course this is very person-dependent. Many kyu-level people can sweep-block many punches, but I think it usually takes a good 2nd or 3rd dan to regularly sweep kicks.

The reason is that sweeping kicks, having to deal with more massive longer-reaching attacks and to be able to gain position for counter-attacks, etc. We don't have to invent new terms for common aspects of karate discussed here, and some common terms can serve us fine. There is some confusion here between between nonlinear and stochastic.

Stochastic generally relates to the influence of variables in addition to those of interest which require respecting statistical aspects of a system instead of just deterministic aspects. For example, when training over many years, there likely will be many influences that cannot be precisely predicted -- weather, sickness, meteors, etc. Even in the very short term, you or your opponent might slip on water on the floor due to a drip from the ceiling due to a heavy gust of wind opening the roof a bit, etc.

Probably the best you can do is to say that if you train regularly, then typically you will improve, and typically you can beat Joe Schmoe if you don't slip on any water on the floor. Nonlinear generally relates to the possibility of several outcomes to some initial conditions. Manytimes, chance brings out these possibilities.

For example, if you kick, your opponent can side-shift or circle-shift to either side -- this can be considered a nonlinear consequence of your kick. Also, as your opponent starts to shift, your body can prepare to follow with another technique; an advanced opponent may sense this and react by shifting to the opposite side -- this can be considered an example of nonlinear feedback in the systems comprised of you and your opponent. Being prepared to use karate for "self-defense against surprise attack" generally requires that you are prepared better than you would be without training to make the best of situations that may drop on you from many places.

This is the stochastic nature of life. I have created combinations that fork, requiring people to try to set up "surprises" for themselves that require taking one of 2 or 3 well-defined fork in a combination. This helps to make the best of reacting against stochastic influences with well-defined nonlinear responses.

I find it very useful in advanced sparring to take the mindset of setting up a single system comprised of myself, my opponent, and a detached observer hovering someplace in an abstract space above both of us. The observer integrates the movements and barely perceived intentions of both combatants, and I add the luxury of permitting the observer to fork out nonlinear alternatives to me that tend to make me win over my opponent -- a vestige of ego of sorts.

This has some very practical consequences. For example, a sporadic and transitory but nevertheless marked rhythm composed of the two combatants often can be discerned. By causing my body to change the phase of this rhythm I often have a better and faster chance of catching the leadership of our mutual rhythm than if I took the mindset of interacting via two opposing rhythms.

Yes, there is a science of "synergetics" that mathematically articulates the physical consequences of emergent phenomena from individual constituents. The example I gave above illustrates how considering combatants as an emergent system may offer some practical advantages. Fighting really means conflict. But :I assume you mean fighting as in Fist Fighting, or Karate. Any :describable subset of human conflict could be called a system.

What :does this gain us. Lets stick to karate, karate is a system of :fighting. No, I don't agree with these specific points. The "common" and the "scientific" terminologies do not need to differ here. There is a difference between "unpredictable" and "nonlinear" systems. You can have neither, both together, or one without the other. In addition, one must consider closed systems versus open systems, the latter being influenced by external forces to the defined system. Karate should train us to better deal with nonlinear, stochastic, open systems in the world. Too often the practice is mindless, and for all practical purposes the training can be quite linear, deterministic, and closed.