San Sebastian : demana pedagogica organizada por el S. Le programme des Rencontres C. Les professeurs sont pleins de rancune devant le traitement que leur inflige l'Etat. Ces auteurs sont d'accord avec la proposition de RUGU pour renouveler l'enseignement du danois. Professeur de danois, S. Au programme F.
Sciences humaines. L'inadaptation de l'enseignement actuel et la crise de mai Kako postici Comment inculquer la conscience de la discipline. L'enseignement pour la licence de sciences aux Etats-Unis. A quoi sert l'examen? Faut-il supprimer les examens ou les amender? Analyse psychologique de la situation d'examen. L'auteur explique la position de l'Association Nationale des Enseignants N. Comment avez-vous fait? Nous avons fait ceci. Le professeur G.
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Logique et Analyse, , , DOI: Vannetzel, L. Experimental evaluation of the understanding of qualitative probability and probabilistic reasoning in young children. Benferht, K. Ali Eds.
Updating context in the Equation : An experimental argument with eye tracking. Ferraro, P. Giordani, B. Vantagi, M. Gagolewski, M. Angeles Gil, P. Hryniewicz Eds. Dancey, C.
Stats sans maths pour la psychologie. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology. Human behavioral complexity peaks at age PLoS Computational Biology 13 4 : e The information-theoretic and algorithmic approach to human, animal and artificial cognition. Giovagnoli Eds. A preference for some types of complexity. Acta Psychologica, , In Marc Silberstein dir. Hattori, I. Dual frames for causal induction: The normative and the heuristic.
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NAO robot as experimenter: social cues emitter and neutralizer to bring new results in experimental psychology. Zilina, Slovakia. Over, D. Abingdon, UK : Routledge. Reasoning strategies for diagnostic probability estimates in causal contexts: Preference for defeasible deduction over abduction. Espoo, Finland.
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Pour un dialogue entre les sciences cognitives et le droit pp. Puigelier, et C. Mare et Martin collection Science et Droit. Logic, probability and inference: a methodology for a new paradigm. In Cognitive Unconscious and Human Rationality pp. Macchi, M. When emotions became overwhelming and the reasons he left France crowd in on him, he turned to writing, which became the real process of discovery. Rather than taking an interest in the situations of injustice with which he is confronted the way Gide did, Leiris expresses intermittent guilt about abandoning his political engagements in Europe In the middle of Dogon country, Leiris comments on news about the status of Surrealist dissidence:.
Lettre de K. He finds himself inordinately attached to objects, however trivial, and memories of home. After remarking that the African women he encounters are not exciting because their nudity and promiscuity do not promise the same thrill of transgression that sexual relations with a well-dressed bourgeois lady does, he finds himself dreaming of Breton:. Nouvelle pollution nocturne. These objects are metonymically associated with rythm, dancing, sacrifice, and blood and thus bring with them erotic and pseudo-erotic overtones.
The impression Leiris creates of systematic pillaging was not misleading. As a means of accounting for conceptual affinities between Surrealism and ethnography Clifford proposes that both activities involve a process of cultural defamiliarization. The elementary process of rethinking cultural values and pushing conceptual limits is captured in the way Clifford has linked the avant-garde dimensions of early ethnography and Surrealism. He associates the assault on conventional perceptions of cultural values that had been leveled against the bourgeois establishment by Dada and Surrealism with a relativization of European cultural superiority in relation to the colonies.
He plays up the similarities between avant-garde art and ethnography and argues that they both served to decenter European cultural authority during the s. The limited scope of his examples is less a problem than their utopic status; this raises questions about what it is in this period of French intellectual history that Clifford seeks to appropriate for the purposes of advancing contemporary criticism of European cultural practices.
If ethnography helped make the distant cultures of the populations colonized by France more visible to a metropolitan public, the nature of the process still preserved the centrality of a French perspective.
They visit one colonial administrator after the next. The financial transactions between the Frenchmen who pay almost nothing for sacred objects and the villagers who hand over their possession—often under coercion—is illustrated in the following passage where Leiris tells about the arrival of some objects he and Griaule had purchased:. Leiris put his friendship on the line with his decision to publish, since Griaule felt the book would compromise the future development of ethnography.
Even if Leiris recounts with irony how they pillaged one African village after the next for every interesting object that counted as art in Paris, his tongue-in-cheek humor does not remove their actions from the colonial framework which made them possible. This time, Leiris tells of how he and Griaule confiscated a sacred mask from the Kono in the Sudan. They did not appreciate the complications; thus, Griaule decided to blackmail the elders with ten francs and a threat of legal punishment by the colonial administration if they were not allowed to enter:.
Affreux chantage! By this point, neither Griaule nor Leiris actually wanted to go inside, so they tried to send in someone else. Left with no choice, they went in and removed the sacred mask:. The way in which he observes his own theatrical gestures suggests a perverse delight in their demonstration of will and power. The way in which the pink-eared men came and violated the spiritual integrity of this community was no doubt lamented for years to come.
What is more, Leiris seems to relish the status of demon, thief, and culprit. He describes their departure:. It would seem that this kind of object collecting replaced the stimulation of sexual relations with a well-dressed lady no longer possible in the African bush. He juxtaposes these activities a bit later; after describing the regrettable nudity of African women, he writes:.
He notes that blood-stained objects add a magical dimension to these scenarios. But more important than the commodification of aesthetics is the way in which the collection of these objects violently disrupts their cultural vitality by removing them from their original context in order for them to figure in a French narrative of anthropological humanism.
What is important to note here, because often overlooked in criticism, is how the cultural idiom of vanguard primitivism, a colonialist epistemology, and the social institutions of empire were inextricably linked during the interwar period.
In the end, Leiris tells a story of a disenchantment analogous to the one Gide relates in his travel journals, except that Gide became directly involved in the documentation and rectification of specific instances of colonial abuses which Leiris did not. Le voyage ne nous change que par moments.