It was in Latin verse, written in an elaborately fabricated style. It is not dog Latin, but Latin ingeniously italianized, or rather Italian, even Mantuan, latinized. The contrast between the modern form of the word and its Roman garb produces the most amusing effect. In the original it is sometimes difficult to read, for Folengo has no objection to using the most colloquial words and phrases. The subject is quite different. It is the adventures of Baldo, son of Guy de Montauban, the very lively history of his youth, his trial, imprisonment and deliverance, his journey in search of his father, during which he visits the Planets and Hell.
The narration is constantly interrupted by incidental adventures. Occasionally they are what would be called to-day very naturalistic, and sometimes they are madly extravagant. The tempest is there, and the invocation to all the saints. Rabelais improves all he borrows, but it is from Folengo he starts. He does not reproduce the words, but, like the Italian, he revels in drinking scenes, junkettings, gormandizing, battles, scuffles, wounds and corpses, magic, witches, speeches, repeated enumerations, lengthiness, and a solemnly minute precision of impossible dates and numbers.
The atmosphere, the tone, the methods are the same, and to know Rabelais well, you must know Folengo well too. Detailed proof of this would be too lengthy a matter; one would have to quote too many passages, but on this question of sources nothing is more interesting than a perusal of the Opus Macaronicorum.
It was translated into French only in — Paris, Gilley Robinot. This translation of course cannot reproduce all the many amusing forms of words, but it is useful, nevertheless, in showing more clearly the points of resemblance between the two works — how far in form, ideas, details, and phrases Rabelais was permeated by Folengo.
Besides, Rabelais was fed on the Italians of his time as on the Greeks and Romans. Panurge, who owes much to Cingar, is also not free from obligations to the miscreant Margutte in the Morgante Maggiore of Pulci. Had Rabelais in his mind the tale from the Florentine Chronicles, how in the Savonarola riots, when the Piagnoni and the Arrabiati came to blows in the church of the Dominican convent of San-Marco, Fra Pietro in the scuffle broke the heads of the assailants with the bronze crucifix he had taken from the altar? A well-handled cross could so readily be used as a weapon, that probably it has served as such more than once, and other and even quite modern instances might be quoted.
But other Italian sources are absolutely certain. There are few more wonderful chapters in Rabelais than the one about the drinkers. It is not a dialogue: those short exclamations exploding from every side, all referring to the same thing, never repeating themselves, and yet always varying the same theme. Chi gioca, chi gioca — uh, uh! Io — Ed io. And thus it goes on with fire and animation for pages. Rabelais probably translated or directly imitated it. He changed the scene; there was no giuooco della pugna in France. He transferred to a drinking-bout this clatter of exclamations which go off by themselves, which cross each other and get no answer.
He made a wonderful thing of it. Who does not remember the fantastic quarrel of the cook with the poor devil who had flavoured his dry bread with the smoke of the roast, and the judgment of Seyny John, truly worthy of Solomon? It comes from the Cento Novelle Antiche, rewritten from tales older than Boccaccio, and moreover of an extreme brevity and dryness. They are only the framework, the notes, the skeleton of tales. The subject is often wonderful, but nothing is made of it: it is left unshaped.
Rabelais wrote a version of one, the ninth. The scene takes place, not at Paris, but at Alexandria in Egypt among the Saracens, and the cook is called Fabrac. But the surprise at the end, the sagacious judgment by which the sound of a piece of money was made the price of the smoke, is the same. Now the first dated edition of the Cento Novelle which were frequently reprinted appeared at Bologna in , and it is certain that Rabelais had read the tales.
A still stranger fact of this sort may be given to show how nothing came amiss to him. He must have known, and even copied the Latin Chronicle of the Counts of Anjou. It is accepted, and rightly so, as an historical document, but that is no reason for thinking that the truth may not have been manipulated and adorned.
The Counts of Anjou were not saints. They were proud, quarrelsome, violent, rapacious, and extravagant, as greedy as they were charitable to the Church, treacherous and cruel. Yet their anonymous panegyrist has made them patterns of all the virtues. Now in it there occurs the address of one of the counts to those who rebelled against him and who were at his mercy. Rabelais must have known it, for he has copied it, or rather, literally translated whole lines of it in the wonderful speech of Gargantua to the vanquished. His contemporaries, who approved of his borrowing from antiquity, could not detect this one, because the book was not printed till much later.
But Rabelais lived in Maine. In Anjou, which often figures among the localities he names, he must have met with and read the Chronicles of the Counts in manuscript, probably in some monastery library, whether at Fontenay-le-Comte or elsewhere it matters little. There is not only a likeness in the ideas and tone, but in the words too, which cannot be a mere matter of chance. He must have known the Chronicles of the Counts of Anjou, and they inspired one of his finest pages. One sees, therefore, how varied were the sources whence he drew, and how many of them must probably always escape us.
When, as has been done for Moliere, a critical bibliography of the works relating to Rabelais is drawn up — which, by the bye, will entail a very great amount of labour — the easiest part will certainly be the bibliography of the old editions. That is the section that has been most satisfactorily and most completely worked out. Brunet said the last word on the subject in his Researches in , and in the important article in the fifth edition of his Manuel du Libraire iv.
The facts about the fifth book cannot be summed up briefly. It was printed as a whole at first, without the name of the place, in , and next year at Lyons by Jean Martin. It has given, and even still gives rise to two contradictory opinions. First of all, if he had left it complete, would sixteen years have gone by before it was printed? Then, does it bear evident marks of his workmanship? Is the hand of the master visible throughout?
The scholar of Valence might be Guillaume des Autels, to whom with more certainty can be ascribed the authorship of a dull imitation of Rabelais, the History of Fanfreluche and Gaudichon, published in , which, to say the least of it, is very much inferior to the fifth book. I was at Paris when it was written, and I know quite well who was its author; he was not a doctor. Yet everyone must recognize that there is a great deal of Rabelais in the fifth book.
He must have planned it and begun it. Remembering that in he had published, not as an experiment, but rather as a bait and as an announcement, the first eleven chapters of the fourth book, we may conclude that the first sixteen chapters of the fifth book published by themselves nine years after his death, in , represent the remainder of his definitely finished work. This is the more certain because these first chapters, which contain the Apologue of the Horse and the Ass and the terrible Furred Law-cats, are markedly better than what follows them.
In the remainder the sentiment is distinctly Protestant. Rabelais was much struck by the vices of the clergy and did not spare them. Whether we are unable to forgive his criticisms because they were conceived in a spirit of raillery, or whether, on the other hand, we feel admiration for him on this point, yet Rabelais was not in the least a sectary. If he strongly desired a moral reform, indirectly pointing out the need of it in his mocking fashion, he was not favourable to a political reform.
Those who would make of him a Protestant altogether forget that the Protestants of his time were not for him, but against him. Henri Estienne, for instance, Ramus, Theodore de Beze, and especially Calvin, should know how he was to be regarded. Rabelais belonged to what may be called the early reformation, to that band of honest men in the beginning of the sixteenth century, precursors of the later one perhaps, but, like Erasmus, between the two extremes. He was neither Lutheran nor Calvinist, neither German nor Genevese, and it is quite natural that his work was not reprinted in Switzerland, which would certainly have happened had the Protestants looked on him as one of themselves.
That Rabelais collected the materials for the fifth book, had begun it, and got on some way, there can be no doubt: the excellence of a large number of passages prove it, but — taken as a whole — the fifth book has not the value, the verve, and the variety of the others.
The style is quite different, less rich, briefer, less elaborate, drier, in parts even wearisome. In the first four books Rabelais seldom repeats himself.
The fifth book contains from the point of view of the vocabulary really the least novelty. On the contrary, it is full of words and expressions already met with, which is very natural in an imitation, in a copy, forced to keep to a similar tone, and to show by such reminders and likenesses that it is really by the same pen. A very striking point is the profound difference in the use of anatomical terms.
In the other books they are most frequently used in a humorous sense, and nonsensically, with a quite other meaning than their own; in the fifth they are applied correctly. It was necessary to include such terms to keep up the practice, but the writer has not thought of using them to add to the comic effect: one cannot always think of everything. Trouble has been taken, of course, to include enumerations, but there are much fewer fabricated and fantastic words. In short, the hand of the maker is far from showing the same suppleness and strength. A eulogistic quatrain is signed Nature quite, which, it is generally agreed, is an anagram of Jean Turquet.
Did the adapter of the fifth book sign his work in this indirect fashion? He might be of the Genevese family to whom Louis Turquet and his son Theodore belonged, both well-known, and both strong Protestants. The obscurity relating to this matter is far from being cleared up, and perhaps never will be.
It fell to my lot — here, unfortunately, I am forced to speak of a personal matter — to print for the first time the manuscript of the fifth book. The task was a difficult one, for the writing, extremely flowing and rapid, is execrable, and most difficult to decipher and to transcribe accurately. Besides, it often happens in the sixteenth and the end of the fifteenth century, that manuscripts are much less correct than the printed versions, even when they have not been copied by clumsy and ignorant hands.
In this case, it is the writing of a clerk executed as quickly as possible. The farther it goes the more incorrect it becomes, as if the writer were in haste to finish. What is really the origin of it? It has less the appearance of notes or fragments prepared by Rabelais than of a first attempt at revision. If I had not printed this enigmatical text with scrupulous and painful fidelity, I would do it now.
It was necessary to do it so as to clear the way. But as the thing is done, and accessible to those who may be interested, and who wish to critically examine it, there is no further need of reprinting it. All the editions of Rabelais continue, and rightly, to reproduce the edition of It is not the real Rabelais, but however open to criticism it may be, it was under that form that the fifth book appeared in the sixteenth century, under that form it was accepted.
Consequently it is convenient and even necessary to follow and keep to the original edition. The first sixteen chapters may, and really must be, the text of Rabelais, in the final form as left by him, and found after his death; the framework, and a number of the passages in the continuation, the best ones, of course, are his, but have been patched up and tampered with.
In the seventeenth century, the French printing-press, save for an edition issued at Troyes in , gave up publishing Rabelais, and the work passed to foreign countries. Jean Fuet reprinted him at Antwerp in The type, an imitation of what made the reputation of the little volumes of the Gryphes of Lyons, is charming, the printing is perfect, and the paper, which is French — the development of paper-making in Holland and England did not take place till after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes — is excellent.
They are pretty volumes to the eye, but, as in all the reprints of the seventeenth century, the text is full of faults and most untrustworthy. France, through a representative in a foreign land, however, comes into line again in the beginning of the eighteenth century, and in a really serious fashion, thanks to the very considerable learning of a French refugee, Jacob Le Duchat, who died in In he published an edition of Rabelais at Amsterdam, through Henry Bordesius, in five duodecimo volumes.
The reprint in quarto which he issued in , seven years before his death, is, with its engravings by Bernard Picot, a fine library edition. It takes account of differences in the texts, and begins to point out the variations. His very numerous notes are remarkable, and are still worthy of most serious consideration. He was the first to offer useful elucidations, and these have been repeated after him, and with good reason will continue to be so. Finally, at end of the century, Cazin printed Rabelais in his little volume, in , and Bartiers issued two editions of no importance at Paris in and His volume of annotations, in which, that nothing might be lost of his own notes, he has included many things not directly relating to Rabelais, is full of observations and curious remarks which are very useful additions to Le Duchat.
One fault to be found with him is his further complication of the spelling. This he did in accordance with a principle that the words should be referred to their real etymology. Learned though he was, Rabelais had little care to be so etymological, and it is not his theories but those of the modern scholar that have been ventilated. Somewhat later, from to , Esmangart and Johanneau issued a variorum edition in nine volumes, in which the text is often encumbered by notes which are really too numerous, and, above all, too long.
Le Duchat had already given too much importance to the false historical explanation. Here it is constantly coming in, and it rests on no evidence. In reality, there is no need of the key to Rabelais by which to discover the meaning of subtle allusions. He is neither so complicated nor so full of riddles.
We know how he has scattered the names of contemporaries about his work, sometimes of friends, sometimes of enemies, and without disguising them under any mask. Rabelais says what he wants, all he wants, and in the way he wants. There are no mysteries below the surface, and it is a waste of time to look for knots in a bulrush. All the historical explanations are purely imaginary, utterly without proof, and should the more emphatically be looked on as baseless and dismissed. They are radically false, and therefore both worthless and harmful. In there appeared in the Bibliotheque Charpentier the Rabelais in a single duodecimo volume, begun by Charles Labiche, and, after his death, completed by M.
Paul Lacroix, whose share is the larger. Amongst the editions of Rabelais this is one of the most important, because it brought him many readers and admirers. No other has made him so well and so widely known as this portable volume, which has been constantly reprinted. No other has been so widely circulated, and the sale still goes on. It was, and must still be looked on as a most serviceable edition.
The edition published by Didot in has an altogether special character. In the biographical notice M. Rathery for the first time treated as they deserve the foolish prejudices which have made Rabelais misunderstood, and M. Burgaud des Marets set the text on a quite new base. Having proved, what of course is very evident, that in the original editions the spelling, and the language too, were of the simplest and clearest, and were not bristling with the nonsensical and superfluous consonants which have given rise to the idea that Rabelais is difficult to read, he took the trouble first of all to note the spelling of each word.
Whenever in a single instance he found it in accordance with modern spelling, he made it the same throughout. The task was a hard one, and Rabelais certainly gained in clearness, but over-zeal is often fatal to a reform. Since Le Duchat all the editions have a common fault. They are not exactly guilty of fabricating, but they set up an artificial text in the sense that, in order to lose as little as possible, they have collected and united what originally were variations — the revisions, in short, of the original editions.
It was M. Jannet who in our days first restored the pure and exact text of Rabelais, not only without retouching it, but without making additions or insertions, or juxtaposition of things that were not formerly found together. For each of the books he has followed the last edition issued by Rabelais, and all the earlier differences he gives as variations. All who have come after Jannet have followed in his path, and there is no reason for straying from it.
Rabelais dissecting society and writing his book. Silenes of old were little boxes, like those we now may see in the shops of apothecaries, painted on the outside with wanton toyish figures, as harpies, satyrs, bridled geese, horned hares, saddled ducks, flying goats, thiller harts, and other such-like counterfeited pictures at discretion, to excite people unto laughter, as Silenus himself, who was the foster-father of good Bacchus, was wont to do; but within those capricious caskets were carefully preserved and kept many rich jewels and fine drugs, such as balm, ambergris, amomon, musk, civet, with several kinds of precious stones, and other things of great price.
Just such another thing was Socrates. For to have eyed his outside, and esteemed of him by his exterior appearance, you would not have given the peel of an onion for him, so deformed he was in body, and ridiculous in his gesture. He had a sharp pointed nose, with the look of a bull, and countenance of a fool: he was in his carriage simple, boorish in his apparel, in fortune poor, unhappy in his wives, unfit for all offices in the commonwealth, always laughing, tippling, and merrily carousing to everyone, with continual gibes and jeers, the better by those means to conceal his divine knowledge.
Now, opening this box you would have found within it a heavenly and inestimable drug, a more than human understanding, an admirable virtue, matchless learning, invincible courage, unimitable sobriety, certain contentment of mind, perfect assurance, and an incredible misregard of all that for which men commonly do so much watch, run, sail, fight, travel, toil and turmoil themselves. Whereunto in your opinion doth this little flourish of a preamble tend? For so much as you, my good disciples, and some other jolly fools of ease and leisure, reading the pleasant titles of some books of our invention, as Gargantua, Pantagruel, Whippot Fessepinte.
But truly it is very unbeseeming to make so slight account of the works of men, seeing yourselves avouch that it is not the habit makes the monk, many being monasterially accoutred, who inwardly are nothing less than monachal, and that there are of those that wear Spanish capes, who have but little of the valour of Spaniards in them. Therefore is it, that you must open the book, and seriously consider of the matter treated in it.
Then shall you find that it containeth things of far higher value than the box did promise; that is to say, that the subject thereof is not so foolish as by the title at the first sight it would appear to be. And put the case, that in the literal sense you meet with purposes merry and solacious enough, and consequently very correspondent to their inscriptions, yet must not you stop there as at the melody of the charming syrens, but endeavour to interpret that in a sublimer sense which possibly you intended to have spoken in the jollity of your heart. Did you ever pick the lock of a cupboard to steal a bottle of wine out of it?
Tell me truly, and, if you did, call to mind the countenance which then you had. Or, did you ever see a dog with a marrowbone in his mouth — the beast of all other, says Plato, lib. If you have seen him, you might have remarked with what devotion and circumspectness he wards and watcheth it: with what care he keeps it: how fervently he holds it: how prudently he gobbets it: with what affection he breaks it: and with what diligence he sucks it. To what end all this? What moveth him to take all these pains?
What are the hopes of his labour? What doth he expect to reap thereby? Nothing but a little marrow. True it is, that this little is more savoury and delicious than the great quantities of other sorts of meat, because the marrow as Galen testifieth, 5. In imitation of this dog, it becomes you to be wise, to smell, feel and have in estimation these fair goodly books, stuffed with high conceptions, which, though seemingly easy in the pursuit, are in the cope and encounter somewhat difficult. And then, like him, you must, by a sedulous lecture, and frequent meditation, break the bone, and suck out the marrow — that is, my allegorical sense, or the things I to myself propose to be signified by these Pythagorical symbols, with assured hope, that in so doing you will at last attain to be both well-advised and valiant by the reading of them: for in the perusal of this treatise you shall find another kind of taste, and a doctrine of a more profound and abstruse consideration, which will disclose unto you the most glorious sacraments and dreadful mysteries, as well in what concerneth your religion, as matters of the public state, and life economical.
Do you believe, upon your conscience, that Homer, whilst he was a-couching his Iliads and Odysses, had any thought upon those allegories, which Plutarch, Heraclides Ponticus, Eustathius, Cornutus squeezed out of him, and which Politian filched again from them? If you trust it, with neither hand nor foot do you come near to my opinion, which judgeth them to have been as little dreamed of by Homer, as the Gospel sacraments were by Ovid in his Metamorphoses, though a certain gulligut friar Frere Lubin croquelardon.
If you give no credit thereto, why do not you the same in these jovial new chronicles of mine? Albeit when I did dictate them, I thought upon no more than you, who possibly were drinking the whilst as I was. For in the composing of this lordly book, I never lost nor bestowed any more, nor any other time than what was appointed to serve me for taking of my bodily refection, that is, whilst I was eating and drinking. And indeed that is the fittest and most proper hour wherein to write these high matters and deep sciences: as Homer knew very well, the paragon of all philologues, and Ennius, the father of the Latin poets, as Horace calls him, although a certain sneaking jobernol alleged that his verses smelled more of the wine than oil.
So saith a turlupin or a new start-up grub of my books, but a turd for him. The fragrant odour of the wine, O how much more dainty, pleasant, laughing Riant, priant, friant. And I will glory as much when it is said of me, that I have spent more on wine than oil, as did Demosthenes, when it was told him, that his expense on oil was greater than on wine. I truly hold it for an honour and praise to be called and reputed a Frolic Gualter and a Robin Goodfellow; for under this name am I welcome in all choice companies of Pantagruelists.
It was upbraided to Demosthenes by an envious surly knave, that his Orations did smell like the sarpler or wrapper of a foul and filthy oil-vessel. For this cause interpret you all my deeds and sayings in the perfectest sense; reverence the cheese-like brain that feeds you with these fair billevezees and trifling jollities, and do what lies in you to keep me always merry. Be frolic now, my lads, cheer up your hearts, and joyfully read the rest, with all the ease of your body and profit of your reins.
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But hearken, joltheads, you viedazes, or dickens take ye, remember to drink a health to me for the like favour again, and I will pledge you instantly, Tout ares-metys. I must refer you to the great chronicle of Pantagruel for the knowledge of that genealogy and antiquity of race by which Gargantua is come unto us. In it you may understand more at large how the giants were born in this world, and how from them by a direct line issued Gargantua, the father of Pantagruel: and do not take it ill, if for this time I pass by it, although the subject be such, that the oftener it were remembered, the more it would please your worshipful Seniorias; according to which you have the authority of Plato in Philebo and Gorgias; and of Flaccus, who says that there are some kinds of purposes such as these are without doubt , which, the frequentlier they be repeated, still prove the more delectable.
Would to God everyone had as certain knowledge of his genealogy since the time of the ark of Noah until this age. I think many are at this day emperors, kings, dukes, princes, and popes on the earth, whose extraction is from some porters and pardon-pedlars; as, on the contrary, many are now poor wandering beggars, wretched and miserable, who are descended of the blood and lineage of great kings and emperors, occasioned, as I conceive it, by the transport and revolution of kingdoms and empires, from the Assyrians to the Medes, from the Medes to the Persians, from the Persians to the Macedonians, from the Macedonians to the Romans, from the Romans to the Greeks, from the Greeks to the French.
And to give you some hint concerning myself, who speaks unto you, I cannot think but I am come of the race of some rich king or prince in former times; for never yet saw you any man that had a greater desire to be a king, and to be rich, than I have, and that only that I may make good cheer, do nothing, nor care for anything, and plentifully enrich my friends, and all honest and learned men.
But herein do I comfort myself, that in the other world I shall be so, yea and greater too than at this present I dare wish. As for you, with the same or a better conceit consolate yourselves in your distresses, and drink fresh if you can come by it. To return to our wethers, I say that by the sovereign gift of heaven, the antiquity and genealogy of Gargantua hath been reserved for our use more full and perfect than any other except that of the Messias, whereof I mean not to speak; for it belongs not unto my purpose, and the devils, that is to say, the false accusers and dissembled gospellers, will therein oppose me.
This genealogy was found by John Andrew in a meadow, which he had near the pole-arch, under the olive-tree, as you go to Narsay: where, as he was making cast up some ditches, the diggers with their mattocks struck against a great brazen tomb, and unmeasurably long, for they could never find the end thereof, by reason that it entered too far within the sluices of Vienne.
Opening this tomb in a certain place thereof, sealed on the top with the mark of a goblet, about which was written in Etrurian letters Hic Bibitur, they found nine flagons set in such order as they use to rank their kyles in Gascony, of which that which was placed in the middle had under it a big, fat, great, grey, pretty, small, mouldy, little pamphlet, smelling stronger, but no better than roses. In that book the said genealogy was found written all at length, in a chancery hand, not in paper, not in parchment, nor in wax, but in the bark of an elm-tree, yet so worn with the long tract of time, that hardly could three letters together be there perfectly discerned.
At the end of the book there was a little treatise entitled the Antidoted Fanfreluches, or a Galimatia of extravagant conceits. The rats and moths, or that I may not lie other wicked beasts, had nibbled off the beginning: the rest I have hereto subjoined, for the reverence I bear to antiquity. Grangousier was a good fellow in his time, and notable jester; he loved to drink neat, as much as any man that then was in the world, and would willingly eat salt meat. In the vigour of his age he married Gargamelle, daughter to the King of the Parpaillons, a jolly pug, and well-mouthed wench.
As Homer says, that the child, which Neptune begot upon the nymph, was born a whole year after the conception, that is, in the twelfth month. For, as Aulus Gellius saith, lib. For the like reason Jupiter made the night, wherein he lay with Alcmena, last forty-eight hours, a shorter time not being sufficient for the forging of Hercules, who cleansed the world of the monsters and tyrants wherewith it was suppressed. My masters, the ancient Pantagruelists, have confirmed that which I say, and withal declared it to be not only possible, but also maintained the lawful birth and legitimation of the infant born of a woman in the eleventh month after the decease of her husband.
Hypocrates, lib. Plinius, lib. Plautus, in his Cistelleria. Marcus Varro, in his satire inscribed The Testament, alleging to this purpose the authority of Aristotle. Censorinus, lib. Gellius, lib. Moreover upon these grounds they have foisted in their Robidilardic, or Lapiturolive law. Gallus ff. By means whereof the honest widows may without danger play at the close buttock game with might and main, and as hard as they can, for the space of the first two months after the decease of their husbands.
I pray you, my good lusty springal lads, if you find any of these females, that are worth the pains of untying the codpiece-point, get up, ride upon them, and bring them to me; for, if they happen within the third month to conceive, the child should be heir to the deceased, if, before he died, he had no other children, and the mother shall pass for an honest woman. When she is known to have conceived, thrust forward boldly, spare her not, whatever betide you, seeing the paunch is full.
As Julia, the daughter of the Emperor Octavian, never prostituted herself to her belly-bumpers, but when she found herself with child, after the manner of ships, that receive not their steersman till they have their ballast and lading. And if any blame them for this their rataconniculation, and reiterated lechery upon their pregnancy and big-belliedness, seeing beasts, in the like exigent of their fulness, will never suffer the male-masculant to encroach them, their answer will be, that those are beasts, but they are women, very well skilled in the pretty vales and small fees of the pleasant trade and mysteries of superfetation: as Populia heretofore answered, according to the relation of Macrobius, lib.
If the devil will not have them to bag, he must wring hard the spigot, and stop the bung-hole. The occasion and manner how Gargamelle was brought to bed, and delivered of her child, was thus: and, if you do not believe it, I wish your bum-gut fall out and make an escapade. Her bum-gut, indeed, or fundament escaped her in an afternoon, on the third day of February, with having eaten at dinner too many godebillios. Godebillios are the fat tripes of coiros. Coiros are beeves fattened at the cratch in ox-stalls, or in the fresh guimo meadows. Guimo meadows are those that for their fruitfulness may be mowed twice a year.
Of those fat beeves they had killed three hundred sixty-seven thousand and fourteen, to be salted at Shrovetide, that in the entering of the spring they might have plenty of powdered beef, wherewith to season their mouths at the beginning of their meals, and to taste their wine the better. They had abundance of tripes, as you have heard, and they were so delicious, that everyone licked his fingers. But the mischief was this, that, for all men could do, there was no possibility to keep them long in that relish; for in a very short while they would have stunk, which had been an undecent thing.
It was therefore concluded, that they should be all of them gulched up, without losing anything. To this effect they invited all the burghers of Sainais, of Suille, of the Roche-Clermaud, of Vaugaudry, without omitting the Coudray, Monpensier, the Gue de Vede, and other their neighbours, all stiff drinkers, brave fellows, and good players at the kyles. The good man Grangousier took great pleasure in their company, and commanded there should be no want nor pinching for anything.
Nevertheless he bade his wife eat sparingly, because she was near her time, and that these tripes were no very commendable meat. They would fain, said he, be at the chewing of ordure, that would eat the case wherein it was. Notwithstanding these admonitions, she did eat sixteen quarters, two bushels, three pecks and a pipkin full.
O the fair fecality wherewith she swelled, by the ingrediency of such shitten stuff! After dinner they all went out in a hurl to the grove of the willows, where, on the green grass, to the sound of the merry flutes and pleasant bagpipes, they danced so gallantly, that it was a sweet and heavenly sport to see them so frolic. All stiff drinkers, brave fellows, and good players at ninepins. Then did they fall upon the chat of victuals and some belly furniture to be snatched at in the very same place.
Which purpose was no sooner mentioned, but forthwith began flagons to go, gammons to trot, goblets to fly, great bowls to ting, glasses to ring. Draw, reach, fill, mix, give it me without water. So, my friend, so, whip me off this glass neatly, bring me hither some claret, a full weeping glass till it run over. A cessation and truce with thirst. Ha, thou false fever, wilt thou not be gone? By my figgins, godmother, I cannot as yet enter in the humour of being merry, nor drink so currently as I would.
You have catched a cold, gammer? Yea, forsooth, sir. And I never drink but in my breviary, like a fair father guardian. Which was first, thirst or drinking? Thirst, for who in the time of innocence would have drunk without being athirst? Sator square. Moreover, all of this can be done by starting in the bottom right hand corner and reading right to left or up each column in turn. The word arepo, an anagram of opera, is otherwise unknown and is usually taken to be a proper name, perhaps one that was made up to complete the square. The oldest known example of a sator square is one excavated from the ruins of Herculaneum, which, along with Pompeii, was destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius in 79 ad.
Other examples have been found from various parts of Europe including Scandi navia and Britain dating from the late Middle Ages and Renais sance. There are sator squares in the Runic alphabet and in the Hebrew alphabet. It would appear to be just an ingenious novelty, but it has been treated as having supernatural powers and has been used, mainly as a text in an amulet, to ward off or heal the bite of a rabid dog or snake, and to cure fever or toothache. Among the Pennsylvania Dutch it was used to ward off cattle disease. Some grimoires handbooks of magic recommend writing the words of the square in blood and immersing them in holy water for use in 28 from anagrams to cryptic crosswords amulets.
Along with various Christian prayers, the sator square was also placed on the abdomen of a woman about to give birth McBryde The square has been the subject of scores of learned papers, mostly involving attempts to interpret it as a Christian message. In order to get the anagram to work you need to take paternoster and the letters a and o twice, but use n only once.
This can be achieved by writing the words in the form of a cross with n doing double duty at the intersection of the vertical and horizontal lines. This arrangement is shown in Figure 7. The sator square is certainly ingenious in the way it combines the palindrome, the acrostic, and the anagram, though the use of the apparently arbitrary name Arepo could be considered cheating.
Whether it was originally concocted with a serious purpose is debatable. Certainly palindromes were popular in curses, perhaps, as mentioned above, because they could not be reversed, but this square came to be used as a charm rather than a curse. There is no evidence that it has a Christian origin in fact the early date of the oldest example virtually precludes that possibility but attempts to interpret it as Christian have been persistent.
Ceram, writer of popular books on archaeology, suggests reading the text boustrophedon i. This yields Sator opera tenet and Tenet opera sator. Paternoster cross. The sator square remains popular in occult literature. In chapter an initiand to a secret society is questioned Quid facit Sator Arepo?
The earliest known lipograms were written by a Greek lyric poet of the sixth century 30 from anagrams to cryptic crosswords bc, Lasus, who wrote several poems omitting sigma. Other ex amples exist in Greek and Roman literature as well as in modern European languages and Persian. In English letter e presents the ultimate challenge. It has the highest frequency of any letter and is not only used on its own to represent a vowel, but also as a silent letter in combination with other vowel letters in words such as mate, mete, mite, mote, and mute.
Astonishing as it may seem, whole novels have been written without using e. OuLiPo tries to expand literature by borrowing formal patterns from such other domains as mathematics, logic, or chess. This sentence was used by the communications company Western Union for testing its equipment because it contains all the letters of the alphabet. James Thurber wrote a novella for children and adults , The Wonderful O, about another island nation, Ooroo, where pirates take over and ban the letter o.
The island is renamed R, coats become cats and poets pets. Some writers have attempted to compose prose or verse texts using just one particular vowel. Such writings are called univocalics.
The normal spelling of revenent is revenant. Here is an example from an English work in which e is the vowel. Men were never perfect, yet the three brethren Veres were ever esteemed, respected, revered, even when the rest, whether the select few, whether the mere herd, were left neglected. Dobson, Poetical Ingenuities , quoted in Augarde Practically every newspaper in western countries carries at least one crossword puzzle. The early crosswords were of the simpler type where the clues are synonymous words or phrases.
By the mid twenties the cryptic type began to appear, in which the clues are deliberately obscure and ambiguous, often with the least likely reading being the correct one. Perhaps the most general principle used in cryptic crosswords is that clues tend to refer to the sequence of letters that make up a word rather than to the meaning. Like the jokesmith, the crossword maker often employs puns and other humorous devices.
In the eighteenth century Dr Johnson was critical of an impoverished university for being too lavish in distributing degrees, claiming that it was 33 secret language hoping to become rich by degrees. This is retold as a joke, but this same pun can be found in cryptic crossword clues. Crossword makers are also likely to ignore word boundaries if it suits them.
The sequence of letters in the word therapist can be broken into the rapist. The crossword, whether cryptic or simple, employs at least one point of linguistic knowledge, namely letter frequency. A cunning crossword compiler manages to put the less common letters such as k, q, and x between black squares rather than at word intersections, since knowing the position of one of these letters is a big help to the solver.
A Melbourne hardware chain 34 from anagrams to cryptic crosswords does this in its advertising. It includes a dog in its commercials and refers to its dogalogue rather than catalogue. The answers are often phrases. The presence of an anagram is usually signalled by words such as muddled, confused, scrambled, or simply out or off. The word changing does double duty since it indicates the presence of an anagram and supplies the meaning. Note that in refers to the sequence of letters. The clue could also refer to something being in a chopper, with chopper referring to a helicopter.
You have to come up with whale as the creature and then behead the word. You have to think of the word avid and then reverse it. Here are some conventional 36 from anagrams to cryptic crosswords methods. The solution is in the appendix at the back of the book. Cryptic crossword. Across 1. British Rail on company horse 6 4. A wager on the crags for those who help 8 9. Give cheek to tart for mouth 6 Mob rushes off with headless venerable scholar after postage 8 Where bet was laid in intervarsity boat race 2,6 Light rain you could barbecue on 4 Every monopoly sounds like a hotel for cars 4,6 39 21 secret language Commercial goals let you in 10 Silver artist in India 4 Wear the French around your loins 6 Nonsense to applaud pitfall 8 Saint tears to pieces 6 He leaves to try a hill 8 Feel nauseous after receiving short invoice and debts 7 2.
Love soft for one in bottom brings censure 9 3. Wager one bet but comes second 4 6. See 22 down 8 7. Silent century confused but can apply design 7 Interruption construed as unlawful entry 5,2 Perfumes from TV stations without direction 7 Fatal result of beastly encounter 5,4 One stupid degree 1,5,2 Gold FBI model will increase 7 A soft sitter is one who places side by side 7 Four dimensional? Shortens sail to avoid rocks 5 However, in the traditional literatures of Europe and most of Asia solving riddles was one of the heroic challenges, along with feats of physical strength.
The pope is Alexander Pope, who wrote a eulogy for the knight, 41 secret language Sir Isaac Newton, and the orb is the apple, which Newton is supposed to have used in the experiments which led to his theory of gravity. The hero realizes the answer to the riddle is apple. This supplies the combination to the alphabetical lock on a cryptex, a cylinder containing a message.
In many societies riddling is a form of verbal art practised by adults, often in community riddling sessions, and riddles are frequently serious rather than comic. Riddles are reported from all parts of the world, though examples from Australia are scanty. In some societies riddles are put to inductees in initiation rites; in others riddles are exchanged at wakes Burns The oldest examples of riddles we know of are Sumerian and date back to the third millennium bc, but given that children begin to play with language as soon as they have mastered it, I would suggest that humans probably did the same once they had acquired language, and that riddles have a long ancestry which predates written records.
The following example is a prototypical riddle in our culture: What has eyes, but cannot see? A potato. Here the metaphor lies in the use of eyes, whose primary reference is organs of sight, for the shoots on the surface of a potato, an example of polysemy. In this riddle, as in many, there is an apparent contradiction, because we naturally take eyes in its primary sense. The contradiction is resolved by the answer, which allows us to see that eyes has been used in its extended sense Georges and Dundes ; Taylor The next riddle also appears to contain contradictions.
It is spoken by a watch, and the contradictions arise from the alterna tion between go and stop used in their primary sense and with reference to a watch operating or not operating. I went to Turkey, and I stopped there, and I never went there, and I came back again. This example also illustrates two common features of riddles not found in what for us is the prototypical riddle. First, it is in statement form. A question may be added What am I?
Sometimes a riddle will be introduced by a conventional for mula. In English the line Riddle me, riddle me, ree is often used to introduce a riddle in rhyme. The following riddle refers to some kind of berry. Although a typical riddle involves metaphor, it is possible to have a riddle that is literal, and which relies on the fact that particular properties can be common to a number of referents. The lines of the following riddle which refers to a blackberry or bramble can be taken literally, but there is a partial change of subject after line one.
One of the oldest recorded riddles is found in the Bible Judges After killing a young lion with his bare hands, Samson saw that bees had swarmed and built a hive in the carcass, so he proposed the following riddle to the Philistines: Out of the eater came something to eat; out of the strong came something sweet. In Vietnamese almost all words are monosyllabic or consist of combinations of monosyllables. It neither goes to a river nor comes to shore, It is suspended in air, but somehow has water in it. One is a riddle that depends on a pun or word play in the answer rather than a metaphor in the question.
This type is sometimes called a conundrum. Why did the ram go straight ahead? What did Mrs Cook say when Captain Cook died? Why do ducks go under water? For divers reasons. The other type simply demands clear thinking. Whose portrait is he looking at? Indian riddles frequently incorporate word play, perhaps not surprisingly given that traditional Indian literature is full of puns and so forth.
Quvat e ru:h ci:st strength of. In chapter 6 of The Banquet of the Seven Sages Plutarch mentions a story about the king of Ethiopia chal lenging the king of Egypt to solve a riddle in a contest for territory that lay between the two kingdoms, and the Byzantine scholar Maximus Planudes relates a duel of riddles in his Life of Aesop between Lycerus, king of Babylon, and Nectanebo, king of Egypt. There is also a story that the oracle at Thebes posed the following riddle to anyone arriving in the city: What animal is it that in the morning goes on four feet, at noon on two, and in the evening upon three?
As the story goes, the riddle remained unsolved for years and all who attempted to solve it and failed were devoured by the Sphinx. When Oedipus arrived, he solved the riddle, pointing out that it referred to a human, who crawls on four limbs as a baby, walks on two legs as an older child and adult, and uses a walking stick in old age. In the folklore of Europe and Asia maidens are often protected by riddles. Suitors who fail are beheaded. Undaunted the prince accepts the challenge.
All three answers are correct. She must marry him. But when the prince kisses her, she begins to feel stirrings of love. Fortunately his gamble pays off. In the story King Antiochus carries on an incestuous relationship with his daughter and keeps suitors at bay by proposing a riddle that they must solve if they wish to marry her. If they fail, they are beheaded. The riddle is Scelere vehor, maternam carnem vescor. I am carried away by crime. Note also that vescor would have taken an ablative complement not an accusative one in classical Latin.
Antiochus does not play fair. He tells Apollonius that he is wrong and sends someone to kill him. In the Norse sagas characters are often faced not only with physical trials but also with riddles. Odin appears to him in the guise of Gestumblindi and the two change clothes. Odin presents himself before the king as Gestumblindi and proceeds to ask the king a number of riddles. Two of these are given below. King Heidrik, Guess the riddle. Odin escapes by turning himself into a falcon, though the king manages to hack off his tail feathers. European Riddles Riddles in verse were popular with the Greeks and later with the Romans.
Some classical riddles incorporate other forms of word play. The following is a palindrome. In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni. There is no metaphor, just a lack of explicit subject. The answer has not been recorded but is probably moths. It works in later Latin, where the length distinction had been lost, and it works in the spelling since vowel length was not represented.
Una mihi facies ante retroque manet. If you read me backwards, I say ever the same. I present one face forwards and backwards. Si me retro legis, faciam de nomine verbum. Femina cum fuerim, imperativus ero. If you read me backwards, I shall make a verb from a noun. Feminine I was, imperative I shall be. These consist of three lines of Latin hexameters, with elegant and clever phrasing Ohl The subject of each is given, so they do not seem like riddles. Tinea Littera me pavit, nec quid sit littera novi; in libris vixi, nec sum studiosior inde; exedi Musas, nec adhuc tamen ipsa profeci.
Bookworm Letters fed me, but I did not know what a letter was. I lived in books, but I am no wiser for it. I consumed the Muses, but nevertheless I have not yet progressed. Riddles remained a major form of entertainment in the Middle Ages. There is also a collection of riddles by Aldhelm , abbott of Malmesbury and later bishop of Sherborne, a collection that owes a great deal to Symphonius. All these writers wrote in Latin. Our knowledge of riddles in Old English comes from a collection of ninety odd riddles in a manuscript known as The Exeter Book, written around the end of the tenth century Williamson They range in length from one line to over a hundred.
They are all in the common verse mode of the time, namely alliterative verse with two stresses to the half line and at least one alliteration between the half lines. Here is a short riddle on the same subject as the one from Symphonius quoted above. Words the moth ate, and it seemed to me A curious deed, when that wonder I heard, That the worm swallowed up the words of a man 53 secret language Thief in the night, his glorious speech And its strong support. The thieving stranger Was no whit the wiser for the words he swallowed. Such obscurity as there is derives from ambiguity in words.
The bookworm eats the physical words, the parchment and ink, but we normally understand words as meaningful elements drawn from the mental lexicon. As we saw in the previous chapter, this kind of ambiguity is also the stock in trade of the composer of cryptic crosswords. Most of the riddles in The Exeter Book are serious. Some of the riddles in The Exeter Book have two interpretations, one respectable and the other bawdy. Riddle XXV can be taken to refer to an onion, but there is an X rated alternative.
A wonder am I to women a joy, To neighbours a need. In the bed I stand tall and straight, But rough below. Sometimes dares A wilful woman grab me she will, Raze me red, ravage my head, Clench me close. The innocent answer may then be given in an attempt to embarrass the person to whom the riddle has been posed.
For instance, a common con temporary riddle asks What is it a man can do standing, a woman sitting down, and a dog on three legs? Educational texts in the Middle Ages were often in the form of a dialogue between teacher and student, and riddles appear in some of these dialogues.
One such text is from the English scholar Alcuin Ealhwine c. It is a dialogue between Alcuin and Pepin in most of which Alcuin answers 55 secret language questions with kennings. These kennings are not always transpar ent and they often have a riddle like quality. Here they are given as answers to questions. In other words these pairs of question and answer are like riddles in reverse with the obscurity in the answer. Quid est aer?
What is breath? Custodia vitae. The guard of life. Quid est vita? Beatorum laetitia, miserorum moestitia, exspectatio mortis. The joy of the blessed, the grief of the unhappy, a waiting for death. What is life? Quid est mors? What is death? Quid est luna? What is the moon?
Oculus noctis, roris larga, praesaga tempestatum. The eye of night, the giver of dew, the prophet of the weather. In the following example, however, Alcuin presents Pepin with a riddle, and Pepin answers with a kenning. The referent is an arrow. Vidi feminam volantem, rostrum habentem ferreum, et corpus ligneum et caudam pennatam, mortem portantem.
Socia militum. Riddles became popular in France and England in the seven teenth century. They were usually in verse and the emphasis was on elegance of expression. Here is an example from Jona than Swift The subject is obviously the moon. I with borrowed silver shine, What you see is none of mine. Non-European Riddles As noted at the beginning of the chapter, riddles are found in numerous cultures around the world. Outside Europe most riddles are instructive rather than amusing.
They are often proverb like, and like proverbs they belong to a familiar repertoire and com monly play a prominent part in community gatherings. In sub Saharan Africa riddles are an important cultural form. Most riddles are from a traditional repertoire so the addressee is not set the task of trying to decode the riddle. Even where a new riddle is invented, the solution is offered Messenger That is to say, however plain she may be, they will desire the woman you clothe.
Among the Anang of southeastern Nigeria there are similar riddles. The example below begins with an apparent reference to a pepper tree, but the reference is metaphorical Messenger The pepper tree growing next to the well does not bear ripe fruit. People passing to and from a well will pluck the peppers from any tree growing near the well and eat them, not allowing them to mature into desirable spicy fruit. The village of Obonukwa lies on the border of Ibo territory and the Anang believe the women have picked up bad 5 No introductory frame is used with these Nyanga pairs, and for that reason Harries does not consider them as riddles Harries They are plucked prematurely and do not grow into desirable fruit.
In the next example the relationship between the two parts is not apparent without extra information Messenger Darkness brings evil thoughts. These thoughts are attributed to evil spirits, and the proverb is a warning to be on guard against such spirits. Pepper burns my throat. The world loved me when I was a child. An immature pepper can be chewed whole, but a ripe pepper is spicy and used only as a condiment. Children are sweet and treated well, but old people are not always treated so well. Among the Dusun of Borneo riddles play a traditional part in educating the young, rather as proverbs do for us.
White is the goat and black is the pig. No use for one to die, The two virgins must die together. The pig and the goat must die together to make the ritual right. The next one teaches about the role of the headman in settling disputes Williams b: , Riddle 3. The answer is phrased in 59 secret language general terms, but in the context of local culture it would be understood as meaning the headman.
The cloth is unravelled and no one can mend it but Iangkutide, who spends a day repairing it. One who settles cases at law. The Rebus A rebus is a representation using pictures or icons instead of words. The earliest systems of writing, which developed in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and Central America, all started with pictograms such as a drawing of a hill to represent a hill or an ideogram such as a pair of legs to represent the notion of walking or going. Obviously most words do not lend themselves to these methods of representation, so pictograms and ideograms came to be used for syllables or words that sounded the same as words that had a pictorial representation.
An example in English would be to represent lionize by a pictogram of a lion and a pictogram of two eyes, exploiting homophony between lion and lion, and between ize and eyes. A representation of this type is a rebus. One family with the surname Bowes had bows that you tie in theirs, and another family with the same name had bows of the kind that shoot arrows. The late mother of the present queen of 6 See ch.
The coat of arms of Princess Beatrice of York retains part of this motif with an overlay of three bees bee trice. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries rebuses were popular in books of word puzzles and the like. Over the last decade or so it has become popular to send messages by mobile phone, a context in which brevity is at a premium. The Charade A development of the elegant verse riddle was the charade, in which clues were given to the letters or syllables of a word rather than to the complete referent.
Charades became popular in England in the late eighteenth century. Here is perhaps the most quoted example. It is by Catherine Maria Fanshawe , and it refers to the letter H. Breathe on it softly, it dies in an hour. In chapter 9 of Emma Jane Austen introduces an elaborate charade that plays a part in the plot. Another view of man, my second brings, Behold him there, the monarch of the seas!
But ah! Thy ready wit the word will soon supply; May its approval beam in that soft eye! This is a game in which someone seeks to represent a word or phrase in mime. The actor usually starts by indicating the category of phrase to be represented. More interestingly the miming can operate on the basis of syllables.
The breaking up of a word into syllables allows the rebus principle to be employed. There is also a convention for indicating words or syllables that sound the same as the target. In all there are forty or so conventions for indicating characteristics of the word or phrase to be guessed. Equivocation and Prevarication The idea that supernatural beings can communicate with humans is widespread. In modern times there are still people who claim to be able to tell the future from the distribution of tea leaves in the bottom of a cup or the fall of dice.
The thread connecting these possibili ties is chance. Dreams and drug induced hallucinations have long been a favoured source of prophecy since they involve the brain producing a scenario 64 talking in riddles without any conscious determination on the part of the dreamer or hallucinator. In the case of dreams, supernatural forces have often been perceived as being at work.
In the Ancient Greek world there were sibyls who issued prophecies.
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The sibyls were women who inhabited caves or shrines, and their succession may have gone back to pre Hellenic times. The best known sibyl was the Delphic Sibyl, who lived on the side of Mount Parnassus; other well known sibyls included the Ery thraean Sibyl of Ionia in the Aegean and the Cumaean Sibyl, who lived in caves near Vesuvius. They were said to have uttered their prophecies in a state of induced frenzy, making strange, inarticulate sounds, a kind of glossolalia.
However, Cicero points out De Divitatione, LIV that the prophecies of the Erythraean Sibyl were written out so that the initial letters of the sections formed words, i. The sibyls were also said to have written their prophecies on sheets which they placed outside their caves. This meant the prophecies could be scattered by the wind, which might have added a degree of obscurity, a desirable result from the point of view of the sibyl, who needed to be vague, since obviously an explicit prophecy runs the risk of being disproved and thereby ruining the reputation of the prophet.
Croesus was told he would destroy a great empire. He also asked whether his kingdom would be long lasting. The Oracle replied: Wait till a time shall come when a mule is monarch of Media; Then, thou delicate Lydian, away to the pebbles of Hermus. He went ahead and attacked the Persians and was defeated. He had destroyed a great empire, his own. When he remonstrated with the Oracle, he was told that he should have enquired which empire was meant, and the Oracle also said that he had misunderstood about the mule.
Cyrus was a mule because his mother was a Mede and his father a Persian Herodu tus 1: 53 5, A mule is a hybrid of horse and donkey, so the Oracle had used mule in a metaphorical sense. A curious fact about the sibyls is that they were accepted as a genuine source of revelation by early Christians, who were other wise intent on stamping out any traces of pagan belief.
Teque adeo decus hoc aevi, te consule, inibit, Pollio, et incipient magni procedere menses; te duce, si qua manent sceleris vestigia nostri, inrita perpetua solvent formidine terras. Now returns the virgin, returns the reign of Saturn: now from high heaven a new generation descends. You, chaste Lucina, with the birth of this boy, in whom the iron race now ceases, and the golden one arises over all the world, grant your favour; Now your Apollo reigns. And in your consulate, in yours, Pollio, shall this glory of the age begin, and the great months begin to roll. Under your rule any traces of our crime [will] vanish and free the world from perpetual fear.
It is uncertain who the Wunderkind is the typical problem of the vagueness of prophecy and discussion has raged for two thousand years. The possibility of its refer ring to Jesus Christ is raised regularly. It is unlikely that Virgil would have had any knowledge of or interest in Jewish Mes sianic prophecy.
Those who have taken the lines as referring to Christ assume that Virgil was granted a revelation. This explains his respected status in the Middle Ages. Dies ira, dies illa solvet saeclum in favilla teste David cum Sibylla. As mentioned above, oracles and fortune tellers tend to be equivocal or vague, and with good reason, since precise predictions can easily prove wrong. Sometimes they speak in riddles and, if the few examples that have been preserved are any indication, they regularly use metaphors, as in the mule example.
It was incorporated in a number of medieval poems. Macbeth seeks to know what the future holds for him and consults three witches, who summon up apparitions. An apparition of a bloody child gives Macbeth the following assurance IV. Here is the exchange in which Macbeth learns how the prophecy deceived him V. But when Macduff comes to confront Macbeth, a police helicopter is heard overhead. Riddles for the Reader Here are is a variety of riddles for those readers who would like to try their hand.
The answers are in the Appendix. Why is a publican like a prisoner? What gets wetter the more it dries? If you have me, you want to share me. What am I? What can run but never walks, has a mouth but never talks, has a head but never weeps, has a bed but never sleeps? My life can be measured in hours, I serve by being devoured. Thin, I am quick Fat, I am slow Wind is my foe. What is it the more you take away the larger it becomes? The passage is imagining time on a geologic scale. Dodging the curse. Compare Portrait , chapter 2.
A Wellington signature: see It is, at the least, somewhat incongruous that men of God should be selling the components of weaponry to warriors. Similar effects appear at the end of I. Also, murmurs, like those of a merman. Both are examples of the ancient past, but also, yet again see. Their first appearance as a comedy team was in Probably not Also, since scripture in written in books made of leaves — a frequent FW theme — a variation of tree - stone. As publican, HCE is also a grocer.
In FW , this usually indicates a Munster native. Also, a French e with an acute accent. Aisles of a music hall as well as isles of the sea-going Scandinavians Sort of thing a prince would have As elsewhere, for instance in this chapter, the girls are eager to cluster around the hero of the hour. Also, Hereward the Wake: see The pub side of the enterprise either continues or commences: Also, a hooper is a barrel-maker.
Compare, especially, Although he was apparently not especially given to contumeliis , Latin for insults, the two examples that follow at. Punch may be full of himself because drunk. In the Norwegian sailor sequence of II. Priestly Hers is the flesh that has brought out their thorns, likely with phallic meaning. Also, given the poultry context, perhaps also the wishbone, traditionally split by two contestants, with whoever gets the bigger fragment the declared winner.
Also: tinkling: sounds of rain Also, bush holding ram which was substituted for Isaac This one is loaded with — see McHugh — Irish authors is leaving town on sternwheeler. On March 21, , Venus set at approximately p. The rhumba. Also, coneys — rabbits — are leapers. Also see In keeping with Hebrew, with its exclusion of vowels, much in evidence throughout this paragraph. See, for instance, the next entry. Also, yodh otherwise yod , yudh , yud , tenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet I suggest this refers to the storm, which has passed over and is now in the distance.
The rest of the paragraph. A E I O U: here comes those vowels back. Occurs in this sense in In golf terminology, then and now, it would be to the left. See entry for. Compare the sigla of His appearance at some point in FW would seem inevitable. A mall, up until the second half of the 20th century, was a fashionable, sometimes tree-lined promenade. His hume.
Seakale is green. Still, it seems to fit here. Also, of course, in the literal sense: you dig someone into or out of a tumulus. Point of Fn. So was carbon — not, as far as I can tell, included here. Mercury sometimes substituted for sulphur. Also, salt of mercury, a. Terra Firma: Earth, a planet. Also, of course, Ainsoph and his zeroine make a The words of the footnote Fn. An appropriate invocation for someone see previous entry just unearthed.
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Accords with Fn. Seems unlikely. The subsequent injunctions in the main text are mainly ceremonial prayers for their future prosperity. Among fishermen, hake is known for its exceptionally large mouth full of sharp teeth, requiring caution when hauling in and removing the hook; All three H. Or vice-versa. Brook of Life, backfrish! Also, combines two curious bits of English terminology: 1. Marble Arch is, or was, in posh district of London; Poolbeg is a poor part of Dublin. Sounds like Dante, in Portrait.
I wonder when people first came to think that George III, in his madness, had suffered from porphyria. Chapelizod has a Mt. Sackville Secondary School taught by nuns; according to Mink it was once a convent. House of Fragonard sold perfumes, some with strawberry scents.
Ivy is a vine; bowers are traditionally of vines. Evidently refers to the myriads of offspring. Connections: 1. Rest-room attendants performing such offices used to be fixture of high-class joints. Also: P, the letter of the English alphabet, is represented in English hieroglyphs as a shutter. So, presumably, would a healthy liver, howevermuch abused. General effect is dark and misty.
Was it ever a toll bridge? Did it ever have parapets? See McHugh. Seems to fit both classroom disputation and challenge to fight. I think this, not masturbation, is the likeliest context for Throughout most of this paragraph, certainly at. See also FW The Proserpine and Pluto story. Paired verticals are always or almost always an Issy signature.
Also, the twins, as rivals, will be cudgeling one another. In American slang, to whump someone is to give them a beating. Politically, American mugwumps were said to be pigheadedly indecisive, sitting with their mugs on one side of the fence and their wumps on the other. Again, the Mullingar Inn was also a grocery store. Compare, for instance, Relativistic gist: in the miniaturized thimble-world, even such a diminutive specimen will be the star attraction.
Also, perhaps, the Analects of Confucius. OED dates the word from Also, French men and women were proverbial for sexual forwardness. The whole run of marriage-market advice in these pages recalls W. Basic distinction is between essential and inessential, varieties of. All four of the letters then listed. Accompanying footnote Fn. There are of course a number of card games — gin rummy, for one — in which not being able to follow suit means drawing from the pack - i. Prospects-wise, not much of a catch, but, alas, given how the deck is stacked, even his advances must be considered.
Highly sarcastic, with an air of offended eminence. Alice Liddell is exactly seven years old in Wonderland , exactly seven and a half in Looking-Glass. Earlier, I. In Ulysses , Both Gerty and Molly remember such shocking spectacles. Also, geese wobble when they walk. Also, apparently unlike all other members of the catalogue here, he seems to have had nothing to do with Ireland. The general sense seems to be of a once-comely woman, either aged or infirm, looking into her candle-lit mirror before bed, a caudle in her hand.
As usual, improper words are the hardest to trace. Goes on to say — the speculation continues until the end of the paragraph, at See next note. Elephants have tusks, which can curve around back-to-front; at C minded…. See note. Here as there, signals transition to a new age. Rider dismounts via stirrup. Three hands, conventionally, would equal a foot. As in the story incorporated in Again, see note to 4. It appears in a section, presumably initiated at line. The historical hinge of these lines — B.
Also, considering the letter theme, probably Boston. The post-WW I future is not as rosy as some suppose. The Joyce of the FW years seems always to have known this. There are several seven-arched bridges in existence; probably the likeliest to be pertinent was built in in Newport, County Mayo. No direct link indicated in ms. In Fn. See first note to.
Joyce gets revenge for this crack in I. Hence the wink. My thanks to Stephen Sas for this information. Did Joyce know that in Manhattan you can never or almost never see the stars? Also, Clongowes. Here, it seems to double with something like Lamarckian embryology: the twins are different because of some external occurrence or influence in the womb. After all, they did wrestle there. In Ulysses , Bloom wonders whether his son Rudy died shortly after childbirth because of the external circumstances of his conception, and in the same vein speculates that Milly is blonde because Molly was thinking of his predecessor, the blonde Mulvey, when Milly was conceived.
Also, compare Tristram Shandy. The silver birch and quicken a. Not likely to have been all that jubilant, since Albert had died late in Whether of marriage or other anniversary, or, of course, hair silver connotes longevity. Also, see note to. Also, Liffey waves, similarly stirred by the wind. Also, the Joyces, like the Blooms, sometimes slept head-to-foot. Also, a four-digit telephone number.
In many places, seven-digit numbers had become standard by the mid-thirties. Among other properties, cauls are supposed to protect against drowning. Since translating implies publishing, it may be pertinent that the publisher Houghton-Mifflin had an Arion-on—dolphin logo. Much of the corresponding main text describes instinctive behavior, especially of animals. The linked Fn. Also, similarly conciliatory, the goatherd lying down with his goats. Frumenty is usually considered a treat. A major FW motif: according to Ellmann, it thrilled the infant Joyce, and he seems never to have gotten over it.
There is one in Coolock, a few miles away. Benedict the Moor — though as far as I can tell Ireland has no churches in his honor. Bloodstones are jade in color, with flecks of red. The note does take us back near to a picture of the married couple. The overall sense of Fn. Next entry continues the thread. Here, just as his seven-colored suit. Also, compare 6. Also, probably a sign of female sexual response; see next item. British postmen wore wear? March is proverbially the most changeable of months comes in like a lion, etc.
Typical student would be a young woman. Even today, some editors balk at contractions. The speaker seems to have become increasingly untrustworthy. After the exchange about contractions Fn. In this regard, note. Also, spring itself — again, usually beginning on the 21st of March. Point being, the 29 here may also be a Old faiths — witchcraft, Druidism — occasionally surface.
Auden, anyway, took this as a reference to himself. A friend of his, fellow poet William Meredith, told me this. This version of the FW letter is derived from, or similar to, a sample from a book on the proper writing of letters. Problems: 1. In general,. In any case, certainly coarsens the tone in a hurry, from either Quinet or LM 2.
Anyway, all are. Occurs in this sense among others in Ulysses. Caesar had Vercingetorix paraded as prisoner in a triumph before ordering him strangled. The speaker here seems to be indignant that the Gallic Celt Vercingetorix has received more historical recognition than the Spanish Celtic defenders of Numantia. Irish, from the land of turf. A woman of the world, she knows he has a past but here, sir, is mine: full disclosure. And, of course, his arithmetic lesson begins by counting the fingers on his hand — French main.
The Joycean will at once recognize the moo-cow coming down the road in the first sentence of A Portrait. All of this first round of names for his fingers are baby-ish. Only the pope can create cardinals; he may be playing at it. It can also mean a casual sexual encounter, usually for money.
In other words, at this stage the young Kev is going to the bad. A good deal of this page is about tyranny facilitated by numbers: for instance, the thirty-nine articles , agent of Anglican domination of Ireland. Ellmann Joyce found Rouen a miserable place. Upright, an umbrella. The figure will return, more or less, at A telegraph pole near the border between them might therefore be visible or re-visible from one to the other.
The language here mimics that of textbook exercises. Would seem to go with reclining 8 becoming. This despite their busy, buzzing clitties, being stimulated by the bike-riding. Girls riding bicycles in Joyce are always, following the conventional wisdom of his youth, being brazen. Bicycles, with their two wheels, are yet another variation on the theme of 8 and. Also, given bicycle context, probably one of those early models, called a high-wheeler, with one big wheel in front. Later, beginning about , a brand of camera. Also, slang for a glance: take a dekko of that.
Also — see previous note — photographers care about sunlight. Miscegenetic rape. In one Arab legend, a wingless arrow is used to randomly determine which of ten sons is to be sacrificed at the Kaaba. Always or almost always, as here, signals usually exasperated befuddlement. Ulysses Kev is in a frenzied state here both because the lesson is difficult and because he is the thick one. Fits the footnote Fn.
Also, a reprise of the bicycle and tricycle of the previous page: Fn. Neither do I. Turning a new page McHugh in sense of turning over a new leaf. Like studying French for years and then going to France only to find that the kids speak the language better than you do. There were four of them. Trigonometry will follow. Again, Shem was the original Semite. Starting at Brendan O Hehir notes the following: 1.
It was conventional wisdom of the time that athletics deflected and dispersed energies that might otherwise lead to political or other violence. Also, ordinal numbers, as opposed to the cardinal numbers Some pious Catholics make a practice of crossing themselves when passing a church. The Irish are commanded to show deference to their betters, whether Dean Swift or Danish conquerors, either by hat-removing or arse-kissing.
Macaulay, Fannie Caldwell
Also, may refer to the repulsed and retreating French naval invasion at Bantry Bay, Compare 6. Perhaps also coupons, either for rationing i. This passage is especially thick in equal-opposite readings, but the general on the whole, false sense is that no amount of riches can tempt the natives to leave Ireland.
Given emigrant theme, may also be relevant that greenback dollars and gold coins signify American wealth. Both Indies were synonymous with fabulous riches. On the air since ; concerts were re-broadcast in Europe. Joyce enjoyed listening to American radio. For the whole sequence, compare In Joyce stayed in several hotels in Rouen and vicinity; what with weather and health, he found it pretty ruinous Ellmann, Compare , Fn.
Allusion to Sir John Harington, proverbial inventor of the toilet and therefore a force for progress. Glasheen finds him elsewhere in FW but not here. The change from Old Style to New Style also involved synchronizing. General sense, which will run through the next lines, is that Tristram-type is transformed into return of Mark-type, who with combination of power and priestcraft re claims Iseult and the other young lovelies of Ireland.
Expressions of the latter sort are frequent in 19th century English novels. Throughout FW , white cheeks often signify innocence, real or affected, blushing the opposite. Extreme unction was administered with olive oil, also used in lamps. Obviously, a practice open to abuse. Language of marriage. Also, his seagoing craft is receding with the ebbing tide.
Fits Russian-Potemkin theme. Probably goes with Cornish setting, including wreckers; Treasure Island is set in southwest England. Sounds reasonable to me. Surely it was the monument, not the tree, that everyone insulted. Glasheen notes the repeated pairing of Sarah and Sally. It would be neat to see this as a prophecy of Elizabeth II. Glasheen does.