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She has published articles in national and international journals in the areas of language teaching and translation studies. Her major fields of research interest are medical terminology, translation pedagogy and educational technology. His main research interests cover electronic learning eLearning , Innovation and Social Media related themes. The European Commission awarded him with two research scholarships advising both the University of Nizwa Oman and Mahidol University Thailand on eLearning-related issues.

Nikki Hayes is an adult educator and educational developer. Her work at UNSW Global, Australia, focuses on professional development of educators, curriculum development, elearning and academic support for students. She is also involved in the development of systems and processes to support these areas, with the goal of helping students to achieve academic success through rich learning experiences. Her areas of research interest include instructional application of self-regulated learning, metacognition, motivation, and creative thinking.

She is an associate editor of the American Educational Research Journal and a member of the editorial board on several journals in education and creativity. She is doing her research on the imagined identities of adult social media users through their language use and representation of self. Dr Premnadh M. Her professional interests include teacher education, STEM education, and public understanding of science.

She is a California Licensed Professional Engineer. Developing structural analysis software during her structural engineer years led her to advance in computer knowledge; combining this with her passion for education, today she is teaching computers full time. Her research interests include selfexplanation and worked examples used in instructional design.

Dr Elyssebeth Leigh is an adult educator, simulation and games designer and author. As an educator she focuses on engaging students with their own learning through use of simulation of realworld environments. Her professional interest is in applied statistics. In , she completed her doctorate at the University of Edinburgh in the field of tertiary educational policy development specifically the impact of the Bologna Process on university governance in Ireland.

She is the module coordinator for a number of undergraduate and postgraduate research modules in Ireland, Hong Kong, Singapore and Sri Lanka. Her areas of research interest include the globalisation of higher education and education policy, teaching-learning environments for part-time students, technology usage in higher education and development of academic competencies. Dr James C. He is a professor of Social Work and the undergraduate Program Director at Hope College, and he teaches multiple practice courses. He is very interested in transitioning from knowledge-based teaching to competence development.

He has published in the area of foster care, retirement issues and international and Native American study programs. He received his PhD from the University of Melbourne. He is a professor of social work at Eastern Michigan University teaching practice classes with a special focus on child and family intervention. A practitioner for more than 35 years, he specializes in facilitating practice competence development in social work students through flipped class formats that promote performance, observation and feedback.

Her fields of research include: curriculum and pedagogy, specialist studies in education and education not elsewhere classified. She has vast research interests, such as: girls in ICT, ICT integration, online mentoring, e-learning, blended learning and teaching, teaching and learning in higher education, teacher education, pre-service teacher training and development, Makerspaces, pedagogy for secondary education, and community of inquiry.

Elizabeth Rosser is an educator, curriculum designer and blended learning leader. Her work as Manager of Academic Development at UNSW Global Education focuses on international education strategy, continuing professional learning and, innovation in both curriculum and learning support.

Centre for English Corpus Linguistics

Her professional passion is how educators can leverage developments in cognitive science and technology to improve educational outcomes and experiences for learners. He teaches English at Israelita School and works as a simultaneous interpreter of both English and Spanish languages. His main interests are language teaching with emphasis on educational technology and translation studies.

She is the Convenor of International Issues and Perspectives. Her academic interests lie in the areas of interdisciplinary education, role-play and problem-based learning. As an educator, she aims to create an engaging, dynamic learning environment where students can feel empowered to construct their own learning and become independent thinkers. He has studied eight languages, including Sanskrit, and has obtained eight university diplomas.

He has around 50 publications, including journal papers, conferences papers, and books. His research interests include French literature, children's literature, translation studies, French and English writing, automated scoring systems, teaching and learning evaluation, data envelopment analysis, networking, and teaching methods. He is a reviewer for top academic journals and has obtained more than 20 teaching and research grants. Email: ije iafor. She has taught multilingual students since Her current research interests are teacher perceptions of multilingual student writing, bilingual education, and writing instruction in Japan and the USA.

In , she was invited to Kansai University in Osaka, Japan as a visiting researcher, and then returned for a sabbatical research project in Her book on student writing was published in She has published articles in national and international journals and reviews books and articles for top journals related to her interest area, such as Teacher's College Record, Language Arts, and English Education. Email: lucyspence sc. She has been a teacher and teacher educator for 40 years and is passionate about education. Prior to taking up her position at UNE, she had 30 years' experience in secondary schools including in the roles of Curriculum Coordinator, Deputy Principal and Principal, roles that developed her skills in leadership, project management, curriculum and assessment.

Her teaching experience spans three Australian states. Her research interests centre on teacher education and policy, professional experience, teacher identity,. Yvonne was awarded her PhD, focused on school principalship, from Deakin University. She is an active researcher and has gained, in collaboration with other researchers, 4 Internal School of Education Research grants.

She is currently expanding her research into the impact of undergraduate research and she presents on both teacher education policy and online teaching at a range of conferences, both Australian and international. Email: yfmasters gmail. He has also published several journal articles in various international peer-reviewed journals in the areas of Purchase Intention, Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, Corporate Culture, English Teaching and Internet Addiction.

Email: writetodrm gmail. She has a Harvard Visiting Scholar's position from August — September to work on a project concerning public intellectuals in academe. Cassandra has published 8 books and was invited to be on the judging panel of the Victorian Premier's Literary Awards, Prize for Poetry in Email: cassandra. He is active in research with papers presented at international conferences, and published at academic journals.

His research interests are in the fields of social media, web 2. He is currently a doctoral researcher at the University of Eastern Finland and faculty member at Bahrain Polytechnic. Email: paliktzoglou gmail. He has also published several research papers and articles in various journals and edited volumes of national and international repute across the country. Email: santoshbehera. Her current research interests are the global dissemination of Japanese manga Shakespeare and the representation of gender and sexuality in manga adaptations of Shakespeare.

Email: yc yahoo. Academy of Singapore Teachers, Ministry of Education. She is also a trained quality assurance assessor and had undertaken assessment of private institutions delivering higher education degree programmes. Her research interests include teaching and learning within the higher education sector, e-learning and the use of analytics for improving teaching, curriculum and instruction, work-based learning and quality assurance. Email: ivychiasm suss. She is originally from Taichung, Taiwan. Currently, she is an assistant professor in Taiwan.

She previously taught English in Taiwan for approximately eight years. Email: shiaowei gmail. She specialises in Adult Learning and has collaborated or coordinated many research efforts on this issue, relating to the Italian system of Adult Learning, as well as in comparison with other European Countries. Email: luisa. He was full-time Faculty in St.

Email: raymondqdatuon yahoo. She is an Adjunct Professor at the Department of Foreign Languages, which she has been coordinating for five years. She has published articles in various national and international peer-reviewed journals in the areas of Education, Language Teaching, Terminology and Translation. She has been a member of the Editorial team of HOW — a Colombian Journal for Teachers of English — for ten years and an invited ad hoc reviewer for national and international journals of language teaching and related areas. Email: heloisa. He worked as a teacher and senior manager in four high schools and led an Expressive Arts faculty before becoming a deputy head teacher in two schools.

His research interests include culturalhistorical activity theory and developmental work research in general. Current research focuses on universities and schools in the preparation of teachers. He has been the recipient of funded research projects on the differentiated teaching practices in UK and USA classrooms, the relationship between teaching, learning and research and the education and learning of preservice teachers. Email: alaster. He serves on the editorial board of the Journal of School Leadership and is currently the editor of Values and Ethics in Educational Administration.

His tripartite scholarly research agenda includes 1 ethics in educational administration, 2 linkages between school system reform and broader community revitalization efforts, and 3 cultural studies in education addressing the intersection of identity and schooling. Email: frick ou. In her role, she reports to the Pro Vice-Chancellor, and provides academic, financial, strategic, and administrative leadership to Curtin Sarawak, with a particular focus on academic operational efficiency.

Her research and academic interests include vocabulary acquisition in ESL, educational administration and leadership; higher education practices, transnational education, work-integrated learning, and ethnolinguistic studies in indigenous communities. She was an associate editor of the IAFOR Journal of Education, and a reviewer for a number of international journals in higher education.

Her publications include a book on Vocabulary Acquisition Patterns in Adult Tertiary ESL Learners , an international handbook on Transnational Education: Leadership in transnational education and internationalization of the curriculum, several book chapters, and publications in journals and refereed conferences.

Email: beena curtin. Email: ashanbidge uwaterloo. She initially trained as a teacher of classics at the University of Athens in Greece. Her doctoral thesis focused on the social outcomes of mainstream inclusive education for young people with a dual sensory impairment. She has worked as a research associate, research fellow, research advisor and visiting lecturer at the University of London and other United Kingdom-based academic Institutions. Email: leda. Kamenopoulou roehampton. He has published 13 books, over 40 articles and presented throughout the world on issues in Special Education, Ethical Leadership and Advocacy, Social Justice and Mental Health issues in students.

He travels extensively and he has visited 89 countries worldwide. His quest is to bring awareness and strategies of mental health issues to the school system as well as in society. It is only in building awareness that we can empower adults and educators to give children a different experience than what they would normally get. Change can happen and will happen if we become advocates to empower all students worldwide. Email: mrlebrun plymouth. Since , Eddy has served as an Examiner in various public examinations administered by the Hong Kong Examination and Assessment Authority.

In , he was. His research interests include inclusive pedagogy in Confucian-heritage Culture, eLearning strategies, professional craft knowledge, and second language teacher education. Email: eddyli cantab. She is the author of several articles that seek to appreciate the unfolding association between increasingly accessible formal adult learning and social development in remote and sparsely populated areas.

As a resident of relatively isolated community with a low population density, she remains committed to exploring the ways in which adult tertiary education may be facilitated to assistant the inhabitants of these fragile areas. She is an invited ad hoc reviewer for Australian education conferences as well as recently contributing as an associate editor at Common Ground Publishing. Her research interests include the impact of adult education on the life chances of individuals and other practices that interrupt social and political stratification.

Email: jillian.

Complete IELTS Task 2 essay requiring predictions

His research interest lies in e-learning, local knowledge computing, and information systems where he has been the recipient of some local, national and international research grants. Email: demarcial su. His pedagogic research and PhD supervision include adaptive assessment practices, technologies and collaborative behaviours for learning computer science subjects.

For the past twenty years he has also provided services to education, governments and industry concerning the development and use of Geographical Information Systems GIS and Remote Sensing for environmental management. In he was awarded The Institution of Analysts and Programmers Prize for Software Engineering after developing a system to automate vegetation mapping from aerial imagery.

His geospatial project outputs provide a rich source of case studies for undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. Email: richard. Her research focuses on scandalous literature, and the representation of freaks in literary and popular texts, as well as. She currently teaches literary studies, and professional and creative writing at Deakin University. Email: alyson. Her working experience spanning over two decades includes about 18 years with the industry and 4 years in active academics. Her chapter contributions have been published by well acclaimed international publishers such IGI Global and Palgrave Macmillan.

A reviewer for international journals and books, she has papers published in referred Indian journals and top international journal, Inderscience Publishers, to her credit. Her major fields of interest include Ethics, Education management, Retail marketing and Consumer Behaviour. Email: sujarnair gmail. He is a former Director for Publications, Research, Linkages and Liaison and professor in the graduate school, college of business and accountancy, college of engineering and college of tourism and hospitality management and college of education in the University of Batangas, Philippines.

Email: catfish yahoo. Following five years of biochemistry research focusing on bile acid synthesis and recovery of hepatic clearance in the rat liver, she began her educational career. She headed the excellent program and the Science specialisation at Kibbutzim College of Education, Technology and Arts. She established communities of learners as part of service learning and led changes in the practice of pre-service students in line with the PDS model. As a member of the science faculty, she is teaching physics and chemistry courses and supervising M.

Ed students who conduct research in environmental education. Her research interests include alternative conceptions in science education; emergent knowledge in communities of learners; improving science education via professional development schools access; community service learning; collaborative learning; and ICT implementation in education. Email: klima. Satiadarma is a clinical psychologist who has been teaching psychology at Tarumanagara University since He was one of the founders of the Department of Psychology at Tarumanagara, as well as the Dean of Psychology, Vice Rector and Rector of the university.

He graduated with a degree in psychology from the University of Indonesia, art therapy from Emporia State, Kansas, family counselling from Notre Dame de Namur, California, and clinical hypnotherapy from Irvine, California. He has nationally published a number of books with a particular interest in educational psychology, and in music and art therapy — methods with which he treated survivors of the Indonesian tsunami on behalf of the International Red Cross and the United Nations.

He is a board member and area chair of the International Council of Psychology, and a founder and board member of the Asian Psychology Association. He teaches undergraduate and post graduate students in German language and in special seminars on Ethics in Business and Intercultural Competence and Communication plus German Art History. He publishes widely in academic journals and professional magazines. Email: sonoteger gmail. After graduation, for 12 years, she worked as a university researcher and taught psychology from time to time.

In the USA, teaching became her permanent activity. She is a pioneer of distance education in New York City. She has been designing, developing and instructing various online psychology. A few years ago Anna left the traditional classroom to devote her teaching and research to online education. Her primary scientific interest concerns learning in the virtual environment. Email: annatoom gmail. His role as an international student counseLlor prompted him to diversify his education, and he soon earned an MA in psychology from Antioch University, and started a private practice specialising in positive psychology.

Dr Velasco currently resides in Japan, where he is a mental health counsellor, associate professor, researcher, and public speaker. He regularly lectures on intercultural communication, teaching strategies, positive psychology, and counseLling strategies with a focus on adaptation and acculturation. Email: dvelasco thechicagoschool.

His research areas are Discourse Analysis gender talk , Sociolinguistics gender stereotypes and Applied Linguistics in general. Email: auyamayoshi yahoo. Dr Yeigh has also had extensive consultancies relating to the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme AGQTP , working with classroom teachers at both the primary and secondary levels of professional development. His research interests are in the areas of working memory WM and classroom instructional design, and in this respect his PhD thesis examined the relationship between cognitive load and cognitive inhibition, an executive function of the WM system.

He is also leader of the School of Education Learning Sciences Research Group, which focuses on the cognitive-psychological, socialpsychological and cultural-psychological foundations of human learning. Based on these research affiliations Dr Yeigh has published widely in high quality education research journals and texts, and is currently pursuing research in the areas of pre-service teacher training, educational mindfulness and social-emotional wellbeing.

Email: tony. She has been involved in the field of teacher education since He has been teaching multilingual students since He has lectured and written extensively on issues related to the internationalization of higher education, second language literacy, academic English development, information literacy, college readiness, and educational technology.

Dr Bendriss is an international education leader who received the prestigious US Department of State Fulbright Award of International Education, the distinguished Florida Association of International Education Annual Award, and multiple awards for excellence in teaching. Dr Angelina E. Mesa, Manila. She supervises the unit in charge of producing the University journals and other publication projects of the University. She is an associate professor in the Department of Journalism, College of Communication, and handles journalism and research subjects.

She also teaches in the PUP Open University as course facilitator in the Master in Communication and Master in Educational Management programs and handles research, organizational communication and development courses. She is actively involved in research and publications. Since , he has been teaching at the University of Adrar, in the south of the country, in the Department of Arts and English Language, Faculty of Arts and Languages. Former head. Professor Bouhania reviews academic papers for several local, national and international journals such as SageOpen.

She teaches for the College of Education and is an Executive Committee member of both of the unions to which she belongs. She completed her doctoral degree at the University of Saskatchewan in Interdisciplinary Studies, during which time she was a principal at a K-6 school in the Arctic and Limited Term Appointment at the University of Prince Edward Island. She taught grades 7 to 12 on a remote rural Cree reservation in northern Canada and has a background in Instructional Design and Educational Media. She is a facilitator of Instructional Skills workshops.

She was the Book Review Editor for the Journal of Canadian Association of Curriculum Studies for four years and she brings three years of experience reviewing manuscripts for the Canadian Journal of Education. She has worked with non-profits and government agencies and has published her research in a variety of contexts. Her research interests include Indigenous writing, interdisciplinary learning models, multimodal emergent and early literacies, social justice approaches in teaching and writing, and qualitative methods.

He has undertaken research on support for students with autism at university, barriers to learning for students with autism in further education, autism awareness in the police service, viva protocols for doctoral students with autism, and diagnostic pathways for autistic adults. His most recent published research — undertaken in conjunction with various university colleagues — involved the development of a framework for "inclusive" research in autism.

In addition to leading a team of independent researchers in the field of autism, he has also been engaged with a university project mentoring autistic adults. He is currently undertaking an investigation of autism research over the past 20 years and writing entries for an encyclopedia of autism. He is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. Prior to this, he had a lengthy career in corporate risk management. She has been involved in a range of education-related research and has tended to adopt a critical realist approach in her own research.

She has also reviewed a chapter published by the academic publisher Routledge. Dr Intakhab A. His research and publications include education, language education, teaching of English, peace education, culture-based teaching of English, educational policy and curriculum development. For the past 24 years he has been actively engaged in teaching, training, professional development, conference presentations, research, publication and community services. He is also a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria.

He has taught undergraduate and graduate students in business education courses and conducted research focusing on vocational and technical education in Nigeria. His research interests are in business education, vocational education, e-learning, curriculum and instruction, and human development. He has written books and academic articles published nationwide. He had done a number of studies published in academic journals and also presented his papers at international conferences in India, the Philippines, Nigeria, Japan, South Korea, Romania and New Zealand.

Teaching responsibilities. Equipped with an MA in International Education, she served six years at Payap University in Chiang Mai, Thailand, where she established the International Campus Life unit, implementing programs for Payap's foreign student body to support international student development and integration. She then joined the University of Michigan, where she advised engineering students and faculty on co-curricular education abroad program design, and co-developed an Engineering Across Cultures study abroad in Thailand.

With over ten years of working in international education in Asia, she is knowledgeable about comparative education topics, especially pertaining to student mobility, internationalization, and institutional best practices for international programs. Dr Thelma D. She has been the cluster chair of the Mathematics Department from to She has been in the teaching profession for 27 years.

She has authored textbooks in College Algebra, Trigonometry, and Statistics. Her research interests focus on education in the Philippines including analysis of education policies, management of public and private institutions, curriculum and instructional development. Having served as a middle school educator and school administrator for 20 years she is leading several multi-university research projects including how districts engage leadership from a distributed lens, the collective efficacy of staff academic optimism on growth in student learning, and how iPrincipals best lead Technology Language Learners.

To date, she has peer-reviewed four school leadership. Her qualitative and mixedmethods research interests include: the collective efficacy of high-performing school staff in low socio-economic schools; the effects of legislated educational reform on student learning; coaching school leaders for equity; digital reflective portfolios; and assessment of curriculum and instruction.

Dr Raevskikh graduated in international public law from the Lomonosov Moscow State University Law Faculty, Russia, where she studied the legal aspects of the process of economic and monetary integration in the European Union. For this project, she is developing new conceptual and methodological approaches to identify the creative territories and the socio-cultural dynamics of artistic innovation. She has worked as a Consultant at the Center for Equity and Social Development at the same institute and carried out monitoring and evaluation of sponsored government projects on the right to education and education for all.

She has been involved in teaching, research and training at her institute and is currently working on compiling a compendium of best practices in rural development in India. She has national and international publications to her name and strives to bridge the gap between theory and practice through her writings and research. His research interests include pedagogy, attitudes and identity in language learning, education policy and discourse theory. She is the coordinator of all English and Intensive courses in the department in addition to Business Arabic and Spanish.

She has considerable experience teaching English as a foreign language EFL. Besides English courses, she has taught elective courses, namely Intercultural Communication and Public Speaking. She is interested in teacher training and development, ESP, intercultural communication, and preparation of professional communicators. Her current research interests include student behavior and learning strategies in online foreign language courses as well as the socio-cultural impact of increased awareness of Israelis of the American rock band The Grateful Dead.

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She has co-authored several tertiary level textbooks, focusing on both critical thinking skills and academic-level articles and questions, for students of English learning English in a non-English-speaking environment at Intermediate and Advanced levels. She has also been senior editor for department-wide EFL exams at Intermediate and Advanced levels for the past 10 years at the Western Galilee College, where she has been lecturing since He is originally from Taichung, Taiwan.

He received his doctoral degree with an emphasis on achievement motivation and juvenile delinquency from the Institute of Education at the National Cheng Kung University in winter His research focuses are achievement motivation and juvenile delinquency for young children and adolescents, respectively. He was awarded funding by the Ministry of Technology in Taiwan to conduct multidisciplinary research with junior high school students during She is a frequent presenter at national and international education conferences.

Her teaching and research interests are multicultural and social justice education, culturally responsive teaching, curriculum development and reform, ethnic studies, and teacher education. This issue is a selection of papers submitted directly to our journal as well as studies presented during: 1. The European Conference on Technology in the Classroom The Asian Conference on Education The Asian Conference on Technology in the Classroom The basic premise is that mobile devices smart phones and watches, tablets and laptop computers significantly affect not just the relationship between educators and students of Gen Y, the millennial generation, but also the way in which these learners relate to course material and how they expect it to be delivered.

Participant reactions were surveyed about the ease of use and perceived benefits of Quizlet, an electronic flashcard application, which they were encouraged to refer to when learning or reviewing academically relevant vocabulary. Final results indicate that Quizlet use appeared to be relatively widespread in the target population and it was seen as straightforward, easy to use. The paper applies inter-professional competence-development principles to blended learning courses. The combination of hybrid and competence-based pedagogies allows instructors to use time more effectively.

Data analysis from an implementation study indicates that students are developing competencies and appreciate the ability to increase the time available for observation and feedback. The current study explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on learning the computer programming language JavaScript. An online interactive tutorial instruction implementing worked-examples and multimedia learning principles was developed for this study.

The two groups alternated learning strategies to learn five lessons. Students largely expressed their preference toward self-explanation over reading questions and answers. They thought self-explanation as incurring much more work yet more effective. In a blended learning program, hand-drawn posters teach students to critically question knowledge acquired through the use of electronically mediated technology, and collaboratively construct shared meanings through visual literacy. This paper aims to argue that the role-play contextualization of the poster stimulates active learning by framing collaboration, divergent thinking and convergence of meanings.

The fifth paper, co-authored by Sultan A. Social networks play an increasingly important part in schools, colleges and educational institutes where learning takes place. Instructors and teachers are increasingly adapting this technology into their teaching curriculum. Students use the technology to collaborate in projects, homework, or to communicate with their instructors and peers as part of their study practices. Research on the impact of social network is an emerging field in education. This study is part of an ongoing scientific effort to understand the relationship between the use of social networks and student learning in the classroom and beyond.

Educational research reveals that student motivation is an important principle of learning. The study discusses the findings of the research and suggests recommended practice for better integration of social networks in the curriculum. Research in this area has previously been informed by the experience of students.

A survey was distributed to academic staff in April to assess the use of electronic learning in higher. Academics are at the centre of learning experience as they are the service provider and content generator very often Wickersham and McElhany, As a result, academics need not only have to be content experts, but be able to engage with technology developments. This research explores the academic experience at UCD College of Business of technology knowledge and reviews the opportunities and the challenges currently presented by technology use in the classroom.

This study surveyed preservice teachers from an Australian University.

The future teachers had their practicum experience in schools and exposure to subjects such as science, mathematics and technology based on their university program. What the study has revealed is that they have a strong belief that STEM is needed for the future lifestyle demands. However, they indicated that they have a limited understanding and ability to teach science, mathematics and technology as they have not experienced many innovative STEM teaching practices in schools.

The future teachers are very positive in their intentions to teach STEM and have suggested the need for integrated curriculum programs in schools and their future needs for professional learning in the STEM areas of the curriculum. Communication through online interaction facilitates the mutual understanding of societies culturally and historically and such online information exchange influences the identity formation of individuals Hall, The driven codes and themes were categorised considering self-censorship, place of technology and its role on representation of self.

It is hoped that this research by offering an increased understanding of the importance of online communities will have implications for education contexts, particularly in countries that are experiencing social media filtering. The article aims to address the topic of Education 3.

Regarding applicability, the paper brings some examples of technological tools and projects that were carried out, using different types of technologies, such as Osmo, smartphones, QR codes, apps. They believe that a limitation of this study would be the lack of quantitative data to complement the findings. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of the Flipped Learning Method in elementary classrooms, a rather under-researched area in the said field. The study was carried out in a special after-school program for high-achieving students with exceptional skills in Science and Mathematics.

The author has crafted a unique experimental research design that implements the traditional and flipped classroom methods simultaneously in the two groups of research participants. After comparing the pre- and post-tests results of the two groups through a non-parametric statistical test, it was found that there is a significant difference between the test scores. The results of the study show that the Flipped Classroom Method may be utilized in lower grades for the enhancement of instruction and improvement of student performance. Please note that we welcome original research papers in the field of education submitted by teachers, scholars, and education professionals, who may submit their manuscripts even though they did not participate in one of the conferences held by IAFOR.

We also welcome book reviews, reviews of the literature in the field, and contributions introducing key educational scholars. Like all IAFOR publications, it is freely available to read online, and is free of publication fees for authors. The first issue was published in May , and the journal continues to publish biannually in March and September.

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  • The next issue, Volume 5 Issue 2, which is scheduled for publication on September 1, , will also be a selection of papers submitted during the above mentioned conferences. Abstract Is a smart phone a toy or a tool? This paper posits that these two concepts are not mutually exclusive. This research study describes the attitudes and intentions of Thai English as a Foreign Language EFL university students towards a playful, competitive smart phone application, its ease of use and perceived benefits to learning.

    Results of a cross-sectional examination through a paper-based, 4-page questionnaire seem to indicate general acceptance, widespread use and an altogether positive attitude to the software. The paper concludes by highlighting student impressions of its relevance to their studies and offering recommendations for further integration of digital teach-nology into foreign language classrooms. Keywords: mobile technology; educational smart phone app; computer-assisted language learning; EFL.

    Introduction Students text, watch videos and update social media. A lecturer facilitates understanding of content through relevant activities. With no overlap, there is no conflict of interest and peace prevails in the classroom. If they break the rules and have be separated from these devices, even if only till the end of the day, the emotional pain they feel amounts to that of losing a limb — which is essentially what a mobile phone has become for many of them.

    This paper posits that there exists a common ground, a learningcentred intersection where a digital mobile device is an asset, not a liability. It examines student behavior and perceptions about an interactive multimedia software application in the specific context of an international university in Thailand. The concept of digital technology integration per se is not new at this institution: every classroom is equipped with a projector and a computer with Internet connectivity. This study aims to document an educational initiative where both parties, teachers and students alike, step out of their comfort zone.

    Instructors have to accept that they are not the sole educators in the classroom, and students need to take responsibility for their own learning, to realise that a smart phone can offer much more than pure entertainment. This something old, something new approach to education is often called blended learning. One of its many pedagogical advantages is that it moves learning beyond the classroom. In addition, this indefatigable virtual tutor may provide personalized training or much-needed remedial practice to struggling learners.

    Although this model is widely used in social psychology and business management, the author believes it is suitable for computer-related educational research purposes as well. Designed to explain how new technology is received and used, it identifies two specific beliefs, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, a combination of which first affects attitudes and behavioural intentions, then leads to actual use Figure 1.

    Figure 1: Technology Acceptance Model. Adapted from Davis , Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw , p. This model extends the scope of intention to use by three major factors: performance expectancy, effort expectancy and social influence. In the current paper, performance expectancy refers to students hoping that the software will help them pass exams; effort expectancy means that it does so without an unreasonable amount of time and effort; and finally, social influence is interpreted as peer pressure, whether others view system use as beneficial or unnecessary.

    Perceived benefits are a powerful factor in technology use. If a student is not convinced about the ease and usefulness of an activity, they will be less inclined to take part in it. Perceived benefits of using technology in the class include potentially increased efficiency and convenience. Hubbard , for example, posits that the online component improves learning efficiency, learning effectiveness, and is more convenient. Kukulska-Hulme concurs, stating that computer-assisted tools and teaching methodologies can indeed be very effective, especially for small-group collaborative assignments, e.

    By this definition, all students who participated in this survey were digitally literate. They were encouraged to learn with the digital version of part of their textbook. All were reasonably fluent speakers of English. Warschauer, however, did not take into account the importance of generations. Born since the mids, after the emergence of the Internet, they live in a screen-saturated world Chamberlin-Quinlisk, , p.

    Their learning styles are significantly different from the generations preceding them Black, ; Eisner, ; Nicholas, ; Phillips and Trainor, Through constant access and exposure, their academic skill set, abilities and expectations, even their preferred channels of communication, are mostly technology-based. Smart phone use in classrooms has reached a critical mass, a level where restricting it is not just a Herculean effort, but is also counter-productive. This digitally tuned-in expert generation expects a learning experience that is fundamentally different from that of their parents, and when they are refused, they resist and rebel.

    Technological innovations are especially susceptible to fads, of getting popular very quickly, then disappearing just as fast. This model is typically used in the business world, but this author proposes adopting it for educational research to highlight and predict potential obstacles to classroom technology integration.

    When the product cannot live up to these high hopes, people get discouraged and many of them abandon it altogether. Another factor to potentially influence the diffusion of technological classroom innovation is cognitive bias. Coined at least a century prior and used informally in politics, Leibenstein introduced the term bandwagon effect for economics to describe following the example of others, acting or thinking the way they do. The outcome of many political or marketing campaigns revolves around the concept of conformity: the more people think or act in a certain way, the higher the probability that others will follow suit.

    Millennial adolescents and young adults are very sensitive to fashion, especially if influential peers are perceived as having an advantage by using a certain product. To sum up, technology acceptance literature seems to agree that integrating a technological component into face-to-face teaching can positively influence student learning. In addition, it could also offer a suitable theoretical background for practical application in the English as a Foreign Language EFL classroom. This research paper seeks to present a framework that measures the extent to which CALL is relevant to undergraduate students of the millennial generation and to draw conclusions applicable to a larger population of university-age EFL learners in general.

    Awareness of reasons behind course content decisions may facilitate student involvement.

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    To avoid student sentiments that the word lists they find in each unit of their textbook are ad-hoc selections of unrelated lexis, it is important they realize that in the context of tertiary studies, success requires knowledge of academic vocabulary. It proposes that for undergraduate academic success in a foreign language environment, the more appropriate sequence is vocabulary first, which in turn will facilitate comprehension.

    Assumption University AU has an international, multi-cultural faculty and student body; therefore, apart from foreign language courses, the medium of instruction is English. Consequently, familiarity with interdisciplinary phraseology is expected from students who need to interpret, analyse and critically reflect on subject matter areas in faculties as diverse as Communication Arts, Business Management, Law or Nursing. Academic vocabulary then, by these definitions, has a heavy learning burden Nation, It requires explicit instruction and focused, conscious learning, often made more problematic by a lack of context.

    This inherent difficulty is in stark contrast with the relative usefulness for eventual success at university. In order to avoid guesswork during lectures, foreign language learners need to repeatedly meet a word in context until they can comfortably use it themselves — at least 5—16 exposures, according to Nation In English for Academic Purposes EAP courses of increasing difficulty, AU students acquire the skills necessary to successfully meet their degree requirements. This research study used a multi-platform software application called Quizlet to investigate student attitudes towards EFL-related technology.

    Quizlet was chosen for reasons of convenience, relevance and interactivity. Although many other similar apps are available, the author had been introduced to it in a conference plenary session by keynote speaker Pete Sharma co-author of Blended Learning, Drawn from a database originally compiled by their instructor, the program randomly presents and helps users practise the spelling, meaning and usage of target vocabulary from their course book.

    Secondly, the Quizlet website and mobile app was expected to be compatible with the current generation of learners and their learning styles. Nicholas points out that millennials expect communication and instruction via technology; therefore, by suggesting a study option that resonated with them, it was hoped that its adoption ratio would be high, i. Short rounds of memory games, sentence completion or spelling bees could turn cyclical, spaced revision into a fun activity.

    After all, as Burston argues, outside distractions make mobile-based language learning better suited for short bursts, rather than longer stretches of concentrated attention. Quizlet employs an interactive, almost game-like approach, and the satisfaction of being at the top of the leader board in one of its minicompetitions may perhaps further motivate students to playfully acquire academically relevant English vocabulary.

    Once students realise its value as a learning tool, this new format of content delivery and review may ease the burden of memorizing long lists of complicated words. It investigates how this mobile application supports educational goals, especially in the context of undergraduate foreign language learners from the millennial generation.

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    Although examining the attitudes of all stakeholders i. Instructors and their beliefs concerning the impact of adopting mobile technology, as well as curriculum design decisions and policy recommendations by school administrators are hoped to be explored in a follow-up study. The present study addresses the following research objectives: 1. Identify the relative significance of factors that lead to Quizlet use. Explore how beliefs, attitudes and intentions predict actual usage.

    Consider whether access to the software drives actual usage. Actively involve participants in content creation. Hypotheses H1: Perceived ease of use positively influences attitude toward use. Digitally literate millennials expertly handle mobile software that requires them to tap or swipe items on a smart phone screen. Familiarity with navigating within these applications was expected to make Quizlet easy to use. Experience with similar program designs and modes of manipulation, and the fact that learning to use this program requires only a moderate amount of effort, are three factors that were expected to characterize student impressions.

    H2: Perceived usefulness determines attitude toward use. Although a crucial factor in itself, a user-friendly interface does not guarantee acceptance. It is likely that students preparing for examinations focus on end results, on usefulness instead. Expected benefits of educational software must also be taken into consideration when attitude toward use is defined.

    H3: Attitude toward using leads to increased intention to use. Positive beliefs about the ease of use and usefulness of a program, or satisfaction with its demonstrated features will not necessarily lead to intentions. A user may acknowledge the benefits of an activity, but still be unwilling to try it themselves. H4: Intention to use is directly and positively associated with actual use. Time constraints, other commitments, or forgetfulness are important factors that negatively affect whether a user launches the app.

    Conversely, a person will not use a program voluntarily if they are not convinced of its merits. H5: Satisfied active users will recommend Quizlet to other students. In a blended classroom, information flows in multiple directions. Students help each other S2S , and sometimes even advise their technologically less inclined instructors S2T. In addition, if they are satisfied with a program, they might tell their friends in other classes about it.

    During Phase 1, they were not overtly encouraged to share their experiences, but two items of the questionnaire in Phase 2 specifically asked about the future likelihood of recommending Quizlet to others.

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    Figure 2: TAM model for Quizlet with hypotheses. They were enrolled in an undergraduate, intermediate-level course at Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand. Data Collection Design Data for this project was gathered between mid-October and early November During the initial orientation phase, students took part in a minute live demonstration, were shown the features of the software, and were assisted in downloading, installing and registering the application on their mobile devices.

    Phase 2 took place about one week later. In compliance with ethical guidelines, each participant provided informed consent by signing a form which outlined the purpose of the study and highlighted its voluntary and confidential nature. Pages of this self-completed questionnaire package, which on average took about 15 minutes, contained a total of 35 descriptive, factual, behavioural and attitudinal questions. These questions were in English and responses were expected to be in English. Two questions in the Likert-scale categories were reverse coded to avoid response bias, and these scores were inverted during evaluation.

    Between Phases 1 and 2, i. Descriptive biographical statistics of the participants are presented in Table 1. Table 1: Descriptive respondent statistics. Respondent characteristics Gender Male Female Age in years over 25 Owns a smart phone Yes No Has mobile Internet Yes No Hours spent online per day less than 1 hour hours hours over 6 hours. Exploratory Factor Analysis batteries returned.

    According to Factor Extraction and Eigenvalues, the eight strongest factors accounted for Finally, a Multiple Ordinary Least Square Regression sought to identify possible cause-and-effect relationships between dependent variables Attitude, Intention and Actual Use. Figure 3 shows the results of hypotheses testing, relationships between variables, and their significance.

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    • Figure 3: Hypothesis diagram and test results. Actual Use is a reliable indicator for educational technology acceptance. Tables 2 and 3 summarize the results of the Actual Use regression equation, with statistically significant evidence for both current and projected system use. Table 2: Regression analysis for Actual use 1. Table 3: Regression analysis for Actual use 2. Error Beta t Sig. Figure 4: Actual use. Actual use data is presented in Tables 2 and 3, as well as in Figure 4. The p-value for F is. In other words, the more often a student uses the software, the more likely it is that he or she is going to return to it.

      Quizlet allows registered users the freedom to create card sets in any language. Another reliable and perhaps slightly more accessible indicator for Actual Use data is if students design their own word lists, especially if they do so without being prompted by their instructor. Several participants figured out how to modify the original English input, generating personalized sets in their mother tongue.

      As computer text-to-speech and an auto-play feature are both available for several languages, a smart phone and a pair of Bluetooth headphones were all they needed for a hands-free audio dictionary to review the target vocabulary lists without their mobile ever having to leave the school bag. Several students reported using, but not necessarily insisting on this audio feature, perhaps indirectly implying that computer text-to-speech synthesis is not yet advanced enough for learning English pronunciation. Consequently, it appears that schools no longer need language laboratories, or to invest in expensive IT infrastructure: every student comes to school with a mobile device that can facilitate informal language learning both in and outside the classroom — even in cyberspace.

      Hypothesis 1: Supported. Regression analysis found a strong correlation between perceived ease of use and attitude. Hypothesis 2: Supported. Findings confirm a strong correlation between perceived usefulness and attitude. Hypothesis 3: Supported. Results indicate a strong correlation between attitude and intention to use.

      Hypothesis 4: Supported. Hypothesis 5: Supported. Satisfied, active users would tell others about the software. Research objective 1 sought to identify the relative significance of factors that lead to system use.

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      This investigation used two core variables as its starting point, Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness. Of the two, Perceived Usefulness proved to be stronger, suggesting that even when students struggle, they willingly tolerate a steep learning curve if they can expect benefits at the end.

      Research objective 2 addressed how beliefs, attitudes and intentions predict actual usage. Results indicate that except for a small minority, slightly over one-tenth of users, if students find the software easy to use and have positive attitudes toward it, they will indeed use it for vocabulary study before exams.

      Results for research objective 3 seem to suggest that it would be a mistake to equate access with success. Students do not use educational software just because it is available to them. Constant motivation and encouragement are needed, as are teacher efforts to monitor that when in the classroom, phones are used for educational purposes only. Research objective 4 set out to actively involve students in materials design. The threat of disciplinary action is a poor, short-term motivator. Being creatively involved in content creation, on the other hand, may instil in students a long-term perspective, getting them one step closer to their future goals with English.

      Encouraging students to participate in making Quizlet sets on their own may result not only in a sense of ownership, but also in increased willingness to actively learn, rather than passively consume content that is tailor-made for and by them. Conclusions and Limitations This paper sets out to explore student beliefs, intentions and behavioural attitudes toward a multimedia software application called Quizlet. It focuses on perceptions of undergraduate EFL learners regarding the contribution of a specific digital educational technology tool to the curriculum and to their learning objectives.

      There exist, however, several pedagogical and procedural limitations that need to be acknowledged when interpreting the findings of this study. First, its cross-sectional methodology implies a strictly exploratory focus. Therefore, it is possible that a quasiexperimental research design with a follow-up round of data collection may offer a complementary perspective. Next, the study made a few assumptions about its participants which may not be valid universally. However, it would be potentially misleading to assume that constant, instant access means unlimited time that students would be willing to devote to educational purposes.

      A teacher can, at best, encourage independent learning and provide engaging content that students find useful for their studies. Moreover, the fact that every student can afford the costs of buying a mobile device or the expenses of a monthly Internet subscription was taken for granted. In other contexts, however, these financial burdens may be important constraints that influence final results. Lastly, Figure 4 identifies Future investigations of student resistance would be a possible complementary study to fill the gap in understanding left by this research project. In addition, there are three occasionally overlapping factors that may also affect Quizlet use: deadlines, scope and logistics.

      Firstly, students are less inclined to practice if the exam is weeks away, but a test the following morning may provoke a last-minute effort, despite knowing that cramming the night before rarely results in long-term retention. A quick flip through cards or a mini-game in Quizlet, on the other hand, takes but a few minutes, and these regular, cyclical review sessions may bring about long-term benefits. The second area that would benefit from further scrutiny is scope.

      This research project involved 8 out of a total of 91 classes in the English II program offered in that semester. There were respondents, covering 5. At first glance it would seem that results obtained here could be generalized for the entire English II student body. However, a shift in learner and teacher attitudes and behaviours cannot be expected to come about overnight, nor without help from faculty and administrators — most likely through a relatively large investment of energy and enthusiasm. Finally, the logistics of integration must also be considered when proposing changes to curricula.

      Following institutional guidelines, teachers will have to make decisions about the extent to which they wish to make Quizlet a part of their classroom routine. Should they use the official academic word sets or create their own? In an otherwise tightly packed syllabus,. Should they devote valuable class time to Quizlet games at all, or assign vocabulary learning as homework and count on students being responsible enough to do it? It highlights works that show relevant analysis, reviews, theoretical, and methodological proposals, as well as studies, approaches, applications, and tools that shape current state, define trends and inspire future research.

      As a result of the revision process fourteen manuscripts were accepted and organized into five parts as follows:. This volume will be a source of interest for researchers, practitioners, professors, and postgraduate students aimed at updating their knowledge and finding targets for future work in the metacognition arena.

      Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Front Matter Pages i-xix. Front Matter Pages Pages A Conceptual Model of the Metacognitive Activity. Michael J.