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And without good counseling, the sheer number and variety of postsecondary options can be overwhelming, especially for young people and families who are not familiar with the system. In Public Agenda focus groups with non-college-completing young adults, participants were given lists of higher education institutions in the immediate vicinity and asked to talk about them. Many were unsure which colleges were public and which were private, which were nonprofit and which were for-profit, and which offered four-year degrees, two-year degrees, or certification programs.

When a previous Public Agenda study Johnson et al. Among this group, location was the top reason given for selecting a college, outranking such explanations as having affordable tuition or offering a program leading to a specific job. Many young people who haven't graduated worry about borrowing money for college. For them, the risk of being in debt often outweighs the potential reward of having a college diploma. In the past few decades, the United States has benefited from an implicit social compact.

Young people who invest time and money to get a college degree reap long-term rewards, even if they have to borrow money to do so. But results from the survey carry warning signs that this compact, which has benefited individuals and the economy alike, may be fraying: 9 in 10 young adults both those with college degrees and those without say that young people today have to borrow too much money to go to college.

At the same time, many young adults seem to be questioning just how much a typical four-year degree is worth in today's tough job market. The Public Agenda survey presented respondents with a list of 11 hypothetical people with varying levels of education, asking how likely each person was to enjoy a secure economic future. Young adults overall see only one of the 11 a person who goes on to graduate school as having dependably solid prospects.


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At the opposite end of the spectrum, hardly anyone believes that a person who drops out of high school is very likely to be financially secure see fig. Figure 1. Percentage of respondents who say it is "very likely" the following people will be economically secure in their lifetime. Someone who graduates from college and then goes on to a graduate school like law school or a PhD program.

Someone who graduates high school and becomes an apprentice in a field such as carpentry or plumbing. Someone who gets a one-year certification in information technology IT management from a technical school. Someone who graduates from high school and goes right to work but never takes any higher education courses. New York: Public Agenda.

Copyright by Public Agenda. Used by permission. For the categories in between—people with four-year degrees, two-year degrees, technical certificates, and careers in the trades—the results were far more mixed. Among the group without a college degree, only 35 percent believe it is very likely that someone with a bachelor's degree from a state university will be financially secure in his or her lifetime. Similar numbers predict financial security for someone who doesn't go to college but apprentices in a trade, such as carpentry or plumbing 36 percent or for someone who enlists in the military 33 percent.

And on this topic at least, there is not much difference between the views of those who have graduated from college and those who haven't. Young college grads may be optimistic about their own chances in life 55 percent think it's very likely that they will be financially secure , but only 34 percent say the same about the typical person who has a bachelor's degree. For young people who didn't graduate from college, however, the need to borrow money to go to school is the real kicker.

Many are concerned about the prospect of borrowing money for college and then not earning enough to be able to pay it back. Only 37 percent compared with 54 percent of the college graduates strongly agree that even if someone has to take out a loan to go to college, it's worth it. Because people in the non-college-completing group are more likely to come from low-income families, they often approach the issue of borrowing money for school with fears that students from more affluent families simply don't have.

In the focus groups, many spoke about friends or relatives who had seen their homes foreclosed or were jobless for long periods of time. Some had borrowed money to start college, but because they hadn't graduated, they lived in the worst of both worlds, owing money for college loans but with no degree to show for it. Some were bitter about their decision to borrow. Nearly three-quarters of those who took out loans but didn't graduate 73 percent said that their loans were only a fair or poor investment compared with 23 percent of those who graduated.

Some young people in the focus groups seemed to be doing explicit calculations in their heads, weighing how much money they could earn and how quickly against the problem of having to pay back college loans. The comments of a young woman in Washington, D. I've been out of school, and … it doesn't feel good to me to have to pay a loan back right now. If I do decide to go back to school, I want to be able to pay for school out-of-pocket, or get a grant, or something like that. I can no longer do another loan, so there's no need for me to look for school until I'm able to afford it.

The red flag for policymakers and educators working to increase college graduation rates is that the current financial aid system, which depends on students and their families seeing college loans as sensible investments, is beginning to seem like a risky bet, especially for young people at the lower end of the income scale. Although they can see the potential upside to taking out a loan for college, they can see genuine and serious downsides as well. Some of the implications of this research are quite specific. For example, it seems obvious that educators and policymakers need to ensure that all high school students and their families understand that they can gain access to many types of financial assistance by submitting the Free Application for Federal Student Aid.

If students don't even know what this form is, they're not likely to take advantage of it. But the research raises broader questions that call for better analysis and more resourceful policy changes. While Yuri confirmed that he was involved in Libya, mostly they discussed Reese and his latest combat tour.

Reese said that he was nervous. A major operation was set to begin, as the Canadian military pulled out and the US Army took over control of his sector. The Canadian infantry was organizing one last sweep, and the fighting was expected to be fierce. Yuri had never heard Reese express unease, and it unnerved him. Reese was always brash and self-assured, especially when describing the "crazy" missions he had completed in Iraq. Reese was on his fourth tour, but this was his first to Afghanistan, and now he sounded unsure. His unusual tone bothered Yuri.

It would be their last conversation for weeks. That night, on March 21, Yuri and the rest of the FEs launched from Aviano, and this time his squadron commander's prediction proved true. In the middle of the bombing campaign Yuri lost a wingman over Benghazi. Initial reports said the plane was shot down , while a later investigation pointed to mechanical failure. At the time, though, all Reese knew was that when he woke up the next day, wreckage from an FE was all over Fox News and his brother wasn't answering his phone. For a week, no one spoke to Yuri. He paced and didn't sleep. Reese and his parents and Yuri's wife were desperate for news that he was alive.

Yuri was thinking of Reese, off on a big operation. The FE crew was rescued, but it took time, and the "comm blackout"—the military-imposed ban on communications of any type while casualty notifications are made to family of the killed, wounded, or missing—lasted for a week.

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Eventually, Yuri's family agreed that no news must be good news, and in time Reese received a brief message confirming his brother was okay. But by the time Yuri was out of comm blackout, Reese had begun his large operation, and though they could have found a way to speak, in deference younger brother left older brother alone. On the morning of April 9, Reese got on Facebook and made two posts before putting on his gear and going on his last mission. And he sent a message to Angie Capra, the widow of one of his best friends, Tony Capra. Both Reese and Tony were EOD techs, and the two had been stationed together in Florida, had bonded over beer and cigarettes and the trials of being young fathers.

It was the three year anniversary of Tony's death, and Reese wanted Angie to know that he was thinking of her and the kids. On his th combat mission of that tour, while investigating the scene of a bombing, he was killed by a second hidden explosive device. He left behind Angie, five children, and eleven younger siblings.

Like Reese, he was on his fourth deployment. About 2.

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About 1. Never have so many soldiers done so many tours. But it is also true that America has relied on a core force the size of Fargo, North Dakota to fight the longest war in our nation's history. More data is available electronically than ever before, and what Carter has found, this multi-tour phenomenon, is unprecedented. In World War II, units stayed for the duration of the campaign, and a soldier's tour generally ended when he was wounded or victory was declared. In the Civil War and Revolutionary War, men from a certain part of the country would all enlist together to form a unit, but then often disband collectively once their contracts were up; General Washington planned many of his engagements based upon when his army would disappear.

American troops in Saigon, Photo: Philip Jones Griffiths. Other than the current one, the only American war that allowed a similar opportunity to go back for multiple tours was Vietnam. Comparing the two wars is illuminating; not only has our military vastly changed, but so has the data available to understand it. If and when the discharge records of every Vietnam veteran are digitized and placed in a database, historians will be able to answer the question.

There was a draft. If the Army wanted more soldiers in Vietnam, it would draft them, though there would be a political cost. In our current wars, it wasn't until or that the Army realized it was feeding on itself, that if it wanted more soldiers in Iraq, it would have to send men and women who had deployed before.

Some soldiers certainly did redeploy to Vietnam, but experts agree that the vast majority just tried to survive their one tour. In Dispatches , journalist Michael Herr's surreal account of the Vietnam War, two Marines discuss when they will return home. One has just agreed to stay in Vietnam for four more months, so he can be discharged from the Marine Corps sooner.

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The other Marine is incredulous. No one knows how Reese Hines set off the bomb that should have killed him. Reese himself certainly doesn't; his memories of the event are segmented and fractured at best. It was his second call of the morning, and in the midst of the major operation, a meticulous ballet of three Canadian infantry companies, two helicopter-led air assaults, armor in a blocking formation to the south, and trauma medical assets on stand-by.

The Canadians found the device, said it was a pressure-plate tied to a yellow jug full of explosives, buried in the ground. It was in an area Reese had worked before; not three weeks prior, an informant claimed multiple bombs were in this area, and Reese had done an investigation on the detonation of a similar device that killed a Canadian soldier.

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Now Reese was out of his truck, without his robot , without his bomb suit, carrying a metal detector and an explosive charge as he carefully approached the IED buried near a wall covered in grapevines. Halfway down, Reese looked back at his team. He shrugged. He laid down on his belly in front of the handle of the buried yellow jug, pulled out his knife, probed once or twice, pulled out his paint brush, and began to unearth the trigger with the care of a paleontologist excavating a new discovery.

Five gallons of Ammonium Nitrate mixed with aluminum shavings and ball bearings exploded an arm's length away. Reese was first treated near the scene of the detonation. The main force of the blast was directed upward, but the IED still produced a crater the size of the mine detector used by the EOD team. The hammer hit Reese's face first. The bones of his orbital eye sockets, upper and lower jaw, and base of his skull all fractured. His eardrums ruptured. A ball bearing shattered the right lens of his safety glasses and embedded in his eye.

His helmet was thrown 90 feet behind him. The blast rolled over the rest of his body next. His right hand liquefied. Frag entered the muscles of both arms, exited out the other side. Sand and dirt pock-marked his shoulders. The armor plate on his chest caught a ball-bearing meant for his heart. One lung collapsed. An eight-inch square chunk of his interior quadriceps muscle on his left leg was torn away, as if bitten by a shark. It takes hope to activate the combat rescue system. Two Air Force helicopters, staged forward in anticipation of major casualties during the Canadian operation, launched from their temporary airfield.

The special HHs bore seven souls each: Two pilots, two door-gunner engineers, and three elite para-rescuemen PJs charged with picking up the most-critically injured soldiers in the highest-threat situations. The PJs landed less than eight minutes later. They gave Reese a field tracheotomy, a procedure to cut a breathing hole at the Adam's apple. They started IVs. They put on five tourniquets, one on each limb and a second on his right arm, since it was the most damaged.

His right leg was fine, but it got a tourniquet anyway because no one could tell, his pants so splattered in blood. Reese's gear, post blast. Photos: Hines Family. Collage by Clinton Nguyen. Reese doesn't remember the rescue, but later, when he was in the hospital, he had dreams and hallucinations that he now thinks could be memories: Lying under the spinning blades of the rescue helicopter, feeling the cold rotorwash across his body. It is possible he has pieces of memories. He was surely conscious during the entire event.

In a picture taken by a military photographer, Reese is seen carried on a litter, his chest bare, his head distended and covered in blood, his left gloved hand actively clenched in a death-grip on the stretcher's edge. I'd like to believe Tony Capra was looking out for me.

Years before the brothers deployed, while he was still a student at the University of Tennessee in Chattanooga and Reese was in EOD school in the panhandle of Florida, Yuri called his brother for advice. He was struggling in college, his grades dipping. September 11th was still very much on his mind, and he felt compelled to enter the military as quickly as possible.

He was just going to drop out of college, he told Reese on the phone, enlist like his older brother. He was looking at the paperwork from the recruiter as they talked. Reese told him not to sign anything, and hung up. Hours later, at 4 o'clock in the morning, Reese knocked on Yuri's door.

Reese had driven all the way up from Florida to convince Yuri to stay in school, join the military as an officer. Now that force was dying in a hospital. Yuri thought of his brother's overnight drive as he tore down the autobahn in the dark. Within hours of receiving the news, Reese's mother was on a flight to Germany. His father would soon follow. The family's emotional reserves were already drained; they had not yet recovered from Yuri's near miss, and Reese was not remotely out of the woods. As his mother, a thirty-year emergency room nurse, would explain later, Reese's body was racked by two competing infections.

The dust of Afghanistan, impregnated throughout Reese's body, contains high levels of Acinetobacter gram-negative bacterium that reacts in direct opposition to the antibiotics normally given during surgery. When doctors "wet down" Reese—pumping him full of standard liquid medications— e.

When they "dried" him out—removing the IV bags—his blood pressure dropped, kidneys failed, and heart stopped. At what point does any creative or entrepreneur seek a partner for their business or hustle? The art of collaboration is not On this episode, I talk to Rymega rymega , a fellow military brat, about his experience as a teacher in these turbulent times. He speaks on the type of values he tries to instill in his teaching methods, his time at March for Our Lives in San Diego, and how us growing up in Japan shaped who we are.

You'll hear us talk about what keeps us inspired creatively, how we decompress, and what we consider what the "hustle".

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What we both brin And we back! Thank you for tuning into another episode of One Degree of Separation. As a guy who's worn many hats over many years, he's seen it all.


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He talks about his journey through the many scenes and movements he's been a part of and the history of the San Diego What's the connection between astrology and our daily life? Should I go to art school? On this episode, my friend Leslie and I answer these questions for those interested in a different sense of spirituality or route towards their creative goals. She explains to me what alignments are in place with the stars and planets right now and her roots A lot has happened since the last time we talked with Andy andyinternets back in November.

We've got a new president, threat of nuclear holocaust seems to be imminent, and he's recently quit his job. In this episode, we talk about the circumstances that got him to a place to pursue his interests and passions full time outside a 9 to 5 workpl On this episode, we have Grant towndust , the creator of Towndust, a brand based out of San Diego with a heavy focus on cut and sew and embroidered graphics. We talk about how he's balanced a job that he loves with something that's completely his, the benefits of being tapped in on the internet, and about his recent trip to Japan.

On June On June 4th, we asked the San Diego community to come together. We were joined for a special evening as we gathered to celebrate coffee, a special, clean fuel that energizes artists, musicians, and just about everybody. People cme through and tasted delicious coffee from local roasters and cafes, sampled some delicious paired treats, interacted On this episode, I have the great pleasure of having one of my best friends and favorite human beings, Vanessa.

We talk about how law of attraction has played a role in her life, her creative journey from the start until now, being and feeling lost creatively, how she views her spirituality as simply looking inward, and the state of the art and Having just come back from playing a show in Tokyo in January and having played big venues like the Observatory and Low End Theory last year, I thought it'd only be right to finally have a conversation with him.

He speaks on his origins in music San Diego people might be familia Love is in the air. This Valentine's Day, One Degree of Separation brings you three podcasts revolving around how love and companionship affects the creative process and journey. With three different couples, who had gotten together under vastly different circumstances, we discuss how they've grown together as individuals and creatively, the in In this conversation, Kyle, better known as kylebykyle, talks with me about his constant evolution in art, philosophies he has behind the progression, and how he's used social media to push his art to the masses.

He also briefly mentions his new, elusive project, Water Your Plants, and how this simple phrase can apply to you. As a collective, we strive towards being a creative force for the community through throwing events with a purpose, promoting creatives we want to highlight through our platform, and keeping people informed about music, art, and topics we care about.

We talk about transparency in our struggles as creatives continuing on from my conversation with Sage , investing in relationships and real-life connections, and the common thread between everybody she has coffee and con We talk about what he's learned from his recent move, how transparency plays a role in his art and daily life, and how he's able to foster and nurture relationships he's made via social media.