Book I, Chapter 2 When the knight sets out on his first adventure, riding across the Campo de Montiel, he drags into an inn, which he takes to be a glorious castle. Seeing two prostitutes waiting there to be taken to Seville, he addresses them as beautiful ladies and the innkeeper as the lord of the manor. A swineherd approaches the inn with his pack of hogs, and the sound of his horn coincides with the madman's arrival: This at once became for Don Quixote just what he wished it to be: some dwarf who was heralding his coming; and so it was with a vast deal of satisfaction that he presented himself before the ladies in question, who, upon beholding a man in full armor like this, with lance and buckler, were filled with fright and made as if to flee indoors.
Part One Yo soy la locura, or I am Folly of the first Savall disc begins with an anonymous instrumental fanfare percussion, shawm, sackbut that represents -- in my opinion, although judging by the position of the piece, perhaps unintended -- the music that Don Quixote imagines in his addled brain. The next musical selection is a lute song, du Bailly's Je suis la folie , a brilliant use here of one form of La Follia , songs that were the basis for an almost infinite number of variation sets in the Renaissance and Baroque periods.
This "folly" is the themesong of our crazed protagonist. To be continued. Filed under Books , CD Reviews.
Don Quixote Part 1, Chapter 1 Summary & Analysis from LitCharts | The creators of SparkNotes
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The scheme of Don Quixote, which has become an integral part of occidental civilisation, reflects many universal problems which, due to their complexity, cannot be contained in any simple or unilateral interpretation: Don Quixote and his moral counterbalance, Sancho, are, at the same time, literary satire, social criticism, a mirror of the decadent splendour of the Spanish Empire, and an echo of the everlasting conflict between comedy and tragedy, dream and reality, madness and sanity, and idealism and earthly materialism.
An amazingly large number of studies, ranging in scope from the monograph to the comprehensive work, have appeared in the past decades on Cervantes and his masterpiece, Don Quixote. Don Quixote has also exerted a deep influence in medicine. In fact, the repercussions of Don Quixote in the works of eminent physicians is noteworthy.
Thomas Sydenham, known as the English Hippocrates, counselled his disciple Richard Blackmore to read Don Quixote to become a better doctor [ 1 ]. At the age of 27, Sigmund Freud wrote to his future wife, Martha Bernays, about the deep impression left on him by his reading of Don Quixote in Spanish [ 3 ]. About that time, Freud was wondering whether to follow his neuroscientific research and become a neuroscientist understood as an analogy of the quixotic ideal or to devote himself to the well-paid private medical practice an analogy of Sancho, as a reality principle.
This initial impression changed radically during his life, as it can be deduced from his essays, which are full of references to Don Quixote [ 4 , 5 ]. The interest of physicians in Don Quixote may be, in part, a consequence of the fact that Cervantes treats medical questions in Don Quixote with outstanding accuracy [ 6 ], so that some have wondered whether he was actually a physician [ 7 ]. Excellent works on some of the medical conditions mentioned in Don Quixote exist [ 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ].
However, to date, no one has yet tried a comprehensive study of the many references to neurology scattered throughout the text. Both parts of El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha were systematically read by both authors in order to identify references to neurology. The reading and the search were performed on a Spanish edition of the text [ 14 ], and later translated to English, following the English edition by J. Cohen [ 15 ]. Among the neurological signs and symptoms that appear in the course of Don Quixote are the following:.
However, in this context, tremor must not be considered a disease itself, but rather a physiologic consequence of the emotional circumstances of the plot. At that time, the heart was supposed to be the seat of emotions, and when these emotions were disturbed, the changes of the cardiac rhythm could reach the arms and the hands, giving rise to tremor. Mercury could be administered in the form of calomel mercury chloride , an ointment, a steam bath or pill. Unfortunately, the side effects were as painful and terrifying as the disease itself.
Many patients who underwent mercury treatments suffered from extensive tooth loss, ulcerations, and neurological damage including epileptic seizures and tremors, such as the excerpt above. The use of mercury therapy continued until the first effective treatment, Salvarsan, was developed in by the immunologist Paul Ehrlich — [ 16 ]. The snoring, the lengthy siestas, and his obesity suggest that, though there are no references to episodes of cessation of breathing during sleep, Sancho may have had obstructive sleep apnoea.
This incident has been interpreted as a symptom of a rapid eye movement disorder [ 9 ]. Cervantes, through Sancho Panza, also explains the idea that sleep is a passive state, similar to death, where all mental activities are almost absent part II, ch. Theories of that time were unclear about the origin of sleep and the significance of dreams. Some others wander around their room.
Loss of consciousness in Don Quixote deserves itself a specific study, as it is outstandingly recurrent throughout the novel. Camilla was not long in recovering from her fainting fit and on coming to herself she said Within the Spanish medical literature of that time, syncope is unusually well described in the last chapter of Tratado repartido en cinco partes principales que declaran el mal que significa este nombre: Peste Treatise with five main parts in which the evil of this name is explained: Plague , published in by Ambrosio Nunes — , a Portuguese physician Portugal was a kingdom which formed part of the Spanish Empire at that time.
Nunes explains that. And there is also a brilliant description of an absence seizure in the character of Cardenio, a young man who was driven mad after his beloved Luscinda had married another man, and who lives alone in the Sierra Morena:. Some authors consider this excerpt to be an episode of functional neurological deficits in the context of a hysterical conversion disorder [ 17 ].
Epilepsy was well known by Spanish physicians of the Golden Age. It is recognized because the paroxysmal episode lasts for little, The father of the epileptic patient described above part II, ch. Some have hypothesized that the cause of the palsy in this family may have been a smallpox epidemic [ 19 ], but other hereditary diseases, such as spastic paraparesis, could be considered. However, specific allusions to apoplexy are not found in Don Quixote.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, perlesy was considered a consequence of the obstruction of the nervous flow, due to a thick humour or a tumour. Head trauma is frequently encountered in Don Quixote , mostly as a consequence of struggles and fights:. Shortly after this, another A curious description of pica the compulsive desire to eat materials such as soil, clay, plaster, etc. This compulsive behaviour can be present in pregnant women as well as in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, or Kleine-Levin syndrome. First, there is evidence that, while he was living in Seville, Cervantes frequently visited the Hospital de Inocentes, a mental asylum that served as a holding place for the mentally disabled, criminally insane, epileptics, and the poor [ 20 ].
Secondly, he was born in a family of physicians: his father, Rodrigo de Cervantes — , was a surgeon-bleeder, and his sister, Andrea de Cervantes — , was a nurse [ 21 ], suggesting that he grew up in a medical atmosphere. The Spanish Empire was global, and the influence of Spanish culture was so ubiquitous that Spanish is still the native tongue of approximately million people.
Also, the Spanish hegemony was patent in technical, social and biological sciences, and Spanish physicians led Western medicine too [ 24 , 25 ]. In this context, there is evidence that Cervantes owned a private library with more than volumes, including medical books written by acclaimed Spanish physicians [ 26 ].
This immortal and unique work, printed in , reprinted at least 80 times, and translated into seven languages [ 27 ], is considered a founding work of neuropsychology, as Huarte strove to establish the relationships between brain, temper, and ingenuity from a mechanistic point of view [ 28 ]. Interestingly, some of the paragraphs of the Examen de ingenios can be found, virtually word for word, in Don Quixote [ 29 ]; even the title The ingenious gentleman Don Quixote de la Mancha is obviously based on it.
Despite its initial proscription by the Inquisition, the Examen became popular in Spain and Europe. This work is profusely illustrated with 42 copperplate engravings, probably done by Gaspar Becerra — In this work, Valverde corrected and improved the depictions of the muscles of the eyes, middle ear, nose, and larynx previously made by Andreas Vesalius in De humani corporis fabrica. There is also an engraving with axial sections of the brain, describing the meninges and cerebral ventricles right.
Unfortunately, due to complex reasons, cutting-edge Spanish science during the first half of the 16th century collapsed in the last years of the century.