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  1. weekend free-for-all – February 16-17, 12222;
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SleepSack Organic Cotton - Small. SleepSack Cotton - Blue - Small. Jolly Jumper Pregnancy Pillow - White. Baby's First Toothbrush - Pink. Kushies Hooded Towel - Butter. The shop is on main bus routes and is well located if you need a break after shopping or college and before catching a bus. In a nice book connection, Insomnia started out as one coffee shop in a Galway bookstore and is now a successful franchise model with over stores.

Just the place to read. This is a dramatic and well-told very short fantasy, which examines the nature of love and sacrifice. A young woman healer is picked upon by the new fanatical vicar, as a herb-witch, and her only way to escape seems to be by riding a strange black horse that appears near the standing stones.

But the fae don't take much account of mortal lives. I love the cover, and the evocative story-telling. I love this delightful book about a camping safari in the Masai Mara park. Tour leader Kumuka James and his trusty vehicle take a girl and boy out to see the wildlife, and bring them to the village where Kumuka grew up, to meet his extended family. All does not go smoothly in this good-hearted adventure but luckily Kumuka's long experience of the African bush comes to the rescue. This restroom includes a hoist, a changing bench for an adult to lie on, space for a wheelchair user and two carers, privacy screen and other suitable facilities.

As rehab centres and hospitals would like patients to get out and explore the parks, this seems like a very welcoming message from the general community. Families with particular needs can also make use of the restrooms. Being out in nature, especially among trees, has been shown to provide physiological and psychological benefits.

And just knowing that a restroom is nearby removes a source of potential stress. This is a sweet and fun read about two girls on holiday at a caravan site. The only drawback for the pony fan will be that a pony doesn't appear for quite a few chapters. Once the filly foal enters, the pace picks up and we get some basic knowledge about foals, like how they are weaned and the kind of care they need. I was surprised that a foal should be shown as stealing golf balls, but I suppose as she has no other foal to play with, she might get up to mischief.

I enjoyed this romance which looks at the upsides and downsides of managing a camp location near Lake Michigan. We get a sort-of romance growing from deep friendship, a gentleman with hearing impairment and a helpful dog, a dedicated young woman, and ice-hockey. All against the beautiful open grounds, swaying pines, and skies full of hawks. The Centre is easily reached by Luas. I found helpful staff and while the space inside is massive on all levels, there are restrooms on each floor including accessible ones, lifts and escalators, Braille on most notices.

The main auditorium has space for wheelchair seating I asked and a hearing loop, and Guide Dogs are permitted but no other dogs. Generally, a wheelchair user could and did get around as there are sloping floors instead of steps, and we saw the green room and backstage rooms, which turned out to be the location for an AED. The kitchen contained a first aid box. The team is on top of providing mobility scooters for travellers and meeting any other requirements. A serious theme underlies this tale of horses and friendship. Two girls bond over their respect and love for a lively horse.

The horse's young owner wants to make sure he gets on with their new friend and she can manage him, in case, well The talented and kind horse is a great character. I was surprised that his shoes never needed changing though I suppose it might have been done during the school day. This excellent book from a tree propagator should be read by anyone concerned about climate change, feeding the people of today and the future, biodiversity loss, atmospheric carbon.

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Maybe you have seen the YouTube video of a TED talk about restoring desertifying land using mobs of cattle, bunched and moved regularly. What the cattle do is eat up dead grasses and put organic compost, including seeds, on the ground. In just the same way, this book explains how plants naturally put carbon, humus and moisture in the ground for microscopic life to break down. I like the section on how old forests are full of pits where a tree uprooted and mounds where a tree trunk lay and rotted. Amphibians will live in the pits, but a good point is that fish can't because they dry up, so the life that fish would eat can thrive.

The author presents his 'allies' the major types of tree which can feed us and replace ground crops to a great extent. Sweet chestnuts we are more familiar with horse chestnuts here produce vast quantities of rich nuts and the author suggests hybridising Asian varieties with the American varieties to impart resistance to Asian fungal strains. All at Care2. Many of us read the news on phones or tablets as we travel, and there seldom seems to be a shortage of sad or worrying news.

Accordingly the students have created a beautiful mural to represent the positive side of Dublin Bay and cheer the day of anyone visiting the station or passing through on the Dart or train. Those who have become depressed know that this is potentially disabling and has an effect on all the family. The number for Samaritans, who are always ready to listen, is painted on the mural, , and maybe just reminding ourselves that the sky and sea are still blue and grass still green over our coastline is enough to start some positive thinking.

I like this short book about a keeper of fabulous beasts; but it does seem a shame that they are confined in a castle enclosure, and I wished we had seen more of the unicorn. I also notice that the beasts are passive as far as we see, and don't help the outcome. Apart from a shapechanger who accompanies the dedicated female keeper. Her quest is to recover the missing unicorn as the world outside is dangerous for the mythical beasts. I am sure the book will be very useful and a great source of interest and discussion, especially among Scouts and Guides.

Whether making blackberry jam or picking samphire or ramson, scent is a major part of how we interact with plants which are edible. The ideas for cookery sound as if they would taste delicious too, though you may have to persuade kids to eat cleavers leaf omelette. Personally I do not recommend eating wild fungi or handling them; the author names a few of the more identifiable edible ones and does give a warning, including not to pick any growing from the toxic yew tree trunks.

Brid assured me they were and she had seen them present on occasion. For this reason the usual tours are curtailed, steps are used instead of more accessible routes and meetings are held in some temporary rooms. But the bar, I am glad to say, is available and while not so big as we might imagine, it serves a nice cup of coffee. We chatted about various issues and Brid told us that on her wish list is a ground floor constituency office. In her area all ground floor premises are taken up with shops but an upstairs office is a disadvantage for seniors or those with small children, or with disabilities.

This fiction tale is chilling, evocative and passionate. Also, full of horses. The time and place jump chapter by chapter between South Africa of and a year later in Ontario farmland. Sam Mitchell was fifteen when he failed to make the riding team for cross country eventing. Hilary Anson, a glamorous and promiscuous eighteen-year-old, meets him at a stuffy party for the wealthy folks of Kelso County.

She's arrived from an English boarding school to work with horses, but her home is Apartheid-era South Africa. Hilary decides to help train Sam to ride better, including showjumping without a saddle and bridle on his willing mare Della and plunging on horseback off a rock ledge into a quarry pond. Note to readers: this is very dangerous! This is a lovely read, by a journalist who seems to have a fantastic job - travel around the world reporting on dogs. She goes to Asia to spend a month with herders in a remote high valley, for instance. But the running thread is Kate's lovely brown and white Welsh sheepdog, and whether the pair can get it together as sheep herders.

Living in Wales, Kate and her husband have a couple of dogs and she writes about them as well as delving into the mists of time for clues as to how our partnership began. The advantage of having a wolf pack camped next door, wolves helping early humans to hunt so they could scavenge, bringing home a pup to guard the cave. Domesticating foxes and wolves through careful breeding.

Co Mayo is just one of the many locations in Ireland for accessible fishing.

The Best Baby Clothes 12222

The Inland Fisheries Ireland has partly funded this project, consisting of a car park, changing room and 76 metre long level track with a brink before the water to stop wheelchairs rolling too far. RTE covered the opening this week, and you can view the path along the beautiful river in use by dedicated anglers. The only drawback I can see is that the shade is all on the other bank, so that is where the fish will lie during a hot day; but this will be matched by skilful casting. I had a good time reading this fantasy and I enjoyed that the main narrator is a winged mare - who is also telepathic.

In the beginning she is eighty years old, happily mated and grazing, when she is called upon to be bonded to a new royal baby who is of a race like humans. The tale jumps forward a few times through years of the prince growing up until suddenly he's a grown, moody young man, unwilling to get married, and certainly not to his cousin.

Our heroine meanwhile has been so busy that it hasn't occurred to her that the races are facing an existential problem. Amblee ISBN: We may be running out of time to reduce or prevent catastrophic climate change. This short book looks at how we may use AI to help us make decisions, project outcomes, recommend paths. AI can also use posts and photos on social media and every book or research study scanned. The second part looks at how the globe is warming in self-feeding cycles; bare or flooded ground can't absorb carbon for us.

Should have been a mention of polar and glacier ice, and dirty snow. Green Horizon from IBM analyses environmental data and projects scenarios. A traveller through the airport who has a disability or may become confused, can ask for a sunflower lanyard to wear. This notifies staff that the person might not look disabled but could still be in need of assistance. For instance someone with a breathing problem or who is unable to hear, or has autism or dementia. Good work as we know how much effort it can be to travel with or without a companion.

The sunflower lanyard is recognised easily by staff at many major airports. Maya Gallo ventures into the Rockies after her teenage brother Brady doesn't return from following a treasure trail set by his special education teacher. She has his GPS signal to follow, but that only leads to his abandoned backpack. With no indication of where to go, Maya is baffled, and then a hooded figure attacks her and scares her off into the brush. Mounted patrolman Alex Trevino has already noticed that the little family aren't in their store. Knowing the treasure hunt craze is getting some folks injured, he decides to go after them.

The Eagle Crest trailhead is his starting point. His chestnut Tennessee Walking Horse called Truman means he can go faster and carry more than a hiker. What he finds makes him certain that all is not well in the woods. Keeping your home clean, sustainable and economical is the main theme. The author works in sustainable packaging and has some good ideas. The book will mainly be of use to someone who hasn't read much about greening or decluttering the home.

Beginners can learn something, even from the no-clutter page presentation and minimalist photos. If you are in Dublin you might enjoy a visit to City Hall which has a museum. The building is where Parliament Street and Dame Street meet, and the visitor will immediately see a high flight of steps to the main door. From early settlers through the Vikings and the Georgians, on to the East Rising, lots of displays and artefacts are here. Among them are a ceremonial sword and mace as emblems of the control of Dublin.

From the museum floor you can take a very handsome glass-walled lift, which has Braille on the lift button panel, up through the ceiling to the rotunda room with statues, emblems, beautiful work of stuccodores and marble inlay on the floor. The visitor should find everything easily accessible. This is a good fun story, as our London heroine is unexpectedly in possession of a pony and has to hide it from the adults around her in case they'll say she shouldn't have it.

The pony is quickly named Flapjack because that's what he had been eating in the supermarket when he was discovered. And how exactly do you keep a pony a secret in the twelfth floor flat? I like a lot about this tale, from the Polish family who help, to the cheerful line drawings and the unrealistic expectations of the new pony owner.

A nice touch is that she can look up how to bridle a pony on YouTube. Bindschatel ISBN: The tale consists of three stories. There's the story of an ongoing undercover effort to follow the chain of smugglers of endangered wild animals from lush, tropical Costa Rica. There's the story of a small group of activists meeting informally on a beach to take direct action. And there's the story of Poppy McVie herself who walks in and proceeds to lie to everyone in sight, including her new assigned work partner, ignore orders, endanger lives and do her own thing with disregard for anyone else.

Poppy's heart is definitely in the right place, but she's so stricken by the plight of a handful of monkeys, among other creatures, that she throws away the months of work to try to find the kingpin and shut down the massive sales for good. From pre-Roman tribal settlements through the Great Fire to Georgian homes and the Blitz, this city has had a turbulent past.

Find it all here with illustrations, objects to touch, models and displays. The rooms have plenty of space for wheelchairs and occasional low ramps, while displays are often low down or full length display cabinets. I found the venue fascinating and there is quite enough for half a day. Wheelchairs, a number of powered wheelchairs and hearing loops may be borrowed.

Restrooms are disability friendly. Seats are provided and visitors can also borrow small folding seats. Visuals have signing and subtitles, magnifying glasses may be borrowed. Ear defenders can be borrowed to help those on the autism spectrum. And a host can accompany visitors for up to two hours if they are in need of an extra pair of hands. This free museum is located in the City, near the Barbican and part of the old City Wall. The best way to get there may be the Tube but some of these old stations have many steps.

Full marks to the museum for providing a journey planner on its website, with a small amount of parking spaces for disability badge holders and a guide to step-free Tube stations nearby. A young lady who worries about the English family farm being taken by the bank, manages to acquire a Thoroughbred colt at auction cheap as he doesn't like to race and decides to train him up for racing. Well, naturally she can't set her sights any lower than the top.

The costs escalate and the horse refuses to run anywhere without his best pal the elderly pony. While horse lovers will have a good chuckle, the lesson can really be that the family has to pull together; even the grumpy brother gets involved in researching how best to train a racehorse. This exploration of explorations of an exploring people is full of fascinations, friendships and frightening distances.

Also birds - as guides, as food, as giants made extinct. To explore a people who didn't have a written history, and lost much oral history when diseases struck, is to give an account of how other nations came across them, reacted to them, befriended them and learned about them. For how did the Polynesians get where they were, where did they come from, and were they all related?

I have attended a few Virtual Reality Meetups there and the facilities are excellent. The Luas, a highly accessible transport, runs close to the building. A large lift from the spacious foyer takes us up to the sixth floor; the first thing visible when the lift door opens is a first-aid box. Then, the open-plan area has tables and freestanding chairs, a wide variety of healthy foods and a choice of drinks, accessible restrooms and lots of room to move. The company a branch of a global firm says they provide enterprise cloud solutions to customers in Ireland and internationally, and they have also been part of a women in tech event.

This is a lovely memoir, a series of interviews with one of Ireland's great showjumping heroes. A city lad, the young Billy Ringrose, born , was sent down the country for summer like many Dubliners. But on the farms the horses were working horses. He didn't get to ride, apart from taking a horse to be shod which knew the way, until he joined the Army. Many excellent photos are included, of family and of competition.

This is a delightful book which vividly portrays the lives of various creatures that make nests, dens or other homes. Birds start us off with weaverbirds, bowerbirds, swifts, then on to less attractive creatures like ants, termites, spiders, before meeting mammals and reptiles. I enjoyed every double-page spread drawing, which carries a few lines of writing and excellent detail. The writer has really thought about how to shrink information and still convey it well, while added details include the place where the animal lives, or its food, or its predators. This spectacular ancient city in the Peruvian Andes was built with many steps and terraces, but is high on the list for tourists.

The videos show that the chair is cross between a wheelchair, wheelbarrow and a litter, meaning it has a wheel in the centre to take the weight and long handles for steering and motor power which are used by one or two persons front and back. So the chair cannot be used independently, but given the steepness of the site, I expect help would be needed even if ramps were installed.

When a lonely girl sees a wooden toy horse in a junk shop, she decides to buy it, even after hearing the sad tale of the last owner. As she cares for the horse, cleans it up and talks to it, she starts to think the horse Bella is becoming alive. As well as learning a little about horse care we see that Christmas can be a lonely time and people living on farms are quite isolated. I am all in favour of giving books on trees to young people. When today's kids can recognise hundreds of brand names by whatever age but not recognise tree species, something is wrong.

They may not even know how it is you can tell trees apart, even during winter. The lively bright pictures don't patronise young readers but do sometimes seem over-simplified and the bees, say, are too cartoony. The trees are nicely illustrated, with clear looks at leaves, shapes, how photosynthesis works and how roots are anchors. This gorgeous display at Portishead, Bristol, was shared on Twitter here by disabled artist Beth Wilson.

For some people their mobility aids are what give them freedom to go out and meet a partner, so the wedding day should celebrate this factor. Photo by Beth Wilson. I enjoyed the gentle, contemplative style of this short story. Pammy gets up to find two of her horses loose in front of the house. She rehomes horses in need of rescue, so these haven't gone too far from their feed and shelter. But how did they escape? As it happens that date brings some major events back to Pam's mind and so we get to know her through her thoughts as she goes through the day.

This is a cheap and cheerful viewpoint on chicken keeping. The author tells us at the outset that we are welcome to spend thousands on coops and equipment, if we'd prefer, but she finds that repurposing, mending and using old reliables like enamel pans does the job. Depending on how much free ranging your birds do, you may want to give them the seed and seaweed mix with added insects recommended.

I don't consider everything in the book a hack - a feed recipe isn't a workaround in itself. Martin Murphy from Tullyallen, Co Louth, was in a car accident in his early thirties and has needed a wheelchair ever since. Martin saw a hoist on television and asked an engineering firm to make one that could lift him from his wheelchair to the seat of the tractor.

The cab is a long way off the ground in modern farm equipment. Well done everyone. John ISBN: She still appears to be thirteen in terms of maturity. Weirdly she never interacts with any other eventing competitors. As in the previous tale our impecunious Council flat heroine now 17 and it seems money appears from nowhere and she never has to study for anything lives in her own bubble and nobody else matters to her.

Except her dad, who is accused of a crime in this book. Dogs, cats, red kites, chinchillas, owls, donkeys and more. A busy vet with an artisan pork butcher husband and three young children thinks she could cope better with just a small animal practice from her own home. Until she has time and funds to adapt barns for a dedicated building. This account shows us how busy, how demanding and how frantic at inopportune moments her career became.

The content varies but always relates to what the previous generations might have enjoyed when they were younger, such as singalongs, clips of old TV series, and films, with activities which someone in a wheelchair can participate in too. Older people feel part of a much-loved group and those with dementia appear to enjoy the afternoon thoroughly. This group has been running for nine years.

This sounds like a brilliant and easy idea, so I hope other areas will pick up the idea and run with it for their community. The first author has travelled around the world and photographed horses. The second author contributed the text; she is a former three-day eventer. I found only a brief paragraph under each photo and a map which was sometimes confusing. The map showed a dot for South Africa, where the photo of Friesian horses was taken; but although the text says the breed originated in the Netherlands, I thought it would be good to have a different map marking on the country of origin.

This book promisingly starts with clouds but spends more time on types of rock and less on birds than you'd expect. The writing is tiny. Kids are to spot the items and when they have enough points can send off via website for a badge over 13s or get a parent to do it. While growing up we had many of these little books, from birds, the seashore or trees to horses.

They were great fun and informative. As well as restored formal gardens and a tea room, you can enjoy living reconstructions of various periods through the history of the house. Amanda and Ellen arrived at the gate but found the long carriage drive too far, so a minibus was promptly sent to collect them. Two wheelchairs were offered for use at the door, a choice of an electric chair or a pushable one. And when one of the friends went upstairs, the other lady was able to view the upper rooms on a tablet screen from downstairs.

The staff were friendly and proactive at offering assistance which is wonderful, as nobody likes to think they are causing a delay or nuisance. The more visitors who enjoy the day, the more visitors will come along as a result. This fascinating look at the Pony Express lays out the history and reasons why this was a needed service and much welcomed.

The overland route from East to West coast of America carried news, bank affairs, money, letters and newspapers among other matters. The other route was generally down through the Panama isthmus using a boat on each side and overland trail. This was cut off by the Civil War, so the time was right for a rider mail route through Utah and over mountains. I liked the look at the horses - the best of blood horses, mustangs and others - which had speed and stamina. The men were tough, loyal and brave. Many stories are included of their determination.

Seventy-five miles was a usual ride, with stations every ten or twelve miles to change horses. The concept of forest bathing comes from Japan, and while I wasn't aware of the name, I know that indeed walking and sitting in woodland, the more mature the better, is a relaxing and revitalising experience. Of course, I can't just stroll. I spot broken hanging limbs, young trees waiting for a break in the canopy, fungi hollowing a trunk, tiny moss nests for long tailed tits and more.

Especially the trees, being a tree surgeon. We are told yoga is best done outdoors and a forest glade would seem an ideal spot. I suggest combining this book with one on foraging if only to give you an excuse to go to a forest. To one side is the newer District Court building which has courtrooms on the ground floor, access ramps and level floors. Once inside, there is no need to climb steps to sit in a public or press gallery as in the older courtrooms.

Every seat is on the same level and we found space for wheelchairs to move around in this modern format. The public are entitled to see the law being made and applied in almost all cases, and the press are entitled to view the proceedings, with some restrictions in sensitive cases. Hassack ISBN: Reminding us that Australia has it warm and sunny right now, the first story is set in Australia of modern day. Two horse loving sisters take on the task of training a nervy Arabian mare, Celtic Summer, which has been poorly treated. The station hasn't seen rain for too long, and other horse trainers are selling up, but a few nice strong lads are starting to hang around the sisters which is a great incentive to keep going.

New Adult would be a fitting description, with some strong language and mature romance. Cut to the past, with a possible reincarnation setup. Back in Roman - tribal Briton times, a horsewoman charioteer catches the eye of a centurion. But the tribes don't mix with Romans, in fact they are at odds most of the time. This part fills the second half of the book and has stronger language, more mature scenes and more violence.

Great reconstruction. If you are more inclined to debate philosophy than science, want to sway your fellow human with discourse rather than charts, film footage and statistics, and enjoy expanding your vocabulary, this will be a great book for you. I'm rather more of a practical person. I have no doubt that the author is sincere in his wish to enact positive change in environments small and large, personal, corporate and global. We are all in this lifeboat together.

Lots of useful information is provided, with definitions of black swan events and such; but a strong basis in knowledge about climate science is assumed. Over three hundred visitors, including children with physical or developmental disabilities and their carers, came to tea with the Higginses.

This was covered on the main evening news and other press. Looked like a great fun party. Father Christmas even came to meet everyone. What a great start to the Christmas season. Martin lives on Dartmoor and he is given a hardy little Exmoor pony mare which he names Tuppence. This tells of how the pair get to know each other and explore the moor, Tuppence being wise to marshy ground and testing every step, eating Martin's chocolate.

They have various adventures and a house party is a big occasion, when the nearest little girl rides over in slacks and changes into a party dress. Martin has hearing loss, which is one reason he feels lonely until he gets Tuppence, but that is not what you take away from the story. Vian Smith lived in Dartmoor and wrote of its history. He trained racehorses, but this book shows that he never lost his admiration for the hardy little native ponies.

I wholeheartedly recommend this large size book of over thirty knitting, crocheting and felting projects. They are simple looking enough for even a novice to get started and have immediate practical use. Some are for more advanced skills but they have star ratings to indicate the recommended skill level. Along with each pattern the authors tell us a little about the kind of fibre - bamboo, silk, hemp, even soy can all be made into fibres and found at a knitting supply shop.

As well as alpaca, organic wool, organic cotton. A very eco-conscious notion is using up your stash, even the odds and ends in a scarf of many colours. The gallery is free and opens each day, with plenty of books and photos in various mediums to purchase or just browse. Some of the passages are narrow, reflecting the adaptation of an existing building. I thought a wide or motorised wheelchair might have difficulty negotiating the passages.

But the rooms are wide and uncluttered with lots of space for a wheelchair or two. The gallery also contains a darkroom and studio, which is accessible to wheelchairs. The friendly staff are committed to supporting diversity. They also provide training, printing, advice on portfolios and the facility to sell books in the shop.

Temple Bar can be reached by public transport such as the Luas and Dublin Bus. This is a good read which contrasts a no-hope streetwise kid with a suburban girl who is learning to ride dressage. Their paths cross when the lad sneaks in to the Royal Dublin Society showgrounds to look at the horses. Ger decides to pretend that he belongs, and starts to want to help out with the glossy, friendly horses.

Yes, horses have that effect on people. Suzanne, who owns Star Dancer, needs some help too, because much as she loves her brave horse, she's secretly afraid of jumping. Even though they get to be friends, and Ger works on weekends in the stables, Ger has to go home at night, and his real life keeps catching up with him. I enjoyed this book although it wasn't about what I expected. I thought it was going to detail various expeditions, trips and bird-spotting habits of yesteryear, and to a degree it was.

However, mostly we look at etymology, the evolution of language in Britain from Proto-Indo-European , the folk names birds had in different regions and who got to name newly-discovered meaning shot, when there were no good binoculars and cameras birds. From this we proceed to look at birds named after persons - I have never seen the term eponymous used so many times.

And how birds are constantly being re-classified, rearranged into sub-species and even renamed. The author tells us about a few of his own birding trips, including a one-day list contest of migrating birds, and a trek to search for the bird of the title. One would find plenty of places where people can safely get around in wheelchairs or with their guide dogs. Moraitika is bigger than Messonghi and, as you can see in the photo that I attach, there are wide pavements for wheelchairs to use safely. If there's anything you need, more photos or whatever, kindly let me know.

And they seem to flock to 'Irini Apartments' in particular! You'll find it in my guide - very lush surroundings, quiet, with a pool and a bar beside it. It's blissful and makes for a quiet and laid back holiday. Thank you so much for thinking to recommend Corfu, I really appreciate it. This is a very enjoyable book for young readers. I like particularly that every role is equal opportunity, from hero to villain, from talking sword to occupations like miller.

Our two young heroes find an old enchanted sword in the dried-up riverbed. The sword talks, nicely in a gothic script, which will help if you are reading aloud. As the sword Biter insists on dubbing his finder a knight - to the miller's son's dismay, and the annoyance of his girl pal who really does want to be a knight - this starts an adventure.

Mainly, the young people decide to go and investigate the drying up of the river. Tales have come from upstream of a blockage and a dragon. Water shortage is an incredibly topical subject so I have to commend the authors for bringing environmental awareness and water scarcity into the tale. This is a nice short tale for any kids who love ponies and drawings. The girl of the story is Megan who seems about 11 or 12 but she is just one of a little group of girls who have come to a pony camp stay for a week in England. Megan has been a bit shy in class and has been given the slow pony at her riding school.

But she is determined that this week where nobody knows her, she will be brave and strong, and the lively pony Mischief will do as she asks. Only, not all the girls are pally, and nobody told Mischief Designed by the architect Sir Edwin Lutyens, the gardens are laid out with steps down to sunken rose beds, but there are still plenty of level paths to enjoy. The area is close to the River Liffey and tranquil, a good picnic spot during summer and a nice stroll at this time of year. The gardens are dedicated to the 49, Irish soldiers who died during the - war; their names are written on granite books.

This book is split between two times - Russia of Catherine the Great, and modern Russia. Each tale carries a girl, a horse and a black diamond, the Orlov Diamond. In the main tale our heroine is Anna, daughter of Count Orlov, sister of the young Ivan the Terrible. The problem is mainly isolation. They are stuck out alone in the wild snowy wastes of Russia. Origanum majorana Lamiaceae Sweet marjoram Leaf, floral bud Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae Oregano, origan Leaf, flower Pandanus Pandanaceae Pandan wangi Leaf amaryllifolius Papaver Papaveraceae Poppy, blue maw, Seed somniferum mawseed Petroselinum Apiceae Parsley Leaf, root crispum Pimenta dioica Myrtaceae Pimento, allspice, Jamaica Immature fruit, leaf pepper Pimenta racemosa Myrtaceae West Indian bay Fruit, leaf Pimpinella anisum Apiaceae Aniseed Fruit Piper longum Piperaceae Long pepper, Indian long Fruit pepper Punica granatum Punicaceae Pomegranate Seed dried with flesh Rosmarinus Lamiaceae Rosemary Terminal shoot, officinalis leaf Salvia officinalis Lamiaceae Garden sage Terminal shoot, leaf Satureja hortensis Lamiaceae Summer savory Terminal shoot, leaf Satureja montana Lamiaceae Winter savory Leaf, twig Schinus molle Anacardiaceae American pepper, Fruit, wall rind Californian pepper tree Sesamum indicum Pedaliaceae Sesame, gingelly Seed Sinapis alba Brassicaceae White mustard, yellow Seed mustard Syzygium Myrtaceae Clove Flower bud aromaticum Tamarindus indica Cesalpiniaceae Tamarind Fruit Thymus serpyllum Lamiaceae Mother of thyme, wild Terminal shoot, thyme, creeping thyme leaf Thymus vulgaris Lamiaceae Thyme, common thyme Terminal shoot, leaf Trachyspermum Apiaceae Ajowan Fruit ammi Trigonella Fabaceae Fenugreek Seed, leaf Foenumgracecum Vanilla planifolia Orchidaceae Vanilla Fruit pod syn.

Vanilla fragrans Vanilla tahitensis Orchidaceae Vanilla Fruit pod Vanilla pompona Orchidaceae Pompona vanilla Fruit pod Xylopia aethiopica Annonaceae Negro pepper, Guinean Fruit pepper Zanthoxylum Rutaceae Chinese prickly ash Fruit bungei pepper, Sechuang pepper Zanthoxylum Rutaceae Chinese pepper Fruit acanthopodium Zanthoxylum Rutaceae Japanese pepper Fruit piperitum Academic Foundation, New Delhi, p.

Authenticity can be defined as freedom from adulteration, most obviously in the sense of absence of foreign bodies or extraneous matter, but it also suggests freedom from impurities in the product itself. However, in practice authenticity is not always helpful in the case of herbs and spices. As an example, sage in virtually all textbooks is defined as Salvia officinalis. Salvia trilobula and tomatosa species are widely traded and these are accepted universally as sage. Similarly with thyme, references are usually to Thymus vulgaris but most thyme traded is a mixture of Thymus capitatus, Thymus serpyllum and Thymus vulgaris.

This blend is universally accepted as thyme. Turning to examples of spices, turmeric is defined as Curcuma longa, but there are sub-species such as Alleppy turmeric, which is dark red orange in colour with a rough outer appearance to the root, whereas Cuddapah turmeric is lighter lemon yellow in colour with a smoother root. Each type has its own market niche.

The reason for these variations is that most herbs and spices were originally wild rather than cultivated crops, gathered from their natural habitat where mixing of the species and sub-species occurred. Herbs and spices have traditionally been traded as dried products for reasons of preservation. The industry goes back before the time of Christ fragmentary written records exist from BC when drying was one of the main forms of food preservation.

Drying was then by means of the sun and this method is still widely used. With the advent of modern transport methods and methods of preservation, frozen herbs and fresh herbs and spices have made an appearance as items of trade, but the industry remains dominated by the trade in dried products. The major quality specifications are based mainly on dried herbs and spices. In consequence simple standards evolved early.

In it was incorporated into the Grocers Company which is still in existence. This guild was granted a charter by Henry VI to manage the trade in spices. This organisation was given exclusive power to garble e. Today the two major international standards are those set by the United States and those set by the European Union EU. Standards relying on the same general parameters also exist in those countries responsible for growing herbs and spices, for example the Indian Spices Board and the Pepper Marketing Board.

These standards are influenced by those set by the major importing countries. This is a measure of the amount of foreign and extraneous matter, for example insect contamination, excreta or foreign bodies. This is a measure of the level of impurities in a product, obtained by burning off the organic matter and measuring the residue of ash. Characteristic maximum figures exist for most herbs and spices. Again maximum figures exist for most herbs and spices. Prosecutions have in the past been based on high acid insoluble ash AIA levels within Europe, which are seen as indicating an unacceptably dirty product.

This measure helps to identify whether the herb or spice has been adulterated, perhaps by addition of foreign materials, low quality or spent amounts of the herb or spice in question. The herb or spice is boiled under reflux conditions with water where the oil separates on top of the water and can be read off in a volume proportional to the mass of the product under test.

Minimum percentage levels of oil exist for most major herbs and spices. This measure of the amount of moisture is important since moisture content determines weight, and weight is used in pricing. Maximum moisture contents are set for all herbs and spices, based on the maximum allowable amount of moisture for the product to remain stable. This involves re-fluxing a known weight of the herb or spice in petroleum spirit and measuring the water that condenses at the bottom of the reflux chamber from the known weight of herb or spice.

In recent years moisture content has been related to the Aw or the water availability of the herb or spice. The level of 0. Examples are cinnamon, oregano and cloves where the oils have very strong anti-microbial effects. There is a range of techniques available for counting the numbers of a pathogen in a sample. Pesticide levels are not seen as a major problem given the low average daily intakes of these products by consumers. As a result, in the EU limited legislation exists for herbs whilst, for spices, the EU has determined there is no risk and no legislation is planned.

Legislation is in a state of flux in the USA and limits may be introduced. In the interim, Codex limits for the nearest equivalent commodity may be a useful guide. Pesticide levels are assessed by either gas chromatography GC or high performance liquid chromatography HPLC , depending on the pesticide in question.

Mycotoxins, specifically aflatoxin and ochratoxin A, have been of concern within the last few years in the industry. Legislation governing the aflatoxin content of capsicum species, piper species, nutmeg, ginger and turmeric will be enacted in within the European Union at 10ppb total, 5ppb B1. With the USA the limit is currently 20ppb. HPLC is likely to be the reference methodology employed for these determinations. This is an important measure, particularly in filling retail containers of herbs and spices. The herb or spices must be sifted or ground to give a certain density so that retail units appear satisfactorily full and comply with the declared weight.

Densities may be measured packed down, e. Many spices and herbs are ground to give easier dispersion in the final food product. This process also aids the dispersion of flavour. Particle size is generally specified and is carried out using standardised sieves. Aperture sizes give a particle size, the products being ground to pass a certain sieve, and coarse matter recycled through the mill until it finally passes through the sieve. The older method of measuring sieve hole sizes was that of mesh which related to the number of holes per inch.

However, confusing differences exist between American and British mesh sizes. The mesh size number of holes per inch depends on the diameter of the wire making up the sieves and this differs between nations. Tables are available giving the relationships between national sieve sizes and micron sizes. There are a number of internationally-approved standards for testing procedures, established by the International Standards Organisation ISO.

Cleanliness specifications exist for all major herbs and spices, in terms of permitted amounts of extraneous matter or filth, mould visible , insects, excreta and insect damaged material. These specifications are shown in Table 2. For the purposes of these specifications, extraneous matter is defined as everything foreign to the product itself, including, but not restricted to: stones, dirt, wire, string, stems, sticks, non-toxic foreign seeds, in some cases other plant material such as foreign leaves, excreta, manure and animal contamination.

The level of contaminants permitted under these specifications must fall below those shown in Table 2. These specifications provide a general standard of cleanliness. The ASTA also sets a range of other standards. These are broadly comparable to those set by the European Spice Association ESA , which are discussed in the next section.

Microbiological standards in particular now play an increasingly important role in determining the quality of herbs and spices. They are becoming a crucial quality parameter due to the increasingly varied uses of herbs and spices in the developed world. Increased travel has led to a society demanding multicultural foods. This coupled with ready meals, cook—chill products, etc. But the third world origin of many herbs and spices plus the concentration due to drying means these products can pose a potential microbiological risk.

There are currently three major methods of control. Sometimes multi-fumigations are used to achieve a satisfactory microbiological reduction. However, the use of the process must be declared on the packaging pre- sented to the consumer and consumer concern about its use in foods have prevented the use of this undeniably efficient process in many areas where its use is permitted by law. This has led to the use of heat treatment for decontamination, generally using high pressure steam in highly specialised equipment. The minimum general ESA quality standards for all herbs and spices are summarised in Table 2.

Allspice 2 5 5.

The ESA general standards are more relaxed in their quantitative figures as they represent minimum standards allowable for trade. They do not preclude buyer and seller setting further standards fit for the final purpose for which the herb and spice is to be used. The test is specifically for peppers of the piper species. This involves extraction measurement of the characterising heat portion of the pepper the piperine content.

After refluxing in alcohol to extract the piperine, absorbency is compared to a standard in a spectrophotometer at — nm. This is a measurement of the extractable colour of products of the capsicum species and its principal use is a quality indicator for paprika. Extraction is in acetone over a 16 hour ambient extraction period and again the methodology is spectrophotometric against a standard at nm. Capsaicin is the pungent principle that gives heat to the capsicum species. Extraction of capsaicin is by re-fluxing with alcohol. It can be related to the Scoville test see below.

The Scoville heat unit is a measure of the heat levels capsaicin content of the capsicum species. It involves extraction of the capsaicin in alcohol and tasting of successively stronger dilutions in sugar syrup until the chillie heat is detected. It gives a compatible result to capsaicin content but obviates a need for sophisticated laboratory equipment. A trained tasting panel is required. This is a test specific to the measurement of the extractive colour of turmeric. This is carried out by reflux extraction in acetone followed by measurement using a spectrophotometer at — nm.

Quality specifications for herbs and spices 19 Table 2. For arbitration purposes Square root of all containers e. Irradiation should not be used unless agreed between buyer and seller. Microbiology Salmonella absent in at least 25g. Off odours Shall be free from off odour or taste. Mycotoxins Aflatoxins Should be grown, harvested, handled and stored in such a manner as to prevent the occurrence of aflatoxins or minimise the risk of occurrence.

For capsicum species, piper species, nutmegs, turmeric and ginger, the maximum permitted EC levels from 1 July are total aflatoxin 10ppb maximum, and B1 5ppb maximum. Ochratoxin A Should be grown, harvested, handled and stored in such a manner as to prevent the occurrence of ochratoxin A or minimise the risk of occurrence.

Adulteration Shall be free from. Bulk density To be agreed between buyer and seller. Water activity To be agreed between buyer and seller Species To be agreed between buyer and seller. Any quality assurance system should start with a comprehensive raw material specification agreed with the supplier, where this is possible.

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This specification needs to be supported by an audit of the supplier to verify that the supplier has the expertise, technology and quality assurance system to meet the agreed specification. In many cases, however, given the lack of infrastructure and resources within many supplier countries, suppliers will be unable to comply with all aspects of a specification. In these circumstances, the company purchasing the material must rely on effective QA systems of its own. As well as appropriate procedures, effective QA systems rely for their success, in most cases, on experienced personnel.

The material as imported should firstly be inspected on delivery. The first inspection should be an overall inspection of the product as the doors of the container are opened or the load is made accessible. This necessarily basic first inspection is made to look for large-scale infestation, mould growth, unacceptable packaging, rodent infestation or an unsuitable container, e. The quality control system should then cover sampling and examination of the raw material. Sampling of the material for these tests should be on a square root basis throughout the load to a maximum of 10 samples.

This should initially be physical and examine the amount of dust with the aid of sieves as appropriate , the amount of stalks, stem, extraneous matter, etc. This should be then backed up with tests relevant to the product for volatile oil, moisture, ash, acid insoluble ash, etc.

Any tests specific to the material should also be carried out at this time.

Microbiological testing at this stage should be carried out for the presence of Salmonella and E. During this period, the product should be quarantined and no further processing permitted. Unacceptable material should be rejected or in certain cases may be reconditioned, e. This may be carried out in-house or at a specialist processor. Microbiologically unsatisfactory material may be gas treated or heat treated at this stage. Positive microbiological release should be employed on a pallet basis subsequent to heat treatment. Also incorporated within the QA system should be procedures for removing metal of all types.

BS Specification for Herbs and Spices. Some of the main essential oils and their origins are shown in Table 3. Determining the quality and purity of essential oils faces similar difficulties to establishing the quality of raw spices, given the accepted variations in and mixing of varieties within a particular spice. There are, however, a number of properties that can be used to set quality standards. It is also possible to use chemical properties to benchmark quality.

These include determination of acids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, phenols and iodine number. Some specific flavour tests for halogens can also be used to set standards Guenther An overview of these quality indices is provided in the appendix at the end of this chapter. Undoubtedly the economic incentive to blend synthetic flavourants with natural oil is too high to resist.

Some essential oils naturally contain a single compound at high concentration, and often the synthetic counterpart of this major component is available at a low cost. Addition of this single compound to natural essential oils without declaration on the label amounts to adulteration. Quality indices for spice essential oils 23 Table 3. For instance, the presence of impurities such as phenyl pentadienal, benzyl alcohol and eugenol in synthetic cinnamaldehyde forms the basis of its detection in natural cassia oil. The common adulterants for spice essential oils are listed in Table 3.

A mass spectrometer usually scans over a range of trace compounds in order to obtain data on every component in a mixture. The decrease in the number of masses detected using SIM results in a fold to fold increase in detection sensitivity for a single compound. The mixing of expensive oils with cheaper oils can often be detected by running a GC profile of the oil.

One approach is to search for components in the expensive oil which are not commercially available, and are unique to the oil. A good quality oil should contain 7. Oils containing less than 7. Dilution of essential oils with ethanol was checked using refractometric methods which were found to be unreliable Kaminski and Dytkowska TLC has been found to be a simple method of checking adulteration in essential oils of caraway, coriander, parsley and anethum Hoerhammer et al.

This technique is both simple and rapid. The observation that the iodine monobromide-mercuric acetate reagent brings about quantitative fission of the cyclopropane and cyclobutane rings in essential oils prompted Kumar and Madaan to make use of such iodine absorption values for this purpose. Table 3. The method could detect adulteration successfully in samples considered to be unadulterated on the basis of conventional analytical procedures.

Source: Kumar and Madaan reproduced with permission. Such physical properties including ester number should be considered as presumptive tests and should be confirmed by other, more specific analysis. A freezing point lower than Colorimetric analysis of glycerol can indicate adulteration with edible oils.

The presence of cottonseed oil in different essential oils gave absorption bands characteristic of esters and unsaturated esters at — cm 1 , acetates at cm 1 and the carbonyl group at — cm 1 , while the presence of paraffin oil gave a broadened absorption band at cm 1 which characterizes the saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Authentication methods that could trace the botanical and even the geographical origin of such constituents are a challenge to food analytical chemists.

Information of such aspects is just beginning to emerge in scientific literature. Moroccan oils are typically rich in 1,8-cineole However, chemical analysis is not always helpful in determining the geographical origin of essential oils as has been shown with sage essential oils Lawrence , Site-specific natural isotope fractionation studied by NMR SNIF-NMR combined with molecular isotope ratio determination by mass spectrometry IRMS can characterize linalool and linalyl acetate from chemical synthesis or extracted from essential oils of well defined botanical and geographical origins.

Chirality can be used as a criterion for differentiation between components of natural and nature-identical types Werkhoff et al. It can be achieved by using enantioselective capillary GC coupled with stable isotope ratio analysis Hener et al. The overall 13C or 2H contents, as measured by IRMS do not constitute an efficient criterion for such identifications.

This approach has been successful with coriander essential oils Frank et al. The presence of 14C in cinnamaldehyde, as the main constituent in cinnamon essential oil, and its absence in the synthetic counterpart formed the basis of their distinction. Unfortunately, this technique was overcome by addition of 14C enriched cinnamaldehyde.

This technique is superior to the IRMS technique, which determines the total deuterium content Remaud et al. Non-random distribution of deuterium exhibits large variations as a function of the origin of the sample. Discriminant analysis performed over the natural and synthetic families show all synthetic samples to belong to the same group.

Natural linalool is characterized by a strong depletion in the heavy isotope in site 1 and by a relative enrichment at site 6. Semi-synthetic linalool obtained from pinene can also be distinguished from natural linalool by virtue of its deuterium at site 3 of the sample.

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Similarly, enantiometric purity of carvone from essential oils of caraway, dill and spearmint can be determined using appropriate enantioselective columns. The differentiation between compounds that are grown naturally, produced by fermentation or synthesized chemically is projected to reflect in legal regulations in the coming years. Hence, intensive and comprehensive basic investigations on the analytical origin assessment of flavours will gain ground. Spectra Anal. Oil Res. Food Chem. FREY, C. Food Sci. Essenze, Profumi, Piante Offic.

The Essential Oils. Volume I. HOR, K. Acta Polonica Pharm. Indian J. Perfumer and Flavorist 19 6 : 57— Perfumer and Flavorist 23 1 : 39— LU, X. Egyptian J. PINO, J. Alimentaria —7. Flavour Fragrance J. VI Int. Congress on Essential Oils, San Francisco. ZHU, M. Yaoxue Xuebao 31 6 : —5. Occasionally soluble Iodine number, Source: Singhal et al.

Sustainability in production has become the prime concern in agriculture development. The organic method of farming is the best option to ensure that the air, water and soil around us remain unpolluted, leaving the environment safe for present and future generations. In many countries exploitative agriculture using industrial inputs has been the norm since the s, in order to cater for an increasing population and to combat the occurrence of famine and natural calamities.

Such a system of farming has been causing imbalances in the constituents of biosphere, bioforces, bioforms and biosources. Organic agriculture aims to tackle the above concern, and also aims at protecting the environment from continuous decline Anon. In this farming system there is dynamic interaction between soil, humus, plant, animal, eco-system and environment. Hence organic farming differs from industrial agriculture as in the latter, biological systems are replaced by technical production systems with liberal use of chemicals Anon.

Organic farming improves the structure and fertility of the soil through balanced choice of crops and implementation of diversified crop rotation systems. Biological processes are strengthened without recoursing to chemical remedies, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. In this farming system control of pests, diseases and weeds is primarily preventative, and if required, adopting organic products, which will not adversely affect the environment.

Organic matter of various kinds, nitrogen fixing plants, pests and disease resistant varieties, soil improvement practices such as mulching and fallowing, crop rotation, multiple cropping, mixed farming, etc. In brief, organic farming merges traditional and respectable views on nature with modern insights. It is based on anthropsophy on the ideas formulated by the Austrian expert, Rudolf Steiner, in Boor In this system, the maintenance and furtherance of life processes on Earth are achieved by harnessing cosmic energy and various influences of the sun, the stars, the moon and other planets.

Bio-dynamic agriculture most often combines animal husbandry and crop production and use of compost and bio-dynamic preparations to revitalize soil and plants and subsequently animals and human beings. Sowing, cultivation and harvesting are timed according to cosmic rhythms. Over one hundred regional, national and international standards have been developed worldwide so far. Several countries are formulating or have adopted rules and regulations on organic farming, processing and certification requirements.

It is to protect consumers, producers and traders against the use of misleading or incorrect labels. It is also a trading instrument enabling producers to access markets for organic products and obtain premium prices. Moreover, it creates transparencies, as information on certified producing agencies and their products is normally available to the public directly from the package. Before certification, a detailed inspection by a designated agency is carried out to verify that production and handling are done in accordance with the standards against which certification is done.

The certification procedures make it possible to track and control the flow of products from primary and farm level to each stage of manufacturing and ultimately to the finished product for the consumer. This is possible as certification is based on a series of systematic procedures. The farmer, the processor, the trader or whoever is handling the product signs a contract with the certification body.

If there is industrial processing to be carried out, details of the processing unit, technology used in processing, sources of organic raw materials, products processed, etc. The certification body has to be convinced not only orally but also through records and registers maintained by the producer or operator. Certification is not a one-time procedure. It is carried out continuously on the basis of ongoing monitoring and inspection of farms and processing units. Though India has a set of organic farmers and a few processing units, local certification bodies accredited to international organizations are only in the formative stage.

Hence in India organic products require certification bodies established in other countries, especially in Europe. Of the over certification bodies existing globally, three agencies have opened offices in India. Many Indian organic farmers or their associations avail assistance of these offices for inspection and certification. However, certain individual firms depend on the agencies in Europe and get the inspectors directly from there.

Normally inspection and certification costs vary depending on the nature of inspection to be carried out, but it is generally between 0. Since no chemicals are used for fertilization, control of pest and diseases, elimination of weeds and growth acceleration, some buyers fear that the microbial population in the end products could be on the higher side than those prepared conventionally using these inputs.

As there is no opportunity for the use of chemicals in crop production, the products should be absolutely free from their residues including pesticides and fungicides. In brief, three important parameters to market organic food are the following: 1. Quality — certified organic, which has to be proved by inspection report and certificate issued by authorized inspection and certification agency following approved standards. Quality — microbiologically clean, based on results from recognized laboratory.

Quality — absolutely residue free, authenticated with analytical data on residues from approved laboratory. In addition to the above, the product should meet fully the product specifications and all parameters relating to sanitary and phyto-sanitary conditions. In other words, organic spices should not only be superior quality-wise in respect of inherent bio-chemical constituents, but they should also be the most safe for human consumption. The survey did not include Australia, New Zealand and other developed countries.

According to the statistics published by the International Trade Centre, spices are also important organic products marketed globally Anon. Demand for organic spices varies considerably from country to country and in the kind of spices in a particular country. However, countries such as Australia, New Zealand and some other European countries may become involved in the organic spice trade because of the increasing awareness of the safety of organic food consumption.

Germany has the highest demand for various organic spices. The world import of various organic spices together during was less than tonnes as assessed from important buyers. Since the s, many chemical inputs for increasing agricultural production have become available both from domestic production and import. Some of the chemicals imported, particularly for plant protection, were highly dangerous to human health and they left poisonous residues in the soil after application lasting a few decades.

The green revolution initiated by importing dwarf and fertilizer responsive wheat and rice varieties led to production programmes using various chemicals profusely in the urge to enhance productivity. A new trend is being developed in India now to produce various crops, including spices, organically not only to protect the natural environment but also because of the need for having safe agriculture products for human consumption.

Accordingly some farmers produce spices by organic methods for their own consumption and also for sale in a limited way in the local markets. India has established a name in supplying quality organic spices to Europe and USA. A number of organic spices such as black pepper, white pepper, ginger, turmeric, clove, nutmeg and mace have been exported to USA, the Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland since The Society has over farmers growing various horticultural crops especially black pepper and other spices in South India.

The Society proposes to produce various other spices like vanilla, chilli, coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, etc. A centre for research and training of vermicompost production and multiplication and distribution of bio-agents like Trichoderma has been set up for supporting farmers in organic cultivation by the Society George a. There are a few other non-governmental organizations for promoting organic production of herbs in Nilgiri district, black pepper in Wynad district and turmeric and ginger in Phulbani district in India. These countries produce largely organic black pepper.

They have established export channels and have entered in the international market for organic spices in recent years. It should be noted that the initial growth in the organic spice sector is encouraging. Some organic food experts visualize that insufficient supply of organic spices, especially those which are required in large quantities, might become a problem in the next few years George b.

The future demand for organic spices appears to be bright. Spices are not listed in such regulations and must therefore be of organic origin. This is based on the market size of , tonnes of conventional spices at that time as reported by the International Trade Centre in their publication, Imports of Spices into Selected Markets, Boor Although the overall picture for the organic spice sector is promising, there are a number of potential risks to be borne in mind.

There could be occasional oversupply of a given spice leading to erosion of price attraction. Further, other forms or methods of environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture are likely to result in increased competition in the future. In addition, unfavourable press reports and scare stories on higher microbial contamination in organic foods, in general, as they are not treated with chemicals also cannot be discounted George A few issues which have to be tackled to increase organic production are worth mentioning.

They are lack of technical know-how especially on production and processing methods, poor storage and processing facilities, very little market information, insufficient financing and inadequate support from the government agencies. The high cost of certification and the elaborate records to be maintained by small spice farmers to prove their cultivation system organic are also standing in the way of spreading organic spice production. Since demand for organic spices is growing and generally price attractive, it can be visualized that most of the problems would be solved in the near future.

BOOR, B. XXVI, No. Anisum vulgare Gaertn. Crantz; Carum anisum L. Krause; Pimpinella anisum var. The plant is completely covered with fine hairs. The root is thin and spindle-shaped, the stem up, stalk- round, grooved and branched upward see Fig. In midsummer the thin stems are topped with umbrella-shaped clusters of tiny white flowers, which are heavy enough to make the stems flop.

They turn into seedlike fruits. Anise is a cross-pollinating species and is genetically heterogeneous. The fruit is an ovoid-pearshaped schizokarp somewhat compressed at the side. The two-part fruits separate heavily. The carpophore is almost two-piece up to the base. Commercially available aniseed usually contains the whole fruits and occasionally parts of the fruitstalk see Fig. The fruits with the style-foot are 3— 5 mm long, 1. Vittae oil ducts are almost always present embedded in the fruit wall on the dorsal surface, sometimes in or directly beneath the ridges.

The fruits are downy. Their colour is greyish-green to greyish-brown. Fatty acids can be obtained by extraction, as in the case of caraway, in the remainders of oil extraction via steam distillation. Fatty oil shows excellent future potential. Successful production of anise seed for economical oil production would probably occur if the seed yields could be improved significantly, and high content of oil and essential oils and large quantity of petroselinic acids could be reached. Methylchavicol estragole 4. Anise is primarily exported from Turkey, and also from Egypt and Spain in particular.

From an industrial standpoint, the quality differences between anise seed from different origins are not significant and therefore specifications need not limit the spice to a specific country of origin. The plant needs a hot summer to thrive and for seeds to ripen. Anise develops best in deep, rich, well-drained, sandy and calcerous soils. The thousand seeds weight of the part-fruits amounts to 1. Ripe-fruits seeds germinate relatively quickly. The germination time is 14 days. Long storage quickly reduces germination vigour: seeds stored for five years will no longer germinate.