The final section involves the need for compassionate and benevolent ministry of the new Messianic community toward others. The apocalyptic references in the discourse are hard to miss. If this phrase is original, and there is no reason to doubt its authenticity, then the key to the discourse is Daniel in which the Apocalyptic Son of Man comes with the clouds to the Ancient of Days to receive all dominion and power and authority. After the intense time of distress, the sign of the coming of the Son of Man will appear.
He 65 This assumes that Matthew is derived from Mark for the passage also appears in Mark In any case, there appears to be no problem with the MSS witness of this verse in either text. Stuttgart: United Bible Societies, , Likewise, the language of a desolating sacrilege in Mt ff. Jesus has already told the Pharisees that their house would be left desolate Gk. In , Jesus predicts the destruction of the Temple by Rome, who did indeed leave their house of worship in a state of utter disrepair. However, in 70 AD, after the Romans leveled the Temple, they erected blasphemous idols and symbols of Rome all over the Temple mount.
He uses the prophetic language of cosmic upheaval quoting from Isaiah and Jesus speaks plainly and prophetically to them about both the immediate future AD 70 and the far future his ultimate return. This brief survey has shown that every major teaching discourse in Matthew presents Jesus as a superior and supreme teacher in every way. His instruction and training of the twelve is prophetic not merely midrashic. The Greek New Testament, 4th rev. Stuttgart: United Bible Societies, Bauscher, Glen David. Lulu Publishing, Bock, Darrell. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, Borg, Marcus, and N.
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New York: HarperCollins, Bruner, Frederick Dale. Matthew: A Commentary. Grand Rapids: Wm. Eerdmans Publishing, Byrskog, Samuel. New York: Sheffield Academic Press, Carson, D. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, Chilton, Bruce. Rabbi Jesus. New York: Random House, Davies, W.
Evans, Craig. Colorado Springs: David C. Cook Publishers, France, R. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, Josephus, Flavius. Jewish Antiquities. Great Britain: Wordsworth Editions, Keener, Craig. A Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press, Kingsbury, Jack D. Matthew: Structure, Christology, Kingdom. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, Morris, Leon. Eerdmands Publishing, Neusner, Jacob. A Rabbi Talks with Jesus, rev. Nolland, John. Safrai, Shemuel.
Sigal, Phillip. Atlanta: SBL, Wilkins, Michael J. Moreland eds. Witherington, Ben III. Wright, N. Young, Brad. Meet the Rabbis. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, Related Papers. By Derrick Okoampah. By Anders Runesson. Christology of Q and Wisdom. By Juheon Kim. Ricardo M. Puno - …nor on a Sabbath — Mt. By Kyle C Dunham. Download pdf. Luke, writing to a primarily Gentile audience, extends his genealogy past Abraham to the first Adam, thus highlighting that Christ, the Second Adam, is the Savior of all humanity.
Thus, the common objection from literalists on the left that the genealogies are deficient in number is rendered as obtuse and meaningless as is the objection based on dissimilarities between them.
Sans typology there is little hope of getting through to Izzy. Disobedience lay at the root of both catastrophes. But Matthew intends much more than just historical correspondence. He intensifies the type in the antitype. Through citing Jeremiah 31 he underscores the glorious reality that God brings blessings out of disaster and life out of death. Jeremiah used the exile of the Northern Kingdom as a warning to the Southern Kingdom that disaster loomed on the horizon.
He envisioned Rachel, beloved wife of Jacob and matriarch of Israel, in great mourning for her children—her voice rising from the heights of Ramah at the crossroads of a divided kingdom and reverberating in the ears of those who bore the bitter dregs of disobedience. For the first-century progeny of Rachel, the sound of her voice was a poignant reminder that though weeping lasts for a night, joy comes in the morning. As a result of the Incarnation, Jesus, not Jerusalem, would be the one around whom all true Israel would now be gathered.
The earthly Jerusalem was thus a type that was heightened by the greater reality of the heavenly city where the Babe of Bethlehem is enthroned. It is toward the antitypical heavenly Jerusalem with Jesus on its throne that Israel was now to direct its eschatological gaze. Conversely, all who recognized Messiah in their midst were free to inherit the earth Matt. Matt was zealous for the things of God. He believed God had spoken and focused his energies on learning to read the Bible for all its worth.
As he immersed himself in the art and science of biblical interpretation, he became increasingly aware of the profundity of Scripture. It was amazing to think that Micah prophesying seven centuries before Christ was empowered by God to correctly predict that Messiah would be born in Bethlehem.
As amazing as the predictive prophecies were, the elegance of the tapestry of typological prophecy proved quite literally mind-altering. It provided a structure that knit the Old Testament to the New and facilitated the understanding of each through reference to the other. In remaining faithful to his Father, Immanuel did what Israel failed to do! If ever there was an intoxicating illustration of how a typological prophecy was fulfilled in Christ, this was it.
Overflowing with exuberance, Matt shared the prophecy and its typological fulfillment with Izzy, his Jewish coworker. Izzy was dumbfounded. He had always seen this prophecy as one of the greatest weaknesses of the Christian worldview. It simply designated a young woman of marriageable age. If Isaiah had had virginity in mind, he would have used the Hebrew word betulah. Izzy slowly glimpsed the possibility of a fulfillment that was multifaceted and majestic. Not shallow and shortsighted. Thus, he was eager to learn more. Week by week they met at the local Starbucks.
Over coffee and bagels they studied the Scriptures together. Months passed as they flipped through the Scriptures together—Izzy more familiar with the Old, Matt the New. Together they learned. As an Orthodox Jew, Izzy had been dedicated to the eternal and unalterable Mosaic law as reinterpreted by rabbis subsequent to the fall of Jerusalem. He was convinced that only through devotion to the complex code of Jewish law Halakhah could one experience nearness to God. In concert with other Orthodox Jews, he looked forward to a rebuilt temple and a Jewish Messiah who would restore the kingdom to Israel.
Now, however, he was beginning to waver.
Introduction to the Gospel of Matthew
Torah study, like temple sacrifice, found satisfying fulfillment in Jesus. Jesus forever did away with the need for sacrifice, fulfilling Torah and rendering the temple null and void. It finally hit Izzy with the force of an earthquake: what Jesus was saying is that in His own person He replaced temple sacrifice.
He is not merely mediator of a new covenant; He is the incarnation of it. Indeed He is the antitype of the whole of the old covenant. Thus to revert back to a sacrificial system was to trample the Son of God under foot, to treat as an unholy thing the blood of the covenant and to insult the Spirit of grace Heb. All of the types and shadows of the old covenant, including the holy land of Israel, the holy city Jerusalem, and the holy temple of God, have been fulfilled in the Holy Christ.
As such, it is Paradise—a new heaven and a new earth—not Palestine for which our hearts yearn. And it is the Master Teacher, not a majestic Temple, that forever satisfies our deepest longings. A few months later, Izzy found himself on bended knee. Today, he follows Messiah as a reproducing disciple maker. More than once he has used the dazzling star of typological prophecy to demonstrate to family and friends that God has spoken—that the Bible is divine as opposed to being merely human in origin.
If the Nephilim are not the product of angels and humans, how do you reconcile this with Hebrews , which mentions entertaining angels? Madvid, trans. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, , x. All Scripture quotations are from the New International Version, I am especially indebted to two excellent articles concerning typological prophecy in general and the nature of the relationship between Isaiah and Matthew —23 in particular: James M. Hamilton, Jr.
Walter A. Elwell Grand Rapids: Baker, , — Lampe and K. Allenson, , Donald H. Madvid Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, , As such, the legal line diverges from the natural in that Levirate Law stipulated if a man died without an heir his genealogy could legally continue through his brother Deut. Obviously, the fact that there are a number of ways to resolve dissimilarities rules out the notion that the genealogies are contradictory. Therefore, all should listen to His message, repent and be baptized for the forgiveness of their sins.
One notices how much space he gives to the passion narrative. This is why the gospel was so popular in the Early Church. The earliest gospel was not, therefore, the Sermon on the Mount. The gospel is not a biography. It is impossible to write a life of Christ. The primary concern was not historical completeness but revelation and theology.
In this concern, Matthew seems to exclude almost all material that is not theologically essential to the Messiahship of Jesus. The purpose was completeness of the divine revelation and the culmination of all earlier OT writings. It is not amazing, therefore, that the early Christians considered the OT a true source of the life and works of Jesus and thus placed the OT canon beside the Gr. The fulfillment formula of Matthew follows two principles: 1 every event recorded of Jesus was foretold in the OT; 2 every prediction of the Messiah must find a corresponding event in the life of Jesus.
Matthew carries these principles to great lengths in his gospel. He demonstrates that the Messiah descended from Abraham, born as King of the Jews , entered the Holy City in triumph as a King , born of a virgin as foretold by the prophet Isaiah , was conceived by the Holy Spirit , was called the Son of God As the Messiah on earth, He fulfilled all the prophecies of the Old Covenant; His ministry, use of parables, betrayal, miracles, healing, suffering, death, coming in glory with angels , and sitting on His throne of Glory , all were foretold in the OT.
Many believe it was not written for private reading and study so much as for the guidance of teachers in their teaching new converts. It is a teaching gospel, quite easy to remember and memorize. Perhaps it was the first textbook in Christian education to be used by the Church. It was designed also to be read aloud in the Christian worship services.
Besides the Messianic fulfillment emphasis, the instruction from the gospel would present the ethical teachings of Jesus and the teaching of love and forgiveness, but these are included in the works and teachings of Jesus the Messiah. Characteristics and special features. The over-all purpose is to inform, convince, and evangelize the hearers, both Jew and Gentile, regarding the Messiah.
The Messianic theme makes for the unity of the gospel. Some have said the gospel is a defense against all Jewish unbelief. It appeals to deep-rooted Jewish Messianic beliefs in order to convince all that Jesus of Nazareth is the promised Messiah. Matthew argues from the OT much as most preachers of the Early Church did.
The prophecies of the Messiah fulfilled—the Coming The teachings of the Messiah—great discourses The Deity of the Messiah revealed—the miracle The kingdom of the Messiah revealed—the parables The redemption of the Messiah proclaimed—the cross The opposition of the enemy—debates with opponents The passion of the Messiah—suffering, death and resurrection Conclusion: The Great Commission If Matthew wrote at a time when Jewish and Gentile Christianity were separate and in opposition, his gospel shows that there is both unity and ecumenicity in the Lord Jesus Christ. For Matthew, Christianity was not a divisive sect which was inventing a Christ or misusing the OT, but he shows that the divine purpose of salvation for all men was fulfilled in Jesus Christ the Messiah.
The gospel is both universal and particular. The first gospel is, therefore, a gospel which teaches universal grace. It is an ecumenical gospel Matt , The first gospel also teaches much about the power of the Gospel. All of the basic theology taught in the first gospel certainly had its personal reference to Matthew himself.
He certainly must have thought of himself when he wrote down the parable of the laborers in the vineyard Matt By his countrymen he was considered a renegade Jew who had turned his back upon Israel to make profit from the shady tax-collecting system of the Romans and the provincial government. No doubt he was a self-seeking materialist.
The experience of being totally hated by his people, and then fully and completely accepted by grace left an indelible mark on Matthew the tax collector. On the one hand, he knew how sin could separate a man from God and his fellowman, and on the other, he realized how gracious was the call to repentance and service. Although he was a most unlikely candidate to be the author of a gospel, he was uniquely prepared to appeal to both Jew and Gentile for faith and commitment to the Messiah of the OT Scriptures.
The gospel of Matthew emphasizes the call to repentance and ministry. It is always a demanding absolute call. It involves the total man with his God. God initiates all dealings with His people on the basis of grace in Christ. Only God is good. The Christian gives himself wholly to the Savior and in faith and service. The sin of the Pharisee was as much halfheartedness as self-righteousness.
Matthew, who from a human point of view should be the last to castigate righteous people in the eyes of men, pours the most scathing rebuke on the Scribes and Pharisees in the NT for their hypocrisy. He who once forsook the OT and its teachings, now becomes its most ardent supporter and interpreter. Men who have received the grace of God and entered into discipleship have learned from Matthew the true meaning of the Gospel and of the kingdom.
Such discipleship is taught in the parable of the merciless servant Matt A man is set free to forgive and to free others. Matthew teaches that the Lord calls not only the sinner to repentence but also those who have become His disciples must daily repent Every limitation of love is set aside when the Lord asks His disciples to love their enemies Impetuous stubborn Peter, the impatient man of Galilee, is asked to forgive his brother not just seven times but seventy times seven , Finally our Lord asks the disciples to make His cross their way of life in ministry and sacrifice The Messiah brings into being a new universal Church , the new Israel.
Both Jews and Gentiles find refuge in it.
Matthew is the only evangelist who uses the word church at all ; He speaks of the permanence of the Church and of discipline and forgiveness within it. The gospel opens with the promise that the Messiah is the Emmanuel who will be with His people and closes with the promise that this same Jesus, now the risen Christ, will be with His disciples of all nations until the end of time. Yet this Christian Church universal in its membership, is no new church. It is the old Israel transformed and expanded The first gospel is known also for the extent and manner in which it presents the ethical teachings of Jesus.
Jesus is the great teacher who proclaims a revised law for the new Israel from the mountain in the Sermon on the Mount, even as Moses has spoken divine law on Mount Sinai. The Messiah calls His Church not only to repentance, but also to good works. The righteousness of the disciples must exceed that of the Pharisees. Christian life is free but it is moral and responsible, motivated by love. Even if the existing institution had corrupted and perverted the law, nevertheless it was divine revelation.
The Messiah comes not to destroy it but to fulfill it and to supply what it lacked. Thus a large part of the Sermon on the Mount is replete with explanations of the law in which Jesus lays down the moral standards of love by which conduct of Christians is to be judged. From a practical or methodological viewpoint, the gospel according to Matthew is a teaching gospel. It is characterized by lengthy discourses.
It expands the action gospel of Mark which is more interested in what Jesus did than in what He said. The following is a list of prominent lengthy discourses in the gospel:. The gospel of Matthew features a large number of parables. The greatest single group of parables is in ch. The illustrations are taken from everyday life and portray the nature and demands of the kingdom. Many of them are prophetic.
Matthew says that the parables were intended both to reveal and conceal truth The Messiah is pictured repeatedly as the great King. One must conclude that the author of the gospel deliberately presents Jesus as the King. Its interests are centered in the Church more than those of any of the other gospels. The Church is portrayed as an actual living body of worshipers and servants of Christ.
The Sermon on the Mount and the parables in the gospel portray the ideals and life of the Christian congregation. This Church is interested in winning all of its erring members Matt 18 and our Lord says the gates of hell shall not prevail against it Matt The gospel speaks of prayer, giving, Christian rules for marriage and divorce, the sacraments, the teaching and preaching ministry. In fact, Matthew has much to say about the entire life and practices of the Christian Church. It contains the spiritual and moral principles of the new Israel.
The ethic Jesus expounded was based upon the inner spirit, selfless love, and responsible evangelical living. It is also an interpretation of the old Mosaic law but not an abrogation of it The outlook and flavor is Jewish, written by a Jewish Christian to guide the thought and worship of Jewish Christians in Palestine and Syria. The other gospel writers tend to explain Jewish words and phrases Mark , but Matthew assumes his readers understand Jewish terms and customs. For example, it illustrates the Gospel by selecting those instances in which Jesus went to extreme limits to illustrate by word and deed the gracious word of God.
In the Sermon on the Mount the poor will inherit the earth and the blessings of the kingdom are promised to the beggar, to the poor in spirit Matt What superb teaching to point out that the boundless grace of God is as wide and deep as the need of man! The miracles of Jesus are selected in the same manner. Three illustrate the boundless compassion of Jesus.
He heals the leper whom no one can help ; He assists the Gentile who is outside the commonwealth of Israel ; He restores to health the woman which the culture of the day placed in second place as a creature of God Matthew shows that our Lord taught by the extreme method in the ethical area.
There are no limits of love because Jesus asks His disciples to love even their enemies, which implies that no man can consider another man his enemy He sits on the very throne of God and will come to judge the entire world , but on the cross He is forsaken by His Father This contrast is the heart of the Gospel. The Messiah is divine and yet human. He is a man of history and yet the Son of God of all eternity. He comes from one nation of people on the earth, yet He died for all peoples and is to be preached to all nations for the salvation of all , These are not found in any of the other gospels.
The same is true of certain parables. It is inscribed on the dome of St. No other gospel has these words, not even in a different format.
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Matthew gives much space to the teaching by our Lord of the disciples and apostles. One of His first acts after His baptism and temptation is the calling of His disciples into ministry. Immediately the teaching is clear that salvation does not originate in the institutional structure of Judaism, but in the deep communion and faith between the Lord and His disciples, the Church. It is interesting that Matthew records much about their call, their training, their failures, their forgiveness and reconciliation.
The most remarkable revelations of the Messiah—the Transfiguration, the miracles, the Resurrection, the passion—are shown to the disciples alone. Matthew is interested in the Second Coming of Jesus. He generally expands the words of Mark or Luke on the subject ; , 31 ; He even uses apocalyptic language of the day such as parousia Matt Matthew includes a group of parables which teach and interpret the Second Coming of Jesus.
Other gospels do not have the following particular parables: parable of the ten virgins ; parable of the sheep and goats in the great judgment ; parable of the talents There is an amazing tendency on the part of the writer of Matthew to include lengthy statements on the Second Coming and to interpret it in terms of deliverance from the troubles of life, eternal relief from a horrible present. Over fifty clear quotations, some including several passages, have been lifted bodily from the OT, particularly from the prophets.
In addition to the verbatim quotations, there are many allusions, echoes, single words and phrases to be found. Much of the language and thought of the gospel is shaped by the form and figure of the Heb. Most of the quotations come through the LXX, the ancient Gr. Many believe this collection of OT passages represents the Logia of Matthew which is mentioned by Papias, but this is not at all certain. The Logia could have been a prior and shorter gospel which Matthew wrote in Heb. Furthermore, it is difficult to ascertain whether or not the Logia was a collection of OT proof texts or a compendium of the sayings of Jesus.
It is possible that the Logia was an early Heb. The list represents the more familiar whole verse quotes, which, when placed in a single group, form an imposing array of Messianic witness. Parts of the vv. Relation to Mark and Luke. In view of the nature of NT studies during the last cent. Modern scholars are so certain that Mark wrote his gospel first that the matter is no longer subject to question. As we have seen see 3. Why should Matthew borrow from Mark what he himself had evidently seen as an eyewitness? The question of the relationship of Matthew to Mark and Luke confronts one immediately with the celebrated question of modern NT scholarship, the synoptic problem—a problem which scholars must live with because no one has come forth with an absolute answer.
How does one explain both the similarities and the dissimilarities of the three gospels? If one finally thinks he has the answer to the similarities, the question of the dissimilarities stares him in the face and vice versa. Matthew and Luke hardly ever agree against Mark in parallels. There are also a number of passages common to Matthew and to Luke which Mark does not have at all—generally sayings or parables of Jesus. What was the source of this material? Assuming for a moment that all three synoptics were written independently, how does one explain, for example, the minute verbal resemblances between Matthew and Mark?
Matthew 27 The New Messianic Version of the Bible
Is it possible that a gospel like Matthew arose and circulated by itself free of other sources and that Mark copied much of Matthew? What single theory will account for all relationships between the first three gospels? At this point students of the gospels began to develop theories to explain the synoptic problem. All three gospels give a common outline of the story of Jesus.
There is a remarkable parallelism between them; the same incidents about Jesus are told in much the same language. One must infer that all three gospels must have drawn materials from a source or sources which the others also possessed. To discover these sources is the task set by the synoptic problem. An old solution, but one that is not to be discarded since all theories rely upon it in one way or another is the oral gospel theory.
Because of the agreements among the gospels, a common source of oral tradition about Jesus, it is said, must lie behind them. They all seem to be cut from a single piece of cloth. The oral tradition, embodying the early preaching and teaching of the new Church, was available to all gospel writers.
On the other hand, each of the writers used the oral source in his own way and according to his own purpose; this would explain the dissimilarities. According to this theory of the origin of the gospels, one studies Matthew as Matthew and is not concerned with the other gospels. Each one must be studied in his own right. This view seems very acceptable, but in fact the Church throughout its history has never ceased to harmonize the gospels and study them together just because they are so much alike , and also because they are different because all three synoptics deal with the same Lord and all His people wish to know the whole story.
Besides, students of the gospels also soon discovered that the oral tradition view could not explain the minute parallels in language of the synoptics. The relation of Matthew with Mark and Luke or any combination of the three is best explained if one attributes the similarities and dissimilarities to common use of one or more written sources.
As the Jewish Christians spread out from Jerus alem and the Gentile Christians were brought into the Church through the missionary efforts of the apostles, and many questions about Jesus would arise, there would naturally be a demand for the gospel in written form. Perhaps Matthew himself, as we learn from Papias, published one of these early gospels or the Logia of Jesus. Scholars then began to investigate the possible written sources behind the gospels. Should Mark be an abridgment of Matthew it would also have to be an abridgment of Luke since the two are closely related.