The GSIs are highly recommended to those delivering instruction and assessing student achievement in specific CTS strands and courses. The newsletter is distributed to junior and senior high school principals, school system superintendents and all members of the CTS Communication Network. CTS Tracker Version 3. The software is designed for Microsoft Windows version 3. The following videos provide an effective means of explaining CTS to clients and stakeholders in the school and community. Designed for viewing by adults, the video is divided into distinct segments and may be used for inservice and orientation sessions.
The video is accompanied by a brochure available in quantity that describes key features of the CTS program 25 minutes. Designed for use with students, the video focuses attention on technical career opportunities, and is accompanied with a questionnaire to assist students in career planning 15 minutes. The video is divided into distinct segments and may be used for inservice and orientation sessions 30 minutes.
The communication plan should include an initial orientation to CTS, and ongoing strategies to reinforce and expand understanding of the CTS program and how it is evolving in the school and community. To assist in this task, information packages can be developed and modified to address the needs of different groups. As well, it is helpful to keep informed of implementation initiatives undertaken in other communities. To assist teachers in making the transition from practical arts to CTS, a correlation of CTS courses to the former practical arts courses they replace is provided for each strand.
Course design and selection must address prerequisites and other delivery requirements defined in the strand and course parameters. Individual schools may select which CTS strands they wish to offer. These courses directly reinforce employability skills and can be used effectively to extend learning in other CTS strands. While many courses can be delivered by certified teachers having expertise and interests suited to providing instruction in CTS settings, some courses require additional instructor qualifications over and above a regular professional teaching certificate.
Teacher selection processes must address the instructional qualifications as defined in the strand and course parameters. While schools establish their own strategies and criteria for placing students in CTS courses, these practices should reflect student interests and needs. Some students with special needs may benefit from instruction in some CTS strands and courses, particularly those involving considerable hands-on learning with limited emphasis on theory.
Students with special needs taking CTS courses for credit are expected to meet all requirements for successful course completion. In situations where curriculum is modified and no credit is granted, such changes should be recorded on the student's individual program plan. CTS encourages schools to use on- and off-campus learning environments in addressing student needs. Learning environments, whether on-campus or off-campus, must address the policies and guidelines for facilities, equipment and safety as defined in the strand and course parameters.
CTS learning environments should provide opportunities for students to work individually or with others in a supportive atmosphere that reflects due attention to health and safety. Schools and school systems are encouraged to consider the many methods of course delivery available to them when they plan course offerings in CTS.
While most strands and courses can be offered through standard class scheduling practices, the structure of CTS, its focus on competency rather than time-based learning, and the use of off-campus delivery and enhanced distance learning tools enable schools to expand student access to CTS strands and courses.
Standard class scheduling involves timetabling CTS classes using the Carnegie Unit organizational model; i. Such practices, usually established at the school level through various software programs, provide for instruction through clearly defined time blocks. Standard class scheduling can be effectively used to timetable CTS classes, assign students and teachers, and monitor attendance. CTS emphasizes experiential learning. It is important that students have opportunities to demonstrate and practice the competencies they develop.
Class length should provide sufficient time for hands-on experiences as well as work set-up and clean-up. Class sequencing should provide frequent opportunities for students to practise the skills they are learning. Scenario A Students move through courses sequentially; e. This strategy is often used when students are working on an integrated project, such as operating a school store or handling customer work; e. The menu of courses could be from one or more strands. Many of the options outlined below can be used as an extension to, or in combination with standard class timetabling.
Sharing may occur among schools within the same school system, or through special agreements with schools in a neighbouring system. Off-campus Delivery CTS courses or course components can be delivered outside the school classroom or lab through off-campus education. Off-campus education may encompass community partnerships, job shadowing, job sharing, mentorships, and work study. Such strategies are effective in helping students make connections in their learning across the curriculum. While the potential for distance education technology to deliver a range of CTS courses is expanding rapidly, some courses focus on the development of workplace competencies and cannot be effectively delivered unless the student has access to hands-on learning, either in a lab or worksite setting.
Such courses do not lend themselves to technological delivery unless supported by other forms of instruction and practice. Offering CTS courses during the evening, on weekends and in the summer can be yet another means of providing flexible delivery options and making efficient use of school and community resources.
The same requirements for course delivery as noted previously apply, with the exception that for these courses, schools must provide access to instruction of at least 16 hours per credit. Once organizational strategies regarding where and how learning is to occur have been established, teachers can begin to prepare learning plans. Learning plans determine how the competencies defined within specific courses are to be developed and assessed. Learning plans should address both the basic competencies and strand-specific competencies referenced as general outcomes module learner expectations in documents.
Additional guidelines for preparing learning plans are provided through the specific outcomes specific learner expectations in documents. Though not prescriptive, the specific outcomes provide further information regarding the depth and scope of learning expected for each course. SLGs are designed to be used by students under the direction of a teacher. While a development template accompanied by some sample SLGs is provided for each CTS strand, most SLG development is being done by individuals and organizations across the province.
Teachers should note that an SLG is not a self-contained learning package like those produced by the Learning Technologies Branch. Distance learning materials are self-contained learning packages that typically include the type of information provided in a Student Learning Guide and additional resource materials for the student. Teachers are advised to consult the Learning Technologies Branch home page for information regarding the availability of distance learning materials in particular strands and for future development schedules. Because few junior high students have made specific career decisions and plans, they are better able to learn about different career areas if they can explore several of the CTS strands along with other optional courses.
Experience has demonstrated that male and female students do equally well in CTS programs. When possible, planning should facilitate co-ed classes in most CTS strands. While all CTS strands can be delivered at the junior high school level, some strands have a more specialized occupational focus and may be less relevant to the junior high school student. Introductory level courses are considered most appropriate for junior high school students as they focus on developing competencies that are useful for daily living and form a foundation for further study within the strand.
Junior high schools may also choose to deliver intermediate level courses, particularly in areas where students may have previously developed competencies. Course design in junior high school may involve sequencing the delivery of course components over a period of one, two or three years. Course prerequisites and recommended sequences are defined in the scope and sequence chart for each strand.
Courses offered at the junior high school level can be named Career and Technology Studies CTS , given specific strand names such as Agriculture or Design Studies, or given other names considered appropriate in communicating the nature of the learning. Within this context, junior high students who have already developed competencies defined within a course should have opportunities to expand upon or enhance these competencies as they move through their school experience.
Some students entering junior high school may have already developed CTS-related competencies in the elementary school years. As well, many elementary students are already accustomed to working in multi-activity and independent learning environments. Junior high schools are encouraged to consult with feeder schools to determine the level of expertise students bring to junior high school, and plan their CTS courses accordingly.
Awareness of each other's programs and flexible approaches to program planning facilitates effective transitions from junior to senior high school. The senior high school principal may accept a recommendation from the junior high school principal that a student has successfully completed a course and should be given credit. Junior high schools need to determine the practices adopted by local high schools regarding recognition of prior learning in CTS, and advise students and parents accordingly.
Each senior high school determines which CTS strands and courses to offer. Some students entering high school may wish to expand on the competencies they have already developed within a particular strand. Other students may wish to expand their repertoire of competencies by working in other strands. Intermediate- and advanced-level courses are generally most appropriate for high school students, particularly those in Grade 1 1 and Grade 12, as these courses focus more directly on technical and career-related competencies.
Senior high schools may also deliver introductory-level courses, particularly in strand areas where students may not have developed the prerequisite knowledge and skills. When selecting CTS strands and courses, senior high schools should take into account prior learnings acquired by students in junior high school and through personal initiatives, and design courses accordingly. Plans for course delivery must ensure that students have access to a minimum of 25 hours of instruction per high school credit, unless otherwise specified in the Guide to Education: ECS to Grade Advanced-level courses may be used by students to meet the high school diploma requirements.
Schools need to review the course combinations made available to ensure that students have access to an adequate number of advanced-level courses to meet the level credit requirements for the Alberta High School Diploma. Schools may combine courses into multiple-credit clusters for scheduling and instructional purposes. However, the courses are to be reported to Alberta Education as 1 -credit courses. At the school level, course names may be used that clarify learning outcomes for students and parents. Many young people experience challenges upon entering the workplace. In preparation for this critical step, students can be provided with opportunities to explore options for employment through work study, job shadowing, mentorship and other forms of off-campus learning.
Each CTS strand is supported with a comprehensive list of related occupations and career opportunities. A number of credentialling opportunities are available to CTS students through professional and community organizations, whereby students may earn partial or complete credentials recognized in the workplace. CTS courses can be designed in ways that enable students to obtain credentials that enhance opportunities for entry into the workplace. Many CTS students upon completing particular course sequences have developed competencies that align with those expected in post-secondary programs.
A number of articulation agreements have been established with post-secondary institutions and training programs in Alberta. Advanced-level courses will be accepted in lieu of level practical arts courses in qualifying for post-secondary entrance. In cases where more than three courses have been taken at the same level, the three courses with the highest marks are combined and averaged.
Recognizing Prior Learning Students should be encouraged to refine and extend competencies they may have developed in junior high school or through personal initiatives. To do this, high schools need to establish practices for recognizing students' prior learning.
This course then can be included when reporting student achievement through the normal student records system. The course s also will then be included in the student's transcript. Such courses are to be reported by the senior high school principal according to the directions provided in the Guide to Education: ECS to Grade High school credits granted upon the recommendations of a junior high school principal are not eligible for Credit Enrollment Unit CEU funding.
Local policies regarding the granting of credits for prior learning in CTS should be established collaboratively and communicated to all clients and stakeholders. These policies may include provisions for challenge assessment. Course Challenge Course challenge may be appropriate for students who, because of prior learning, have demonstrated the ability to meet the assessment standards established for specific 1 -credit courses. Successfully challenged courses are to be reported as passed courses according to the directions provided in the Guide to Education: ECS to Grade While an authorized resource meets high standards and can contribute to the attainment of the goals of the CTS curriculum, authorization does not require its use in course delivery.
Decisions regarding the selection and use of resources are a local matter and should take into account student skill levels, interests and stages of development. Although listings of authorized resources in the curriculum documents are maintained on a regular basis, this information is time-sensitive and subject to change.
A current listing of newly approved resources available through the LRDC can be accessed electronically through their web site. Authorized resources can also be obtained directly from the publisher or distributor. It is recommended that teachers preview all resources before purchasing, or purchase a single copy for their reference and additional copies as required.
Also included in the curriculum documents for each CTS strand is a list of other resources. These titles have been provided as a service only to assist local school systems to identify resources that contain potentially useful ideas for teachers. Alberta Education has done a correlation to CTS courses. Teachers are advised, however, that further review will be necessary prior to their use in the learning process. Teachers are encouraged to consider opportunities for enhancing their delivery of CTS courses through the use of other sources of information readily available at local, provincial and national levels.
Each strand provides a partial listing of additional information sources potentially available through the community, government, industry and professional organizations. Also identified as appropriate for each strand are sources of information available through the Internet. They provide students with opportunities to interact with a wide range of information sources in a variety of learning situations. Access to a broad resource base enables students to learn to screen and use information appropriately, solve problems, meet specific learning needs, and develop competency in communication skills.
A career not only relates to a person's job or occupation, but also involves one's personal life — as a family member, a friend, a community volunteer, a citizen. Competencies developed through personal interest during secondary school often form the foundation for a future career choice. Junior and senior high schools should plan CTS programs in ways that enable students to explore their goals in life and work, now and in the future. Many CTS courses identify competencies that people consider essential for daily living, such as financial management, nutrition and basic meal preparation, consumer decision making, and the use of information and communication technology.
In addition, CTS provides access to courses that support the pursuit of hobbies and other recreational interests. Junior and senior high schools are encouraged to use current labour market information in developing career awareness within the context of specific strands and courses.
Competencies relevant to career planning and awareness are defined within each CTS strand through learner outcomes learner expectations in documents. Clearly defined assessment standards and tools provide further benchmarks for establishing appropriate levels of career awareness within specific CTS courses. Approximately linkages to the labour market are identified across the 22 CTS strands, each further described by educational and training requirements. Schools can design courses that prepare students for particular careers by combining one or more courses from the Career Transitions strand with intermediate- and advanced-level courses from other strands having an industry focus.
Career preparation is further enhanced through a set of basic competencies or employability skills integrated throughout all CTS strands and courses. The basic competencies align with critical skills for employability identified by the Conference Board of Canada, and are organized around four developmental stages that address the learning needs of junior and senior high school students. The basic competencies are included as appropriate in curriculum and assessment standards defined for each CTS course.
Credentials for the Workplace A credential provides written evidence by agencies external to the school of a student's qualifications with respect to particular competencies. CTS students may earn partial or complete credentials recognized in the workplace or by post-secondary institutions through their work in particular CTS strands and courses.
Each CTS strand provides information regarding relevant credentialling opportunities. Schools and school systems can use this information as a basis for further research and planning regarding credentials they may wish to offer through CTS. Schools should determine which credentials are viable in their community, and plan courses that incorporate these opportunities when appropriate. At present, articulation agreements are in place with the Automotive Service Technician, Carpenter, Cook, Hairstylist and Welder trades. A variety of off-campus learning experiences are suggested throughout the CTS curriculum — work study, work experience, job shadowing, mentorship.
Work Experience Program The Work Experience program is designed to provide high school students with experiential learning in career-related contexts. Registered Apprenticeship Program The Registered Apprenticeship Program RAP is designed for high school students who wish to begin a trade apprenticeship while completing their high school diploma. A RAP apprentice accumulates hours of on-the-job training as credit toward both a journeyman certificate and a high school diploma.
RAP courses are taught through off-campus learning under the joint supervision of a certified teacher and a journeyman in the workplace. Counsellors can also help CTS teachers and administrators to determine which strands and courses should be made available to students, and help them, parents and community partners to understand the nature and structure of the CTS program. In its broadest sense, technology includes all the processes, tools and techniques that affect daily life. Technology is more powerful today than ever, creating ways of living, working and thinking never before imagined.
Technology outcomes in CTS reinforce, extend and enhance related skills developed in earlier grades and in other courses. Canada making effective decisions regarding which processes or techniques best suit a particular task selecting and using appropriate tools and resources in a skilled manner assessing and managing the impact of technology on self, others and the environment. Based on the results of this review, a framework for learner outcomes in information, communication and multimedia technology for ECS to Grade 12 students has been developed.
The framework not only identifies outcomes already included in CTS and other current programs of study, but also anticipates the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students may need in the future as technology continues to change and expand. Framework Organization The framework organizes technology outcomes around three interrelated categories. Foundational Operations, Knowledge and Concepts Outcomes in this category include understanding the nature and impact of technology, the moral and ethical use of technology, mass media in a digitized context, ergonomic and safety issues, and basic computer, telecommunication and multimedia technology operations.
Processes for Productivity These outcomes focus on the knowledge and skills required to use a variety of basic productivity techniques and tools. These include text composition, data organization, media and process integration, electronic communication navigation, collaboration through electronic means, and graphical, audio and multimedia composition and manipulation.
Decision Making and Problem Solving Outcomes in this category build on the foundational operations, knowledge and concepts, as well as the ability to use a variety of processes. These outcomes include the ability to critically assess information, manage inquiry, solve problems and use research techniques. Schools and school systems are encouraged to use the framework as they plan their CTS programs. Each CTS strand requires students to learn about technology and learn with technology. Learning About Technology While students learn about technology in all CTS strands, the Information Processing, Communication Technology and Electro- Technologies strands provide specific focus on the development of knowledge and skills in information, communication and multimedia technology.
Information Processing The Information Processing strand provides opportunities for students to learn about electronic technologies as they apply to personal use and the business environment. Communication Technology The Communication Technology strand provides students with a broad understanding of the impact that presentation and communication technology, print, photography and media design have on society. Students develop competencies related to presentation techniques, photography, print communication and the use of audio, video and digital technologies.
Electro-Technologies The Electro-Technologies strand focuses attention on electric and electronic systems and the role of electronics in daily life, major research and scientific developments. Students develop competencies related to fabrication and service principles, power systems, computer logic systems, and robotic and control systems. Learning with Technology The CTS curriculum recognizes the expanding influence of technology in aU learning environments.
Learning outcomes relevant to the use of technology are embedded throughout the CTS curricula, and reinforce a range of competencies identified in the technology framework — including those within the category of inquiry, decision making and problem solving. No one strategy is appropriate for all courses or learnings within a course, nor for all students. Suggestions for developing a positive CTS learning environment are provided at the end of this section in Chart 3: Positive Classroom Climate Checklist. While SI units have become the principal measuring system used in provincial curriculum, the present use of imperial and other nonmetric units in technical and trade-related occupations makes the application of other measurement systems unavoidable.
Students should be given opportunities to develop measurement skills consistent with those required in future career paths. Active learning requires that students are not just passive recipients of information, but develop the ability to apply what they are learning. CTS places an emphasis on learning by doing. Essentially, the teacher's role in this process is that of facilitator, guide and coach. As students recognize the relevance of prior learning to their future lives, they are motivated to develop higher levels of competency.
Course planning should focus attention on ways to help students make connections between abstract concepts developed in other curriculum areas and their application in practical settings. Refer to Appendix 4: Teachers can enhance students' ability to make connections across the Strategies for Instruction in curriculum by: CTS. The transition to a technology- and information-based society requires today's workers to pool their expertise. This trend can be expected to become even more pronounced in the future.
Cooperative learning also promotes active learning and encourages individual and group enterprise. Group learning can help students to develop increasingly independent and responsible learning habits and to become more self-disciplined. CTS offers many opportunities for students to work in team settings, formally and informally.
Canada 1 Refer to Appendix 4: Strategies for Instruction in CTS communicating objectives, assignments and tasks determining the size and composition of groups arranging for appropriate facilities, equipment and materials informing the group of behavioural expectations acting as a resource person, coach and monitor evaluating the product of the group and performance of each group member.
Teachers may wish to use Form 3: Group Member Effectiveness, included at the end of this section, to guide their observation and evaluation of student performance in group settings. It combines elements of active learning and cooperative learning. The process empowers students, working individually or in groups, to assume responsibility for completing courses or course components within a specified time period. In multi-activity learning, teacher and student share responsibility for managing the learning process.
The process requires students to become self-directed learners who are able to manage their time, energy and resources in effective ways. As students move from introductory to advanced levels and become more proficient in managing their learning, teachers may introduce a larger number of course and activity choices. Introductory Level Intermediate Level Advanced Level Teacher Directed - : Student Managed Multi-activity learning requires much structure and planning prior to implementation, as well as class time spent in orienting students to expectations and the learning process.
Canada Teachers and students may wish to use Form 4: Sample Learning Contract, included at the end of this section, in establishing plans for multi-activity learning. As a competency-based curriculum, CTS defines curriculum standards — what students must know and be able to do, and assessment standards — the criteria and conditions for assessing student performance.
Consistent application of curriculum and assessment standards throughout the learning process is critical to establishing and maintaining the credibility of CTS programs with business, industry, post-secondary institutions and other community stakeholders. A range of assessment tools are provided to further assist teachers in assessing student performance in each CTS course.
Each assessment tool communicates, through a five-point rating scale, a minimum standard for successfully completing a learning task. When used collectively for a particular course, the assessment tools provide a benchmark for assessing successful course completion in an equitable and consistent manner. Depending on the way the classroom is organized for instruction, assessment tools may be used with individual students upon completion of specific learning tasks, or with the entire class at the end of a learning period.
Although the assessment tools focus on final or summative assessment, teachers should continue to use formative assessment throughout the learning process as they direct and respond to student efforts. As formative and summative assessment are closely linked, some teachers may find it beneficial to modify the assessment tools provided for particular courses during the instructional process.
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Teachers may develop and use alternative assessment tools providing these tools address standards that are consistent with the minimum competency defined in each course. Consistent application of curriculum and assessment standards is critical to maintaining the credibility of student learning in CTS programs. As in other junior high school courses, student achievement is reported to students and parents in accordance with local policy. At the junior high school level, student achievement is not reported to Alberta Education.
A per cent mark for completed courses is required by high schools if prior learning is recognized through the granting of credits. The senior high school principal may accept a recommendation from the junior high school principal that a student has completed successfully all of the course outcomes and should be given credit. A mark of "P" for pass, or a percentage grade, may be assigned to the student by the senior high school principal. This course can then be included when reporting student achievement through the normal student records system and will appear on the student's transcript.
CTS courses reported as unsuccessful will need to be further identified regarding their eligibility for funding. For information regarding funding, see the Funding for CTS section below. For information regarding the reporting of challenged courses and courses completed in junior high school , see the CTS in Senior High School, Effective Transitions section.
As in other senior high school courses, student achievement is reported to students and parents in accordance with local policy. Tracking systems used by senior high schools to record the completion of individual CTS courses should align with the system used by EIE for reporting student achievement. Schools may choose to supplement their tracking of course completion with information regarding achievement in junior high school.
The sources of funding described below support Alberta Education's shift to site-based management. Local school systems are responsible for assessing needs and making appropriate funding applications. School systems also retain responsibility for distributing funds to schools equitably. Basic instructional funding for junior high schools is independent of course completion.
Funding is based on a per student grant, with the amount of the grant subject to adjustment from time to time. A 1 -credit CTS course is considered completed for funding purposes when a student has completed at least 50 per cent of the course content. These 1 -credit courses should then be reported as withdrawn but eligible for funding. Further inquiries regarding basic instructional funding should be directed to the School Finance Unit. Capital funds are made available each year for new construction and major modernization projects. This funding is provided to school boards for capital projects that may include the upgrading of an existing CTS lab, construction of new space, and associated equipment costs.
Further inquires regarding capital funding should be directed to the School Facilities Branch. Funding for technology integration is provided to enable schools to replace obsolete computer systems with new systems that are at, or above, defined standards. Technology integration funding can be applied to the purchase of hardware, instructional software and networking components within schools.
Further inquiries regarding technology integration funding should be directed to the School Technology Task Group, Alberta Education. D Did I greet my students warmly? D Did I help focus the class or individuals on today's activities? D Did I respond to their assigned work in verbal or written form?
D Did I model all of the classroom ground rules on my own behaviour? D Did I consistently enforce the ground rules? D Did I handle problems quickly and discreetly, treating my students with respect and fairness? D Am I creating a safe, supportive environment in which my students may grow and learn? D Am I genuinely encouraging parent and community involvement?
Note: The CTS "modules" are now officially referred to as "courses," each with an individual, alphanumeric code. In this form the term "course" refers to a 1 -credit CTS course, and the term "cluster" refers to a multiple-credit CTS offering. Comments e. Post-secondary and Workplace Transitions a Feedback suggests that transitions for CTS students into post-secondary institutions and the workplace could be enhanced through additional articulation agreements; e.
Curriculum Content and Rigour a Feedback suggests that the content, with respect to time requirements, and rigour, level of difficulty, of some CTS courses needs to be reviewed. Your feedback on recommendations identified as Medium Priority is of particular importance to the evergreening process. As a member of the CTS Communication Network, you will receive curriculum updates and newsletters, and may be asked to respond to evergreening initiatives.
This example could be altered as necessary.
Profitability. Efficiency. Regulatory compliance.
Establish a Planning Team 69 2. Draft a Plan of Action 71 3. Inventory Resources 72 4. Identify Strands and Courses to Be Offered 73 6. Identify Potential Barriers and Possible Solutions 73 7. Gain Commitments for Action and Secure Approvals 74 8. Implementation of CTS differs in each school and school system. Effective implementation is based on a commitment from administrators, counsellors and teachers to consider new options in course design and timetabling.
CTS provides schools with an opportunity to make connections with other optional or core courses and to design unique programs that meet local needs. Since each school and school system assumes increasing responsibility for establishing implementation plans in accordance with local needs, it is important to begin the planning process early.
This document outlines eight steps for implementing CTS: 1. Establish a planning team. Draft a plan of action. Inventory resources. Conduct market research about community needs. Identify strands and courses to be offered. Identify potential barriers and possible solutions. Gain commitments for action and secure approvals. Check progress. Each step is described in detail, often with supporting strategies and questionnaires provided as attachments.
Schools and school systems are encouraged to adapt the processes and implementation strategies as required to address local needs and plan for effective implementation. It may also involve representation from the community, including parents, business and industry, post-secondary and community organizations. Consider the roles and perspectives of key players, in the school and in the community. Some players may be involved only at the initial planning level, while others are responsible for the day-to-day implementation of the plan.
Teachers from all subject areas should be encouraged to get involved in the planning process. Improved linkages between CTS and other programs, team teaching strategies and shared resources can enrich the learning experience. Community-based Members Other community members can contribute important perspectives regarding program needs and expanded delivery options through their involvement on planning teams.
Members of the business and industry community have expressed the need for highly skilled, effective employees who have a combination of basic competencies and technical and career-specific skills. Many favour an increased involvement in what and how students are taught, and in helping with the delivery of the curriculum. They are valuable assets on the planning team. Once a CTS planning team has been established, members should create a vision statement and set goals.
It is important that time be allocated for these tasks, but it is also important that once general agreement is reached, the team moves on to preparing the actual implementation plan.
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Alberta, Canada 2. Define what is to be achieved deliverables , when it is to be achieved, and how responsibilities, resource needs. System-level Decision Making It is important to establish early in the planning stages an understanding of system-level policies and guidelines that affect implementation plans. System level decisions need to be made egarding: the degree of flexibility to be delegated to schools the depth and breadth of course offerings in CTS funding allocations to schools the coordination of inservice opportunities transitions from junior to senior high, and from senior high to post-secondary and the workplace.
Prepare a profile of the school and community, identifying available resources that can be used to meet student needs. Include current and potential physical and human resources available in the school and through off-campus learning. The survey may include reference to all the CTS strands, or only those strands that the school can potentially offer. A sample survey is provided for use with students. Sorry to hear that. I wish you the best and hope things can turn for the better for you.
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I have been through hell to but I am ready to file suit. Doctors in my own family are saying do it and I understand how hard it is to get through medical school but this is unacceptable. I am responding to this commenter because I cannot post my own independent comment on mobile. My psychiatrist mistakenly gave me a document stating all of his diagnoses of me.
Two of which he never disclosed to me in consultation PTSD and non specified personality disorder. I just left a message on his machine requesting explanation. What else should I do? Am I overreacting? What should I do before something gets worse? It is a horrible husband and wife team there now that berate new patients and out right tell you to figure out if you are wasting your time. I recorded this visit. In the end I was diagnosed with an infection thru bloodwork I am sick and was told he would not treat it.
Dear Wible. I no Iron in and all blood levels were very low. Vitamin D. Then in I bowel and bladder repair using the mesh. That surgery did turn out well and I had to have to cut the mesh. I feel I being profiled. I could write a book. Think I am crazy. Labeled chronic pain after rear ended; two unnecessary surgeries gone south, still labeled chronic pain.
Given mega opiated; got off them but, no help from military hospital where there are tons of incriminating evidence. Mayo also denied care after hernia repair gone wrong — chronic pain. It takes real strength. Since October I have had some female issues. I am 55, had 3 c-section births, endeometreosis 3 times, and a partial-hysterectomy in Upon a regular checkup in , I went to a nurse practitioner recommended by my mother-in-law. Then, after having some spotting 4 times in 5 months, I decided to go to practioner to be examined the first week in June All 3 of my younger sisters have had endeometreosis each in different cases, along with fibromyalgia.
So I have had a concern because of my symptoms. The practitioner ordered a urine test to rule out a uti. I have had reoccurring bladder infections since the birth of my first child, so I knew it was negative. She also ordered bloodwork and did a swab on me. This all took place from a Tuesday to Friday.
Monday I got a call that the swab was negative and Tuesday a call on my bloodwork. Different lady than from swab results. She was nasty saying I needed to get blood check more than once a year. My husband is self-employed and we have insurance with Christian families to pay as we go and help with major expenses.
Then I was prescribed a cream my husband picked up without consulting me. I was sooo upset that I was in tears. First, this cream listed reactions that are the same as my symptoms and warnings to not use for those with MY medical and family history in addition to congestive heart failure, which my dad died of at age I could not get practitioner to call me herself and out of left field, the third call I was told to use the cream and schedule to see a gynecologist.
I have him listed to access my records. He stood in the lobby window and asked 3 times to speak to someone in private. They ignored him and he was forced to tell my situation with patients and other staff around. An office manager was supposed to call me about the rudeness and my situation, but that never happened. We tried a couple more times through the end of June with no results.
They would be fined but I would not get any compensation for myself. I just finished a letter requesting my records. That is horrible!! This is what happens when there is a breakdown in the sacred patient-physician relationship. Too many cooks in the kitchen and nobody knows the stove is on. Believe me, we did not go to medical school to treat patients like crap. Third parties have inserted themselves in between doctors and patients and created a culture of chaos and distrust that makes it very hard to provide health care.
Wish you lived down the street. There is a map of ideal clinics on my website. Check it out and maybe I can help you find a new more ideal doctor. I agree. Profit over patient care is the norm when it comes to these large and powerful institutions. Bad experiences are incentive for those of us without money to find new and innovative ways to get well. I am amazed at how well people do once they realize that you CAN take your body back from corporate control.
I had a filling that I needed to get done by on my lower left tooth professionally referred to as When they placed the original crown in my mouth, I absolutely loved the way my smile looked and felt. That was because my smile felt more symmetrical and I felt prettier, which was a significant psychological benefit as a trans person actively seeking to transition. However, my doctor made a minor adjustment to the crown, which tragically led to that feeling being ripped from me, as my smile went back to the way it was before, which was a problem for me.
Disgruntled and feeling completely disempowered as a trans person, my doctor and his staff not only repeatedly misgendered me, but also used my lack of presentation in feminine clothing as a piece of evidence with which to patient profile me as drug addled after a mildly contentious dispute, wherein I questioned their authority as a dental official, the dispute was about the crown that was originally doctored and I was asking if that situation could be remedied.
That being said, I am looking for a new doctor; someone with equal credentials but better patient service in the area. I wrote this post inquiring as to whether or not I had a legal options for being unfairly patiently profiled? In NYS trying to find a lawyer to hire is like finding a doctor for reasonable medial care….
We need to organize ourselves… not just doctors or patients… that puts up barriers. Joss, this is just my opinion, but part of the problem is that physicians have considerably to put it mildly more funds than you do to get the finest attorneys, malpractice insurance, the power to label you as any kind of person they want to and unfortunately much of society still has the opinion that because they are in a position of being held up as more respectable, unquestionably honest and of a better class of people than Mr.
Joe Citizen…that they are not to be questioned about even obviously bad behavior. Some people are even in awe of them and would never question their judgement or morals. They are human beings just like you and I and just as flawed…believe me. They are in a position of power and trust and have the ability and means to decide if you will live or die. Think about it. They make judgements based on your physical condition because they have confidential information regarding your health history and have been trained to do physical examinations and be aware of a serious medical condition you could possibly have such as a serious heart problem or a deterioration of your vision that leads to blindness.
Anesthesiologists have your body in an altered state on an operating table and have control of your very life when you are completely vulnerable, they order testing of all kinds and have the knowledge of those results, your complete medical history, allergies some of which can be deadly for you if you are very sensitive to a certain drug and cause you to go into say, anaphylactic shock which can kill you and prescribe medications that you trustingly put into your body without question unless you are a sceptic like some people I know lol or just are a fairly informed person who checks out a PDR first…a book that gives info on drugs commonly used by medical professionals…there are books out there not as complicated that are more understandable for the general public, before putting anything in your body lol.
Enough of this rant. I guess after you get burned a few times you just get a bit jaded. I dread the day he retires. I have had some really great doctors and some not so great, But a couple I have had as my doctor or have worked with in a medical setting had the truth be known…OH MY! Need I say more? I am very imperfect and do not mean to sound holier than thou, but have the need to get certain things off my chest. I have heard of someone who was a patient that almost died when in a very good smallish hospital that was given a drug or combination of drugs that came close to killing them and had to rushed to a major medical center and it was hushed up.
Outrageous sounding but a true story.! My doctor profiled me as a Hypochondriac as a teenager. She was convinced that everything I experienced was related to puberty stress. However, when the symptoms continued long after puberty and even multiplied, she insisted they were due to the stress of college. Many of these symptoms were serious red flags like unexplained weight gain, insomnia, depression, very dramatic mentrations and the delays between them, unexplained periods of extremely high blood pressure, etc.
I rarely ever get anxious about anything without due cause, and these were very serious symptoms that needed to be addressed. So, to be labeled as someone with GAD was an incredible insult to both myself and people who truly suffer from it! It was a humiliating experience that I never want to go through again! He prescribed them and it helped so much. In addition, I am forced to fill out a long survey about my smoking every time I go for a visit. I have to listen to some young girl lecture me about smoking for ten minutes before seeing the doctor on every visit as well.
I have already had a doctor misdiagnose me. Thank god my child does not have it!
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This doctor totally dismissed my symptoms because I am a smoker. Can I sue my current doctor for discrimination? Punishing me does not encourage me to quit. Do the folks with diabetes get a survey on how many bags of chips they eat? Do diabetics get medication withheld that could relieve their suffering? Does some 19 year old come in and give them a lecture on putting down the fork? Just wondering…. Good points. Health care by robot automatons. By electronic medical record prompts and algorithms. Generally you have to prove a bad outcome due to deviation from community standard of care.
Assembly-line medicine is not health care. Thank you for caring enough to just talk about this subject. Please stop assuming every patient is drug seeking, lying, uneducated, homeless, overweight, a wife beater, a child abuser or beneath you, simply due one fact…they did not walk your path. Your path of opportunity.
They all will be a patient one day and if there is justice they will remember every patient they misjudged and mistreated. We never intended to harm anyone. We came to medical school just wanting to help people. Sadly, we were dehumanized in our training and abused. Hey, I am an other statistic. I have been in chronic pain for fifteen years, Pudental Neauralgia and IC. Nerve pain can not be seen by the naked eye nor the best X-Ray equipment. Every doctor acted the same, dismissive, looked at me as if I was a pill instead of a human being who needed support.
I received no medication. My anxiety heighten every time I had to see a physician. My fear of mental abuse keep me away from clinics, even when I needed help. My anxiety got so bad I could not stand, becoming weak and numb. I finally made an appointment, hopeful for some guidance, the whole visit I sobbed uncontrollably. She told me to do yoga, and said I was to complicated for the clinic.
I was dismissed with no medication or any direction. I was devastated! I can not stop crying, feeling abandoned. I am seeking a phychiatrist hoping and praying he will help me. We all need to talk about our experices to support each other. Remember you are not alone. Write your State Senator to help pass a law against physicians profiling and discrimination. We have a disease of chronic pain that needs support, compassion, understanding, and Love. I am in a situation now my health is being neglected. I recently got my disability because I have such severe neuropathy I fall, I want feel my feet and I will just fall.
These are not even the only medical problems I have. But I had a doctor for near 20 years had me on strong pain meds for the problems. I had a good job and Insurance. Then I lost my job and I fought for 3 years to pay for my Insurance under cobra. And then lost out my unemployment stopped. Well In the meantime I was loosing everything my trailer my car got repossessed. And had to move into a hotel well both my daughters were living with me and we had to have an apartment type suite so I had to have a boarder to share expenses so I let a friend of mines daughter also live with us she was 29 just like my married daughter and my youngest was almost Well one of them or there friends stole a zanax RX from me and even though I was going to prosecute my own family, I had police report and turned it over to the FBI not only did the doctor cut me off and also did not take me seriously neither did the FBI.
So I have been through hell even getting my disibility. Thank god I did. But the doctor that helped me was 90 years old and retired. He referred me to the pain clinic at this county clinic that is for less fortunate and I was treated kindly at first he retired and within 6 months I was discharged out of the clinic. Mine is a long story and this is only a short portion of it. But I am starting to think I am crazy and need to see psychiatric help. And this is very serious and true. Thanks for Listening Donna in Birmingham. You are not crazy Donna! This past November after 25 years of trying to get a diagnosis for the low back and hip pain I had been experiencing along with constant GI issues, I was diagnosed with Ankylosing Spondylitis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Ehler Danlos Syndrome, and Fibromyalgia.
I have lost joints due to fusion. There is still a preconceived notion among Doctors that women cannot have AS. I have been prescribed anti-depressants to deal with what I know now is an autoimmune disorder, and a genetic condition that allows too much space in my joints which causes constant pain. I do not even ask for opiates due to the stigma attached to it anymore. I have had pharmacists refuse to fill my scripts. I have had emergency rooms refuse to prescribe anything stronger than Tylenol. If Tylenol worked I would take it and never need medical intervention.
I have given birth to four children and that did not hurt worse than a AS flare. It is a sad day when Doctors who swore an oath to do no harm are more concerned of a malpractice suit due to narcotics than actually caring for the patient in front of them. It is a sad day when patients are required to urinate in a cup to receive medication.
No other class of patients are required to submit a urine screen to obtain their meds. Some medications are equally as addicting. It cannot but appear we are profiled and targeted. For me it would be easy to obtain verification through my medical records that I do indeed have a condition, infact several, that causes chronic pain. I know enough to make sure I see the same doctors for my conditions. I go to the same pharmacy yet I know I am in a database identifying me as an opiate user.
No other information as to diagnosis or medical history is in that database. A pharmacist has the power to deny me the medication prescribed by my Doctor based solely on this information. It is such a frustration to be chronically ill, have chronic pain, and be treated like an addict. That is why I started the Ankylosing Spondylitis Project and we work with another group, Patients not Addicts, to attempt to change this. Doctors need to hear us. They need to see us as patients with underlying medical conditions.
They need to fight for us and with us. We need them. We also need to be treated like patients. The current status of our medical system is a heart beat away from negligence. People will die either by their own hands or by a system that is set up to judge them before treating them. Currently there are million chronic pain patients in the US. Furthermore, alternative medicine to treat chronic pain often is not covered by insurance. Physical Therapy for an incurable disease that I am restricted to just 5 visits a year. It is like the CDC did not even think about the repercussions of their own guidelines.
That forcing people off medication that they did well on, with no history of abuse, would likely send people to meets with drug dealers willing to prescribe Heroine. Congrats to the CDC they just made drug dealers a lot richer. THis is often the problem with prohibition type laws and guidelines.
Those guidelines were also full of misleading and false data. It ends up pulling the cart before the horse. Less than 5 percent of chronic pain patients abuse their meds. So who are these guidelines targeting? They will have the exact opposite result because most people abusing opiates are not buying them legally anyway. That is the most frustrating thing about this. Also Doctors should be angry- as we are moving away from patient centered care.
My son is severely disable with Ankylosing Spondilitis. I knew he had the same thing I had when he buckled over while dining in a restaurant. I had no idea it was hereditary. When I was in teens I was informed by a GP that if I ever stopped moving I would be in a wheelchair within a few years. Physiotherapy and dance kept the worst at bay for me, but since the cancer surgery the chest tube was left in for nine weeks I have some serious issues.
No one will listen. They refuse to believe me. Overweight patients get profiled all the time. She was complaining of hip pain. Her doctor told her to lose weight and exercise. Finally tests were done but by then the cancer was extensive and she died 7 months later. I always wondered if she had been a thin pretty young thing if she would have had a different outcome.
I also have been overweight my entire life. My weight varies 20 up, 20 down. I am active and work steady. I ride my bike, eat healthy and at 61 have no medical problems except my tendency to be a larger woman. I have mitochondrial disease. Pain is also a huge issue with mitochondrial disease and it was very hard to get pain meds and I was often treated like a drug addict. I have many needs as a patient with mitochondrial disease and very little assistance from the medical community. It makes me want to scream. I have had a patient with mitochondrial disease. I had to read a lot about it, but I really enjoyed taking care of him.
Hope you stay curious and keep trying things. I was told I had mitochondrial disease by a colorado Neuro. I moved to florida this year and found a new Neuro whom I had called and asked if he would take me as a patient. He started me on mito cocktail. I saw him this week and after asking how I was doing, I told him I was still choking and had hand weakness making the use of my cane difficult. He also bullied me because I keep refusing cymbalta for pain.
Telling me if I was really in pain I would take something. I will never see another Neuro again. I sometimes frequent the Er for multiple health problems. To later find out I have endometriosis which was causing my pain and excessive bleeding not a UTI. I then after having the endometriosis was back to visiting the hospital for pain in my lower abdomen and was given multiple pain meds because that is what they thought I had wanted.
In result of the multiple pain meds I miscarried the child I was carrying and was implanting which was the result of the pain. Another time I was profiled I was in psychiatric unit after trying to commit suicide. I felt it was the only way away from my abusive ex husband. While there I was given geodone an anti psychotic and ended up having a hard time swallowing uncontrollable movements of my tongue and my mouth was in a permanent smile. I found out I was allergic to the geodone. This is so sad. I am very sorry. Sharing these stories is the first step to raising awareness.
Justina, thank you for being willing to tell your story. In I became ill. At our first meeting, he noted that I had lost a significant amount of weight recently due to a gall bladder that had simply stopped working and subsequently been removed. In the months that followed, I was properly diagnosed with an auto immune disease and Fibromyalgia.
Because of this man, I no longer include information about my mental health on medical histories. Patient profiling is too real to risk it again. It is true that your medical records follow you from doctor to doctor. There can be erroneous information in the records that should be amended. It is a good idea to read your own med records every once in a while just to make sure things are presented correctly. As in any human interaction, there can be miscommunication, misinterpretation. There is another lady with my same name in town and our records have gotten confused on several occasions.
I find it extremely scarey info that was erroneously included will impact my future health care. This doctor and that doctor is sending each other reports so what do you suggest is best to do in this situation? Have you found amending them to work and how best to approach it? Thank you for your lovely blog and fresh ides for being a physician. My dad was a solo practitioner and kept his home phone number in the book. He got calls emergency every Xmas morning and dutifully went off to the hospital.
He got emergency calls every Xmas morning and dutifully went off to the hospital. Thank you for your lovely blog and fresh outlook on being a physician. Ad you middle name to your chart or your maiden name or something. VERY important. It would be dangerous not to do so. You need to have your records accurately reflect who you are.
He would not even look at test results from pain clinic and said that was not his field. The pain clinic did thirsting that proved I needed help with extreme triglycerides. He did prescribe medication but later visits said he had ordered testing. I saw many errors in my documentation from his office regarding these issues and he argued with me and said His records show it so it is true. But the records were written incorrectly. The Social security administration perpetuates these problems by not allowing testimony from real people in work place and home that truly see your decline not a doctor that turns in erroneous reports and could care less if you can feed your family because you miss so much work due to multiple health issues…mine brought on primarily by Stickler Syndrome but the doctors never want to hear how my connective tissue disease means I need different or more attentive care than someone without a genetic disorder.
And nothing changes Pamela. The medical file is a legal document that does not permit of change. What would happen if doctors were faced with criminal as opposed to civil charges when wrong-doing has occurred? Is it feasible? I am 48 years old. At 42, I began to develop the initial symptoms of what over a dozen doctors, countless misdiagnoses, and thousands of dollars worth of tests would finally reveal…prolapse of my rectum, bladder, and uterus.
I had never heard of this condition. I did an exhaustive online search and was astounded by the articles that described my symptoms to the T. Thanks for giving me a chance to vent. Lisa Weinstein. Always therapeutic to write your story. And share it with your doctor. This is how we learn — and heal. When I was 28 years old and recently pregnant with my third child, I had severe hyperemesis gravidarum and landed in the ER to get IV fluids.
I was feeling pretty crummy and was not answering questions well as sick people often do. My husband was home taking care of our 1 year old and 3 year old, so I was alone. A doc I had never met before was extremely short and rude with me, asked me if I was on medicaid and suggested I get an abortion for my unplanned pregnancy. My pregnancy was not unplanned, I was in a great marriage to my doctor husband, I have a degree from an Ivy league school, and had good private insurance. My problem was that I was very sick and I was young, so therefore my pregnancy must be unplanned and I must be on medicaid.
Oh no. Did you ever give feedback to this doctor? Cultural competency classes are supposed to prevent this kind of thing, but there is nothing like learning from your own mistaken judgements. Great teaching moment if you had not been throwing up. My 88 year old mother got shingles on her back. After the sores disappeared she still had pain, but it went on for a full year and the pain was excruciating!
She was in to the Dr and emerg several times and they told her it was common and gave a pain prescription. Finally someone thought to do a work up on her and it was discovered that she had a terrible kidney infection! The aged are far too often just given a pat on the head and sent home.
My mother tried to treat an abdominal issue on her own for eight years. When I saw the attendants looking after her I was appalled and asked if anyone had bothered to check if there really was something wrong. Guess what? Riddled with cancer. They never bothered to check out any of her complaints. She bled out. A terrible, lonely death. When my son was a baby he had colic and was in pain.. I am a patient with Crohns Disease, R. I have been on almost every medication available for Crohns.
I am currently on Humira since september and was on Cimzia for 3 yrs prior. I still have uncontroled daily pain, nausea, diarreah, up to 12 to 15 loose stools a day. The fistulas are my main problem with bowel leakage daily, up to 8 to 10 pads a day and NO normal sex life. A very good friend posted this article and I noticed that you are 50 min south of me.
I live in a small town, Sweet Home, Or. I am desperate to find a P. Doctor that understands my situation. I do have a GI doc in Corvallis. He works hard to keep me going but we are running out of options. I could go on forever but my need right now is to find someone, anyone willing to work WITH me and not give up on me by saying those awful words …… There is nothing more we can do, you will just have to live with it! I am not that kind of woman to let those words keep me down. I was hoping, praying that you might be able to help me?
Are you accepting new patients and do you accept OHP? Thank You for this excellent article and any help you can pass along ……. Desperate in Sweet Home! I do not accept a few insurance plans, but I see anyone who wants to see me. I do not turn anyone away for lack of money. That is what I believe. Debbie- I wanted to put my comment here and hope that you read it. Or someone else with Crohns disease.
I have had it at least 20 years and I have been on all of the biologics, etc. Wow, I related to what you said! First off, It made me ache. It went through its trials and I was almost part of the third but was too sick to want to maintain a high amount of prednisone that was required to maintain the integrity of the trial.
I started it a week ago. My blog is chronicling it. As far as ERs, Dr. Click on Create Agreement. Enter the information click on Next. Define and Assign Document Sequential Numbering. Define Sequential Numbering: 6. What happens when we submit a Netting Batch? The following validations are performed when a netting batch is submitted, as there might be a time lag between when the batch is created and when the batch is submitted.
It is also possible that the batch may have been modified. How Netting Batches are settled? This is necessary as the AR transactions are not locked when the netting batch is created and therefore there is a possibility that the AR transaction may have been modified since it was included in the netting batch o If any validations fail, the batch is set to Cancelled Status. Settle AP invoices o Invoices in each batch are grouped by vendor, vendor site and invoice currency code. What are various Netting Batch Statuses? All tables behind the scene will be stored under the FUN schema.
Attach your bank account in this receipt class. Go to system options, transaction and customer tabbed region, there enable 'Allow payment of Unrelated Transactions'check box Enter an Invoice in Payables, validate and run create accounting. Enter a transaction in receivables. Query your netting batch and see the status as Complete. Now go to payables and query your invoice number and click the tab view payments. You can see the payment details and copy the document number. Query your copied payment document number. What you can see the payment type as Netting. Click actions button and enable the check box create accounting.
Netting Agreements add trading partner terms as well as deploying company controls. A selection program automatically pulls information from Oracle Receivables and Oracle Payables taking into consideration discounts, late fees, and withholding taxes prior to determining the final netting amount.
A review process and trading partner approval afford further verification to support the netting event. You can use the feature when a vendor is also a customer and you wish to offset their AP invoices with your AR invoices. This new netting feature replaces contra-charging and Federal Financials netting in 11i. Create a Netting Bank 2. Create a Netting Bank Branch 3. Create a Bank Branch Contact optional 4. Create Receipt Class 5. Associate netting bank with the new receipt class 6. Add receipt method define in the receipt class to the customers you wish to net.
Create a Netting Agreement 8. Add suppliers and customers to the netting agreement. Define Ledger with LE 2. Define atleast one Inventory Item Organization 4. Define Tax in EB Tax. Define banks, branches and accounts — Possible to configure through AR, if security is enabled through UMX security wizard 7. Define or Assign key profile option values to AR responsibilities Define all the following setup using Receivables Manager responsibility: Define System Option Define system options to customize your Receivables environment.
During Receivables setup, you specify your accounts, customer and invoice parameters, and how the Auto Invoice and Automatic Receipts programs will run. Define Payment Terms Receivables lets you define standard payment terms for your customers to specify the due date and discount date for their open items. Payment terms can include a discount percent for early payment and you can assign multiple discounts to each payment term line.
Transaction types also determine whether your transaction entries update your customers' balances and whether Receivables posts these transactions to your general ledger. Define Transaction Source Batch sources control the standard transaction type assigned to a transaction and determine whether Receivables automatically numbers your transactions and transaction batches.